Event: AAGIAC 2005
Student: Zaid Al-Marzouq
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2005-2006 Team page
Time has shaped the political structure of France but in recent centuries, France's political structure is called the "Fifth Republic". This republic was first established by Charles de Gaulle who had an overwhelming support from the people during the start of his rule as President of France. De Gaulle Submitted the new constitution, elected his ministers, dissolved the Parliament, and started a series of events that led to higher presidential power. Later, in 1968, the people resented de Gaulle's actions, and, after a referendum, 52 percent of the voters voted against de Gaulle.
Citizens can exercise their political power through a representative parliament as well as through referenda. The French Parliament consists of the National Assembly which is the principal legislative body. Its deputies are directly elected to 5-year terms, and all seats are voted on in each election. The Assembly has the power to dismiss the cabinet, and thus the majority in the Assembly determines the choice of government. Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms, and one half of the Senate is renewed every 3 years. The most distinctive feature or what makes the Fifth republic different than the others is the French judicial system which is that it is divided into the Constitutional Council and the Council of State; on the other hand the former republics had no supervision over the elections nor the constitution.
The Constitutional Council examines legislation and decides whether it conforms to the constitution. It also supervises elections and referenda. The council consists of nine appointed members and all former presidents of the republic. France gives the right of voting to citizens above the age of 18. The political parties in France are the Citizen and Republican Movement, Democratic and European Social Rally, French Communist Party, Left Radical Party, Liberal Democracy, Rally for France, Rally for the Republic, Socialist Party, Union for French Democracy and the Union for a Popular Movement. For the past 30 years French politics has been characterized by the opposition of two political groups: the French Socialist Party, and the Rassemblement pour la République (RPR), then its successor the Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (UMP). France is also a leading member of the International Organization of Francophonie (OIF) which gathers 51 fully or partly French-speaking countries. France hosts the headquarters of the OECD and UNESCO, as well as those of the International Bureau for Weights and Measures in charge of the international metric system, and Interpol.
France is one of Europe's largest and oldest countries. Throughout history the French Republic has maintained is borders with over 4 countries. It has a total land boundary of 2889 km. France has a coastline of 3,427 km. Its terrain is mostly flat planes and hills in the north and west. The highest mountain peak in Europe which is part of the Alps mountain range and France itself is called Monte Blanc. Other major landforms include the high lands Massif Central, the Jura, the Vosges, or the Ardennes. It also has major bodies of water that help in both trade, such as possessing the second-largest Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the world, and commercial uses. These water bodies include the North Sea from the north, the Atlantic Ocean from the west, the Mediterranean Sea from the south, as well as extensive river basins such as those of the Loire River, the Rhône River, the Garonne and Seine rivers. France suffers from numerous natural hazards which are flooding, avalanches, midwinter windstorms, drought, and forest fires in south near the Mediterranean. Several European countries border France. To the south west is Spain that is separated from France by a natural boundary called the Pyrenees mountains, to the south east is Monaco, from the east is Italy and Switzerland, to the east and northeast is Germany, Luxembourg, and Belgium, to the north is the United Kingdom which is separated from France by the English Channel. France's geography or specifically its environment suffers from pollution. Pollution in France created many forest damaged because of acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban waste and agricultural runoff.
Natural Resources make up a huge part of France's economy, as it provides raw material, food, and energy. France ranges with such natural resources. One of the most important resources that have shaped France through centuries is its arable land. The marine climate and deciduous forests of much of France promoted the development of what are generally called podzolic soils. The podzolic process involves the leaching, or carrying away, of material near the surface by moderately acidic water that has seeped through plant material on the forest floor. They can be moderately productive for agricultural use when properly fertilized and carefully managed. In the Paris Basin, soils have been derived from limestone formations, which make them exceptionally rich in minerals useful for agriculture.
France's agriculture consists of various products like: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes, beef, dairy products and fish. The agricultural production goes up to 14.7 million hectors of plains that cover 27% of the total area of France. In addition to wineries that set the standard for quality around the world, France sports one of the world's largest annual fish catches. Other Natural resources include coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, radioactive materials, lead, and potash. Most of its energy comes from deposits of petroleum which are almost nonexistent and must be imported, and natural gas reserves discovered (1951) at Lacq in the Pyrenees are now nearly exhausted, nuclear, and coal. hydroelectricity and bio-fuels in particular were evoked as the right assets to develop together with nuclear power so that France will not become totally dependent on atomic energy to satisfy its electricity needs.
Once art, music, and science depended on the French language. French has been an international language for centuries and is a common second language throughout the world. It is one of five official languages at the United Nations. It was derived from the Latin dialect spoken by the Romans in Gaul, although it includes many Celtic and Germanic words. There are also a number of regional dialects, which are largely declining in usage. France has a population of 60,180,529 people (2003 est.)it ranks 21st worldwide and accounts for 1.07% of the world population. The population growth rate is at 0.42% (2003 est.), and the death rate is currently at 9.05-deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.). The life expectancy of a Frenchman is 75.63 years, and a French woman 83.11 years. The number of people infected with the HIV virus is 100,000 (2001 est.), which the rate equals 0.3% (2001 est.). France is a country of variety and equality, there is a diverse ethnic groups including: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, and Basque minorities. Three basic European ethnic stocks from the previously listed have blended over the centuries to make up its present population which are Celtic, Latin, and Teutonic (Frankish). France's birth rate was among the highest in Europe from 1945 until the late 1960s. Since then, its birth rate has fallen but remains higher than that of most other west European countries.
Traditionally, France had low number of immigrants due to the restrictive regulations France had on immigrants, but after the late 19th century and as the fifth republic emerged the regulation became less restrictive and immigration began to increase. More than 1 million Muslims emigrated in the 1960s and early 1970s from North Africa, especially Algeria. Recently some Political parties wanted to get rid of Muslim immigrants in France due their high crime rates. They even prohibited the wearing of visible religious signs in schools. This show the relationship the government has with the Muslim immigrants. The French republic doesnít recognized these minorities even though they have been in France for more than 4 generations and yet are not given the French citizenship. These minorities have rioted recently for their rights in the streets of Paris. About 90% of the population is Roman Catholic, 7% Muslim, less than 2% Protestant, and about 1% Jewish. In 2004, there were over 5 million Muslims, largely of North African descent, living in France. According to a 1990 census, immigrants represent around 6% of the population totaling 3.5 million people. Among them, 1.4 million come from the European Union. In 1881, there were already one million foreigners and three million in 1931. Although the growth of the foreign population has changed little since then. Roman Catholicism is by far the largest religion in France. Separation of church and state was made final by law in 1905. Education is free, beginning at age 2, and mandatory between ages 6 and 16. The public education system is highly centralized. Private education is primarily Roman Catholic. Higher education in France began with the founding of the University of Paris in 1150. It now consists of 91 public universities and 175 professional schools.
For a long time France, a powerful nation in both Europe and the world, has played an active role in conducting military actions that were meant for both peace and war. Its major Defense has been organized according to three types, which are: the army, which includes marines, the navy, which includes naval air, and the air force which includes air defense and the National Gendarmerie. While the French military doctrine is based on the concepts of national independence, nuclear deterrence, and military sufficiency. After the United States, France is the greatest military spender, spending an approximate $46.5 billion on its military or 2.6% of its GDP (2000). As a result of that France has the 4th largest air force (personnel), the 3rd largest naval force (personnel) and the 12th largest army (personnel). France is considered the main power of Europe considering its power in Africa. France can use force to intervene in Eritrea to retrieve the situation with the support of its bases in Djibouti.
Since 1958 this distinction has become progressively blurred and replaced by an organization based on various functions. Thus, there are strategic nuclear forces, territorial-defense forces, mobile forces, and task forces. France has had the atomic bomb since 1960 and the hydrogen bomb since 1968. It used to carry out nuclear testing in the Pacific but stopped due to growing concern over the effects of nuclear explosions on the environment. It has a strategic nuclear force, and a basic delivery system. France also has the capability of experimenting with the neutron bomb.
France has little or no military dependence on other nations because it builds its own weapons and has all the resources needed to run a military operation. France is a member of the United Nations (UN) in which it is a permanent member of the Security Council. France also plays a large role as a member of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). France is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and has worked actively with Allies to adapt NATO--internally and externally--to the post-Cold War environment. In December 1995, France announced that it would increase its participation in NATO's military wing, including the Military Committee. Military personnel are stationed in West Germany and in a number of African countries linked to France by cooperation agreements; many of the personnel in Africa are stationed in Djibouti. These are called the French Foreign Legion, who are responsible for the security of Djibouti and include over 3000 troops, and an air force. France also maintains permanent military bases in Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Gabon, and Senegal. In these nations France acts as a security force that protects the nations. France also has other military bases in the region which include Bassas da India, Bouvet Island, Europa Island, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island. France has participated in a variety of peacekeeping/coalition efforts in Africa, the Middle East, and the Balkans, often taking the lead in these operations. France is also a member of the Western European Union (WEU). France places a high priority on arms control and non-proliferation. After conducting a final series of six nuclear tests, the French signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in 1996. France has implemented a moratorium on the production, export, and use of anti-personnel landmines and supports negotiations. France is an active participant in the major supplier regimes designed to restrict transfer of technologies that could lead to proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Australia Group (for chemical and biological weapons), the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Missile Technology Control Regime. France participates actively in the Proliferation Security Initiative, and is engaged with the US., both bilateral and at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), to curb nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) proliferation from the D.P.R.K., Iran, Libya, and elsewhere. France has signed and ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention.
France is not the most elite and economically challenging country, but it is considered as a well developed country. France has a very high military spending budget making it one of the highest in the world, due to the numerous military bases in Africa. However, persistently high unemployment is posing as a major problem for the government. France has a sensible agricultural resource (3%), large industrial base (26%) and a highly skilled work force. A dynamic services sector accounts for an increasingly large share of economic activity is 71%. France has a GDP of $1.54 trillion (2002 est.). Which is the sixth largest GDP after the US, Japan, China, India and Germany. Manufacturing (16%), construction (4%) and energy generation account (3%), is part of France's GDP.
Its wide-ranging manufacturing base includes steel, aluminum, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, rail transport equipment, telecommunications equipment and aerospace (civil and military). Manufacturing accounts for most exports of goods and for around three-quarters of total exports of goods and services. In 2000 exports of goods and services amounted to 29% of GDP. France's GDP growth is 1% (2002 est.). One of France's most important industries is Car manufacturing. France's main import partners are: European Union 58.6%, Germany 16.7%, Benelux 7.0%, Italy 9.1%, UK 7.5%, US 8.9% (EST.2001). Their import commodities are: machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics and chemicals. France gains an import sum of $303.7 billion (est. 2002). France's main export partners are: the European Union 61.3%, Germany 14.7%, UK 9.8%, Spain 9.6%, Italy 8.8%, US 8.8% (est. 2001).
France gains an export sum of $307.8 billion (est. 2002). France's export commodities are: machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel and beverages. France is a member of many economic and trade organizations. Its presence is important in the World Trade Organization (WTO). It is also a non-regional member of the African Development Bank (AFDC) and the Asian Development Bank (AsDB). France is a member of the International Monetary Organization (IMF). It is also one of the few members of the Group of 5 (G-5) and the Group of 7 (G-7).
Views on world problems
Considering France's superiority in this world, it has great relations with many nations, those of the European union which consider France as one of the most important nations in the EU. France relations with the US is quite a give and take relation, France seeks for the US in times of need, and embellishes its name through the EU and its superiority in it.
Its relations with all European nations are very strong, it has an especially strong relation with Germany since both have common interests and both have very similar foreign polices. Another sector of the world where France has had many relations with is the Middle East. France's history with the Middle East is a very long one, since the days of the Holy Roman Empire. France used to have a very large role in the Middle East since many of its nation's were former colonies. Now France has a somewhat limited role in the Middle East as a result of many different things. For one thing France was a great supporter of the nation of Israel supplying it with military and technical support, although later when Charles De Gaulle became president their policy on Israel had changed. This was on of the hindrances that ruined its relations with the Arabs. Another hindrance was the fact that France was a colonial power there and also the Algerian war of independence. In Middle East peace negotiations France also never managed to play an important role. France had hoped that by taking a moderate path and not strongly supporting either side, the Israeli or the Arabic, France could become central to the peace process. France also played a neutral role on the war on Iraq.
Since 2003, France has supported four UN Security Council (UNSC) resolutions on Iraq, including UNSCR 1546, which laid out a timetable for Iraq's political transition and reaffirmed UNSC authorization for a Multinational Force in Iraq, at the invitation of the Iraqi government, to stabilize the country. France contributed in part to the 230 million Euro EU contribution to Iraq reconstruction in 2003.
After the Iraqi Interim Government took power, France agreed to substantial debt relief and offered police training to Iraqi security forces. France was a major donator in both major catastrophes the South Asian Tsunami and the Pakistani earthquake. France is also a major supporter of the war on terrorism considering many attempts of terrorist attacks in the capital city of Paris. France has also played and extensive role in Africa by providing its former colonies with aid, through extensive aid programs, commercial activities, military agreements, and cultural impact.
In those former colonies where the French presence remains important, France contributes to political, military, and social stability. France maintains permanent military bases in Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Gabon, and Senegal. In these nations France acts as a security force that protects the nations. France also has other military bases in the region which include Bassas da India, Bouvet Island, Europa Island, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island. France deployed additional military forces to Cote d'Ivoire in 2002 and to Central African Republic in 2003 to address crises in both countries and, with EU partners, led an international military operation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2003. In 2004, it deployed military forces to provide humanitarian relief supplies to refugees from Darfur in Chad and to monitor the Chad-Sudan border. French forces are also serving with international operations in Burundi, Ethiopia/Eritrea, and Liberia. While in Asia France is seeking to broaden its commercial presence in China and will pose a competitive challenge to US. business, particularly in aerospace, high-tech, and luxury markets. In Southeast Asia, France was an architect of the 1991 Paris Accords, which ended the conflict in Cambodia.
The French empire was first establish during the support of Francis I. When Louis XIV took control, he had an aggressive foreign policy. and under his reign the French culture flourished. At the end of his reign, Louis faced many problems such as debts, religion, war, and deaths, and yet France was the dominant power in Europe. But overly ambitious projects and military campaigns of Louis and his successors led to chronic financial problems in the 18th century. Louis XVI's main accomplishment is the help in the American Revolution to help defeat their archenemy, Great Britain. Deteriorating economic conditions and popular resentment against the complicated system of privileges granted the nobility and clerics were among the principal causes of the French Revolution (1789-94).
Although the revolutionaries advocated republican and egalitarian principles of government, France reverted to forms of absolute rule or constitutional monarchy four times--the Empire of Napoleon, the Restoration of Louis XVIII, the reign of Louis-Philippe, and the Second Empire of Napoleon III. After the Franco-Prussian War (1870). Not until 1789 ,when the monarchy and the French revolution crumbled, was the French political structure reorganized. The reorganization of the political structure consisted of distributing power between a two-chambered legislature and a five-man executive, known as the Directory. On November 9, 1799, Bonaparte's troops forced members of the legislature to vest state power in a new provisional government, soon to be called the Consulate. Napoleon created an empire stretching from Spain to Poland. In 1813 the empire crumbled and Napoleon was exiled to Elba. Industrialization in the textile industry began in France in the beginning of the 19th century. In the middle of the 19th century France took Djibouti as a French colony. French and the Allied forces recaptured Djibouti at the end of 1942.
A local battalion from Djibouti participated in the liberation of France in 1944. On July 22, 1957, the colony was reorganized to give the people considerable self-government. On the same day, a decree applying the Overseas Reform Act (Loi Cadre) of June 23, 1956, established a territorial assembly that elected eight of its members to an executive council. Members of the executive council were responsible for one or more of the territorial services and carried the title of minister. The council advised the French-appointed governor general. In a September 1958 constitutional referendum, French Somaliland opted to join the French community as an overseas territory. This act entitled the region to representation by one deputy and one senator in the French Parliament, and one counselor in the French Union Assembly, currently there are over 15000 French citizens and 3000 French troops in Djibouti and a French naval base is located on the shores of Djibouti. It then spread to heavy industry, especially iron, which became the dominant industrial sector by the mid-19th century. In 1871, the third republic was created, it paid France's debts, reassured the public, and rebuild the army.
After the republic took control, few decades later, in 1914, World War I brought great losses of troops and materiel. In the 1920s, France established an elaborate system of border defenses (the Maginot Line) and alliances to offset resurgent German strength. France was defeated early in World War II, however, and was occupied in June 1940. The German victory left the French groping for a new policy and new leadership suited to the circumstances. On July 10, 1940, the Vichy government was established. Its senior leaders acquiesced in the plunder of French resources, as well as the sending of French forced labor to Germany; in doing so, they claimed they hoped to preserve at least some small amount of French sovereignty. The French recognized what the Germans intend to do and redeployed in the capital. The Anglo-French army defeated Germany in 1918 and ended the wars. The War resulted with a dramatic decrease in birth rate.
In 1939, after the German invasion of Poland, England and France declared war against Germany. France was occupied by Germany in 1940 and liberated 4 years later. The Fourth Republic was born with a new constitution and a parliamentary regime. Charles De Gaulle resigned and spent 12 years in exile. After WWII, France had inflation, and in 1951 joined the ECSC, which later on transformed to the EEC, then to EC. Decolonization began, and weakened the Empire.. Finally, on May 13, 1958, the government structure collapsed as a result of the tremendous opposing pressures generated in the divisive Algerian issue.
A threatened coup led the Parliament to call on General de Gaulle to head the government and prevent civil war. He became prime minister in June 1958 (at the beginning of the Fifth Republic). The Fifth Republic emerged with a new constitution and Charles De Gaulle was named president. He had an overwhelming support from the people during the start of his rule as President of France. De Gaulle Submitted the new constitution, elected his ministers, dissolved the Parliament, and started a series of events that led to higher presidential power. There was an election seven years later which was the first election in which the French public may elect a president by direct ballot. President de Gaulle won the re-election. In April 1969, President de Gaulle's government conducted a national referendum on the creation of 21 regions with limited political powers. The government's proposals were rejected, and de Gaulle resigned.
Following him as president of France have been Gaullist Georges Pompidou (1969-74), Independent Republican Valery Giscard d'Estaing (1974-81), Socialist Francis Mitterrand (1981-95), and neo-Gaullist Jacques Chirac (first elected in spring 1995 and reelected in 2002). The center of domestic attention soon shifted, however, to the economic reform and belt-tightening measures required for France to meet the criteria for Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) laid out by the Maastricht Treaty. In late 1995, France experienced its worst labor unrest in at least a decade, as employees protested government cutbacks. On the foreign and security policy front, Chirac took a more assertive approach to protecting French peacekeepers in the former Yugoslavia and helped promote the peace accords negotiated in Dayton and signed in Paris in December 1995.
The French have been one of the strongest supporters of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and European Union (EU) policy in Kosovo and the Balkans. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the US., France has played a central role in the war on terrorism. French forces participate in Operation Enduring Freedom and in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) for Afghanistan. France did not join the coalition that liberated Iraq in 2003. Recently in France minorities stood up for their rights, they claim that they have been discriminated. France regulations and law do not protect minorities due to the fact that it does not talk about ancestry or ethnic background but about individuals. Yet minorities riot for their rights.
The Eritrea Conflict:
The current dispute between the two nations is due to the a fact that they share the same history yet have different cultural or religious beliefs. After the wartime Allies expelled Eritrea's Italian colonial rulers in 1941, Britain took control of the region and eventually was assigned it as a UN trust territory. In 1991, the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) captured the Eritrean capital, Asmara, and established a provisional government. Eritrea finally achieved independence, following an internationally monitored referendum in 1993. Thus the main dispute they share is the border dispute, which in fact is because when Ertirea was given independence Ethiopia lost its border along the Red Sea and therefore relies on going through other countries such as Eritrea in order to ship and trade goods along that line. Its only mean of transport through sea is through Djibouti or in other terms French harbors, therefore in recent years Djibouti harbors were considerably important to provide Ethiopians with their needs such as means of transportation, food, and many other goods.
During the middle of 1999, both Ethiopia and Eritrea had accepted a peace plan brokered by the Organization for African Unity (OAU) in principle. However, they disagreed on implementation issues. A border clash in 1998 around the town of Badme escalated into a full-scale war, displacing about 250,000 Eritreans and killing thousands of soldiers from both sides. Having re-captured Badme and other disputed areas, and under considerable pressure from the international community, Ethiopia halted its advances and both sides signed a cease-fire on June 18th 2000. The UN Security Council imposed a one-year arms embargo on both countries.. Six months later a final peace treaty was signed, with both countries agreeing to resolve the dispute through binding international arbitration. Since then the situation escalated and both Ethiopia and Eritrea have been accused of gross human rights violations.
For example, Amnesty International points out that in Ethiopia, a large number of Eritreans are being detained just due to their Eritrean origins. In 2000, Addis Ababa and Asmara signed a peace agreement brokered by the Organization of African Unity, calling for both parties to withdraw to the positions held before the 1998 war and establishing a boundary commission. The UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) also began patrolling along the security zone. However, relations between the two neighbors deteriorated in 2003 when the boundary commission ruled that the town Badme lies in Eritrean territory. Recently the EEBC boundary commission established a decision with the cooperation of the SC but was delayed due to the rejection of the Ethiopia to the decision, therefore the border dispute still remains with no decision.
Although France is a major humanitarian donor to all countries in conflict, France disagrees with the war that took place. France proposes that Ethiopia should respect the Eritrean boundaries as well as consider Eritrea as a UN sovereign state and not as part of Ethiopia. France further more points out that not only that Eritrea has its own ethical beliefs, it also has its own currency, and was conquered by the Ottoman empire and then the Italian colony. Eritrea in no point is considered part of Ethiopia. France also suggests implementing the treaties and agreements submitted by both the UN and the AU, for the benefit of both nations. France also requests the UN to agree with its decision in increase UNMEE troops with the help of French troops located in Djibouti French Base. France seeks for more peaceful resolutions, but if necessary it will cooperate with the SC to bring peace upon the region. France states that Ethiopia has no right claiming Eritrea and that Ethiopia should not place it threats on Eritrea due to the fact that it has lost its coasts. France will take force against any violations towards the Algiers Agreement. France also reputes the boundary commission to be accepted by Ethiopia immediately to end the border dispute. France has not dismissed the Ethiopians from trading through Djibouti but has offered to give incentives and special privileges for trading through Djibouti in exchange for their acceptance to the boundary commission's decision.
Defines the Ethiopian conflict as a border dispute between two sovereign UN member nations, which led to a war in 1998,
Recognizes that AU has submitted an agreement called the Algiers peace agreement which was signed by both parties and this agreement is under the supervision of the UN as it was accepted by the secretary general himself,
Further Defines that, according to US Department state "Bureau of African Affairs" issue, the French troops in Djibouti or as they are called the French Foreign Legion, are responsible for the security of Djibouti and include over 3000 troops.
Sadly notes that, according to Country Analysis Brief "Horn of Africa" issue, an estimated 370,000 Eritrean civilians and approximately 350,000 Ethiopians had been affected by the war, in addition to an exacerbation by the severe drought, which led to the emergence of a major food crisis with almost 8 million people affected,
Further recognizes that, according to the UNMEE official records submitted to the UN, the UNMEE has an authorized maximum strength (Security Council resolution 1320 of 15 September 2000) of 4,200 troops, including 220 military observers. The current strength (31 July 2005) is 3,293 military personnel, including 3,079 troops and 214 military observers. UNMEE also includes 241 international civilians, 245 local civilians and 66 United Nations Volunteers,
Notes with regret that, according to Mine Action Information Center, as of 2005 there are over 65,000 internally displaced persons in each nation due to the mine problem that was created during the war,
Bearing in mind that, according to Country Analysis Brief "Horn of Africa" issue, the Eritrean Ethiopian Boundary Commission EEBC has tried to set the borders of the two nations with the use of both colonial and international treaties as evidence, but yet no official boundaries have been implemented due to the delay of the parties agreements,
Notes that, according to Ethiopian ministry of information, both involved nations Ethiopia and Eritrea suffer from shortages or significant price rises due to the trade halt between the two nations,
Recognizing that, according to Ethiopian ministry of information, Ethiopian investments have declined and an increase of shortages and prices as a result of using ports other than Assab, Eritrea for its supplies,
Sadly Notes, that according BBC "Dead UN Resolution" issue, the several violations of the Algiers Peace Agreement in which Ethiopian unlawful settlement in the Sovereign Eritrean territory of Dembe Mangul, in addition to Ethiopia's violation of the Algiers Peace agreement Article 4 by not abiding with the final decision of the boundary commission stationed and functioned by the SC,
1. Declares the creation of a sub committee under the UNMEE, which is establish by the SC, that shall monitor the current border status based on the Border commission (EEBC)'s decision which shall be enforced through this subcommittee, the subcommittee shall: A. Be provided with current UNMEE observer's research to establish a research committee that shall: I. Establish a list of violations that will be submitted to the SC; ii. Cooperate with the SC to create further penalties for the violation presented in the list; iii. Cooperate with NGOs to add further violations on the list; B. Increase the peace zone, created by the SC, to 20 miles from the border of both nations; C. Be Enforced by French Foreign Legion from the Djibouti French base, which will be assigned at the peace zone, to monitor the status of both parties' armed forces, so that both parties' forces at their November 2004 position; i. The troops shall stop any unauthorized, by the UNMEE, transportation passing through the borders; ii. The troops shall take actions to any violations towards the Algiers Peace Agreement; D. Impose sanctions within 40 days period according to Article 41 of the United Nations Charter, if violations for either the parties continues after the penalization process is in progress; E. Create an incentive package for Ethiopia and Eritrea in exchange for their cooperation and reduction of military forces on the bordered region with the peace zone, this package will be consisting of: i. Reducing the capabilities of the sanction put by the SC, and if both parties have been abiding by the agreement and have shown tremendous decrease in military forces on the border, the SC shall consider removing the sanctions; ii. Increasing foreign aid by the UN which will include medical, food, financial, and educational aid. iii. Enforcing demining land mines within the zone with help of UN specialists, Road Clearance Team (RCT), Eritrean Demining Authority (EDA), Ethiopian Demining Project (EDP), and local NGOs; iv. Creating agreements with Ethiopian, after it agrees with the boundary commission's decision, for using Djibouti-French Harbors as means of trade, by using the these harbors import taxes shall be decreased by 15% and transportation methods to the ports in Djibouti from Ethiopia shall be improved;
Honorable chair, and fellow Delegates,
"Bon Sour", from the French Republic, where the modern world lies.
With Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality we have become the proud French Republic. We have fought for the independence of the western world, and we have fought for Europe's freedom. In a world fraught with new challenges, our common commitment in the service of peace and of our ideals is what makes our Alliance with the world fully legitimate. We think that with Freedom we can establish a modern world. Unfortunately our world faces conflicts that allow the idea of an ideal and peaceful world to fade away. Yet France contradicts any actions that eliminate the hope of peace, such as nations that disregard a country's sovereignty even though it has proven itself to be free through territorial and international agreements.
Unfortunately, Ethiopia has disregarded Eritrea's sovereignty, even though the decision has been made by the EEBC of the Security Council. Therefore France requests the recent Boundary Commission's decision to be accepted by Ethiopia immediately. With coercion France shall stop the conflict at hand and any other violations that are taking place. France has proven its capabilities in Africa which are far more superior to any other. Theses capabilities were shown during our peacekeeping mission to Côte d'Ivoire and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. France does not intend to use force if both parties cooperate, remember there is no such thing as a good war or a bad peace. Paix.
On the 4th of December I went to the AAG Security Council event representing France on behalf the Al-Bayan Bilingual School. Our work on the conference has been achieved during a 2 week deadline that was assigned by Dr. Dan. When I entered the room or my commission the room was quite small, remembering that last year's event had larger rooms. Then as I sat next to my delegation's placard and looked to the left then to the right, until I realized that no one was in the commission except for the chair and the BBS delegates. The other delegates were obviously late. When the commission was all seated with all of its five permanent members, the chair started the debate with a clause submitted by me, France. The clause had extreme opposition from the delegate of the UK who did not seem to know his policy and was humorous rather than demanding and submitting clauses. The clause passed and after that Russia submitted a clause that was on the verge of loosing all of its votes, but France amended the clause to its benefit, which was obvious but the clause passed.
After several minutes the SG came in with an emergency situation, which stated that England and Brazil might go to war because of a soccer match, and California was annexed from the US by a dictatorship. The first clause submitted for the emergency situation was obviously by France and it passed, the second one was also France and it passed. Until the UK finally decided to join us and submitted a clause on behalf the UK and the US which failed by an overwhelming majority. At the end the debate got out of control because of the UK's and the US's quite unrealistic imagination. The Permanent 5 members also had an ad hock meeting, which was inefficient and I tried to come up with a solution but the other didnít want to take this seriously. At the end the whole resolution was French even the crisis resolution was French, but the overall the conference was quite lame.