Country: The Hellenic Republic (Greece)

Event: AAGIAC 2005

Student: Ibrahim Abu Saleh

 

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The Greek National Anthem

Greece

Latin Transliteration

Se gnoriso apo tin kopsi.
Tou spathiou tin tromeri,
Se gnoriso apo tin opsi
Pou me via metra tin yi.
Ap' ta kokala vialmeni
Ton Ellinon ta iera,
Ke san prota andriomeni,
Haire, o haire, Eleftheria!
(repeat previous two lines three times)



English :

We knew thee of old,
Oh, divinely restored,
By the lights of thine eyes
And the light of thy Sword
From the graves of our slain
Shall thy valour prevail
As we greet thee again-
Hail, Liberty! Hail!
(repeat previous two lines three times)




The Hellenic Republic of Greece


 

Country Profile

Political structure:

The conventional long form is Hellenic Republic and the conventional short form is Greece. Its Capital is in its city Athens. The Greece's government is a parliamentary republic. The current political party that is in power in Greece is the General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE. The head or chairperson of the party is Khrist Polyzogopoloz. The government of the Greece is divided into three separate branches, and the branches are the Executive branch, Legislative branch, and judicial branch.

The Executive branch is made up from the chief of state, head of government, and cabinet. The chief of state who is the president is Karolos Papoulias (since 12 March 2005) the vice president of the Greece is. The head of government is Prime Minister Konstandinos Karamanlis

The Legislative branch consists of the parliament, which is the unicameral Parliament that 300 seats. Members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms. Elections last held were on 7 March 200, the next to elections will be held in March 2008. The Judicial branch mainly consists of the Supreme Court, which is the highest level of justice in the country. All judges appointed for life by the president after consultation with a judicial council.

 

Geography:

Greece is located Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey. Its total area capacity including land, Air and water is total: 131,940 sq. km. land: 130,800 sq. km, water: 1,140 sq. km. Its neighboring countries are Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, Macedonia 246 km. Agriculture plays 7% of Greece's GDP. Its mad food crops are wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products . Greece has a strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits (A peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands.)

 


Natural Resources:

Greece's natural resources are lignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnetite, marble, salt, hydropower potential.

 

Cultural:

The population of Greece is 10,668,354. The growth rate is 0.19%. The birth rate is 9.72 births per 1,000 populations; the death rate is 10.15 deaths per 1,000 populations. The life expectancy is 79.09 years. Sex ratio is 0.96 male per female. There are 2.34 migrants per.

 

Religion:

The religion of Philippines Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%.

 

Defense:

Greece's defense lies in the hands of Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, and Hellenic Air Force. The Military service age is 18.

1. The Hellenic army has a Total Man Power of 120,000. Its two main Organizations are 1st Army (Stratia), 6 Army Corps (Somata). It is composed of: 1 Armored Division (Merarxia), 3 Mechanized Divisions, 9 Infantry Divisions, 1 Support Division, 5 Armored Brigades (Taxiarhia), 7 Mechanized Brigades, 9 Infantry Brigades, 1 Marine Regiment (Syntagma), 1 Parachute Regiment, 1 Amphibious Commando Regiment, 1 Commando Regiment, 1 Army Aviation Regiment, 6 Reconnaissance Epilarxies, 30 Artillery Units (Monada), 10 Anti-Aircraft Artillery Squadrons (Moira).

2. The Hellenic Navy has total Man Power of 19,000. Submarine Types: 214 (ordered), 209-1100, 209-1200. Frigate Types and Classes: Meko 200HN - Ydra, Kortenaer - Elli, Knox - Epirus (to be decommissioned). Destroyer Classes: Adams - Kimon. Torpedo-Missile Boat (FAC) Types: Super Vita (ordered), Combattante IIIB, Combatant III, Combattante II, Type 148. Gunboat Classes: Pyrpolitis, Osprey 55 - Armatolos, Thetis - Niki, Ashville - Ormi. Patrol Boat Classes: Esterel - Kelefstis Stamou, Panagopoulos, NASTY, Type S141 Jaguar. Landing Craft Types: Terrebonne Parish, Jason, Zubr/Pomornik, LCU Type 520, LCM Type 251, LCVP. Mine Warfare Craft Types: Hunt - Europe, Adjutant (mine-hunter / minesweeper), MSC294.
Replenishment Ship Classes: Axios, Etna - Prometheus, Evros, Orion, Ouranos, Patapsco - Arethousa, Doirani, Kerkini, Stymfalia

3. The Hellenic Air Force has a Total Man Power of 23,000. Its primary organization is 1 Tactical Air Command (ATA), 1 Air Support Command (DAY), 1 Air Training Command (DAE).

 

History:

In World War I, Greece sided with the entente powers against Turkey and the other Central Powers. The Great Powers awarded parts of Asia Minor to Greece, including the city of Smyrna (known as Izmir today) which had a large Greek population. During the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) the Turks eventually defeated the Greek armies and regained control of Asia Minor. Soon afterwards, the Treaty of Lausanne was signed, fixing the borders to this date. A population exchange was included in the agreement and immediately afterwards, hundreds of thousands of Turks then living in mainland Greek territory left for Turkey in exchange for about a million Greeks living in Turkey.

The refugees from Asia Minor revived the population, provided cheap labor and Hellenized the now unoccupied regions, especially in Macedonia. Despite the Greece's small and badly equipped armed forces, Greece made an important contribution to the Allied efforts in World War II. At the start of the war Greece sided with the Allies and refused to give in to Italian demands. Italy invaded Greece on 28 October 1940, but Greek troops repelled the invaders after a bloody struggle.

This marked the first Allied victory in the war. Hitler then stepped in, primarily to secure his strategic southern flank. Troops from Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Italy successfully invaded Greece, overcoming Greek, British, Australian, and New Zealand units within weeks.

During the years of Nazi occupation, hundreds of thousands of Greeks died in direct combat, in concentration camps, or of starvation. The occupiers murdered the greater part of the Jewish community despite efforts by the Greek Orthodox Church and many Christian Greeks to shelter Jews. The Greek economy languished. After liberation, Greece experienced Civil War between the communist-led Democratic Army and the Hellenic Army that lasted until 1949, when the communists were defeated in the battle of Grammos-Vitsi. In 1950s and 1960s, Greece continued to develop slowly with grants and loans. Ioannides organized a military coup against President Makarios of Cyprus, which was considered the first Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the resulting crisis between Greece and Turkey. Increase in Cyprus led to the implosion of the military regime

Since the restoration of democracy, the stability and economy of Greece have grown. Greece joined the European Union in 1981 and adopted the Euro as its currency in 2001. New infrastructure, funds from the EU and growing revenues from tourism, shipping, services, light industry, and the telecommunications industry have greatly raised the standard of living in Greece. Tensions continue to exist between Greece and Turkey over Cyprus and the delimitation of borders in the Aegean Sea, but relations have settled considerably following successive earthquakes, first in Turkey and then in Greece, and people of Greece and turkey started showing sympathy toward each other. This is in contrast to decades of hostility between these two countries (repeated threats of war). Even though both were members of NATO, at times more than half of the entire Greek military was positioned against Turkey. In recent years, Greece has become one of the chief advocates of Turkey's application to join the European Union.

 

 

 

Policy Statement:


From 1962 to 1993, Eritrea was ruled as province of Ethiopia. When Eritrea and Ethiopia separated in 1993, no one paid too much attention to the details of the separation (least of all to a few hundred square kilometers of lightly populated land in a region called Badme). For a while, the two nations seemed to get on fairly well. However, relations further deteriorated into war a couple of years after Eritrea introduced its own currency in 1997. [WHY?]

War resulted over border dispute, In May 1998. It resulted in 100,000 deaths and millions of dollars diverted from much needed development into military activities and weapons production and purchase. Ethiopia accused Eritrea of invading a piece of land that was under Ethiopian administration. The Eritrean replied that the land in question was rightfully theirs. Some people say the major reason for the recent conflict is the fact that Ethiopia no longer has a border along the Red Sea and therefore relies on going through other countries such as Eritrea in order to ship and trade goods along that line.

Immediately after the eruption if the war, The Secretary-General immediately contacted the leaders of both countries, urging restraint and offering assistance in resolving the conflict peacefully. He requested Ambassador Mohammed Sahnoun (Algeria), his Special Envoy in Africa, to assist the mediation efforts of the Organization of African Unity (OAU).

In general, the UN is extremely concerned about this issue. It has help talk, through the Security Council with the presidents of the countries, in order to finding peaceful solutions. Ex: "As part of its tour of Africa, the seven-member special mission of the United Nations Security Council visited Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and Asmara, Eritrea, on 8 and 9 May 2000, respectively. The mission, which was headed by the Permanent Representative of the United States, Richard Holbrooke, included: Jean-David Levitte (France); Moctar Ouane (Mali); Martin Andjaba (Namibia); A. Peter van Walsum (Netherlands); Said Ben Mustapha (Tunisia); and Jeremy Greenstock (United Kingdom). The mission held talks with Prime Minister Meles Senate of Ethiopia on 8 May, and on the following day with President Isaias Afwerki of Eritrea. The discussions concentrated on ways to find a peaceful solution to the conflict and to avoid renewal of the fighting."

Greece is extremely concerned about what is happening between the two neighboring. It fears that the situation is getting extremely out of hand. It hopes that the two countries come up with a solution. Some suggestion that Greece hopes the Security Council would implement are: Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities between two countries. Deploy about a hundred United Nations military observers. Monitor the cessation of hostilities. Monitor and verify the redeployment of Ethiopian forces. Monitor the positions of Ethiopian forces.

 

 

 

Resolution


Preambulatory Clauses

Deeply regretting that Fighting between Eritrea and Ethiopia erupted in May 1998, as a result of a border dispute, source: http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/unmee/unmee.pdf,

Affirming The Secretary-General immediately contacted the leaders of countries, urging restraint and offering assistance in resolving the conflict peacefully. He requested Ambassador Mohammed Sahnoun (Algeria), his Special Envoy in Africa, to assist the mediation efforts of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), source: http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/unmee/unmee.pdf,

Recalling the Security Councilís Mission to the Region Three mission held talks with Prime Minister Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia on 8 May and on the following day with President Isaias Afwerki of Eritrea, and the discussions concentrated on ways to find a peaceful solution to the conflict and to avoid renewal of the fighting,

Regretting that Despite all efforts, the fighting between Eritrea and Ethiopia erupted again on 12 May 2000. By its resolution 1297, adopted on the same day, the Security Council expressed its concern with the renewed fighting and noted that the new outbreak of violence had a serious humanitarian implication for the civilian population of both countries, source: http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/unmee/unmee.pdf,

Bearing in Mind Sanctions Imposed on Both Countries. On 17 May 2000, Security Council adopted resolution 1298 by which it imposed measures aimed at preventing the Supply of weapons or arms -related assistance to the two countries, source: http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/unmee/unmee.pdf,

Noting that an Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities was signed by both countries, http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/unmee/unmee.pdf,

Having receiving on 31 July, the Security Council, by its resolution 1312 (2000), decided to establish the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), source: http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/unmee/unmee.pdf,

Deeply disturbed that the humanitarian situation in parts of Ethiopia was worsened by the severe drought, which led to the emergence of a major food crisis with almost 8 million people affected. UN humanitarian agencies prepared programs for both countries, aimed at mobilizing international resources for multi-sector emergency interventions, source: http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/unmee/unmee.pdf,

1) Calls for the UNMEE to:
A. Monitor the cessation of hostilities:
i. Authorize maximum strength by the SC to mobilize 2,000 troops, including 220 military observers, the Contribution of Military personnel will be throughout these countries: Romania, Russian Federation, Greece, India, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay. With there consent.
B. Asks to be linked to the Rapid Reaction Forces so that once the two nation exchange fierce fire or for example an war occurs, immediate military assistance will be offered. Aid will be carried be ships, planes and vehicles if necessary;
1. Monitor the positions of Ethiopian forces once redeployed;
2. Simultaneously, monitor the positions of Eritrean forces that are to redeploy in order to remain at a distance of 25 kilometers from positions to which Ethiopian forces shall redeploy;
3. Monitor the temporary security zone (TSZ) to assist in ensuring conformity with the Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities;
4. Coordinate and provide technical assistance for humanitarian mine-action activities in the TSZ and areas adjacent to it;
D. Coordinate the Mission's activities in the (TSZ) and areas next to it with humanitarian and human rights activities of the United Nations and other organizations in those areas.
E. Assist the Boundary Commission in the expeditious and orderly implementation of its Delimitation Decision, to include:
i. Determining in key areas to support separation;
ii. Organizational and military support for the Field Offices of the Boundary Commission;
iii. Further on, if countries imply with rules placed, chair the case neutral to achieve a fair decision.

 

 

 

Opening speeches


Greece,

the country that gave birth to the Olympic Ideals, the land of odysseys, the land of Myths, Gods and power. Greece has come to this council today to try and find a neutral solution to a problem that has caused unrest for both countries.

As the member of the UN Security Council, Greece intends to make a responsible contribution to implementation of the outcome of the Council's session, in order to achieve securing peace and stability in Africa. Greece sees that an agreement of cease fire between two countries is vital. This agreement was previously done but violated when a hostile fight went on between the neighboring soldiers. These two countries are not only facing border dispute, they are also facing humanitarian crisis facing both countries, so I urge all countries here at this session to unite there thoughts in order to achieve a solution of this damaging problem.

 

 

 

Statement of the Delegate


As the member of the UN Security Council, Greece intended to make a responsible contribution to implementation of the outcome of the Council's session, in order to achieve secure peace and stability in Africa. Greece saw that an agreement of cease fire between two countries was vital. This agreement was previously done but violated when a hostile fight went on between the neighboring soldiers. These two countries were not only facing border dispute, they were also facing humanitarian crisis facing both countries, so I urged all countries here at this session to unite in order to achieve a solution to this damaging problem.