Japan

Student: Yasmeen Dashti

Event: AAGIAC 2005




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The Japanese National Anthem


Kimigayo (His Majesty's Reign)

Kimi gayo wa
Chiyo ni yachiyo ni
Sazare ishi no
Iwao to nari te
Koke no musu made


English Translation

Thousands of years of happy reign be thine;
Rule on, my lord, till what are pebbles now
By age united to mighty rocks shall grow
Who's venerable sides the moss doth line.


Japan





Country Profile


Political Structure

Japan is a constitutional monarchy with an emperor as a symbol of state. Japan is a parliamentary democracy with a ceremonial emperor. Japan's present constitution was drawn p by the Allied forces during WWII and was put into effect in 1947. The democratic constitution completely changed the Japanese government The first constitution gave ruling power only to the emperor; however, the new constitution gives power to the Japanese people. The constitution provides three branches of government: legislative, executive, and judicial. Also, all Japanese citizens who are 20 years and older may vote as well as women. It was known in history that the emperor held the power; however, after the 1947 constitution, the emperor is just a symbol of state. His duties are entirely ceremonial.

Furthermore, in Japan, the Diet makes the country's laws. It consists of two houses: The House of Representatives which consist of 512 members who are elected every 4 years; and the House of Councilors which consist of 252 members and half of the members are elected every 3-6 years. Also, the prime minister who is Japan's chief executive officer is chosen by the Diet from among its members. The prime minister is also the head of the government. The prime minister is usually the leader of the political party that has the most seats in the Diet. Moreover, Japan has several political parties. The most successful is the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) which is a conservative party which has held the most seats in the Diet than any other party since 1955.

The LDP has traditionally represented rural areas and depends on big businesses for financial support; however, it is starting to gain strength in the cities, mostly among professional and clerical workers. The chief opposing party, the Japan Socialist Party, receives most of its support from labor groups. Smaller parties in Japan include the Komeito (Clean Government Party), the Democratic Socialist Party, and the Japan Communist Party.

 

Geography

Japan is made up of four main islands with thousands of smaller islands in which its land is make up of mountains and hill; thus, the people live in 3 coastal plains that all together make up the size of Delaware. Japan is a country that is considered an island in the North Pacific Ocean that enjoys a diverse climatic range and a mountainous landscape. It lies off the northeast coast of mainland Asia and faces Russia, Korea, and China. Japan consists of four large islands as well as thousands of smaller ones in which around 120 million people are stationed in these islands, making Japan one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Mountains and hills cover 70% of Japan. Many mountains are volcanoes. Japan's mountains and hills take up so much land that the great majority of the people live on narrow plains along the coasts. The coastal plains consist of Japan's best farmland and most of the country's major cities are situated on them. The climate of Japan varies considerably from south to north. The southern islands have a warm temperate climate while in the south it is colder and snows often during winter.

 

Natural Resources

Japanese farmers produce about 70% of the food needed to feed the nation's people while it imports the rest. Since the Japanese islands are mountainous, the amount of farmland is very little. The most important crop in Japan is rice. Japan is one of the world's leading rice-producing countries. Rice fields occupy more than 50% of the country's farmland. Japanese farmers also grow a wide variety of other crops that include sugar beat, tea, tobacco, and wheat. Many types of fruits such as apples, mandarin oranges, pears, persimmons, and strawberries are grown in Japan. Common vegetables include cabbage, onions, potatoes, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, and white radishes. Not only that, but Japan has the world's largest fishing industry. Japan leads the world in tuna fishing and ranks second to the US in the amount of salmon caught.

Furthermore, Japan has a wide variety of minerals; however, they are mostly found in quantities that are too small to satisfy the country's needs. The chief mining products includes coal, copper, lead, limestone, manganese, silver, tin, zinc. Many of the minerals required by Japan's industries must be imported. Moreover, Japan requires vast amounts of energy for its farms, factories, households and motor vehicles. The country ranks among the world's leading producers of electric power. Petroleum and natural gas provide about 68% of Japan's energy; however, Japan can't supply its own power need, thus it gets its fuels from other countries in which Japan imports them.

 

Cultural Factors

Even though about 124 million people live in Japan, making it the world's seventh largest nation in population, Japan doesn't have a diverse ethnicity in which 99% of the people are Japanese. Japan is one of the world's most densely populated countries. There aren't many ethnic groups in Japan: 99% are Japanese, 0.6% are not Japanese in which they are mostly Korean and Chinese. In Japanese society, it is difficult to imagine a Japanese vision of the social order without seeing the influence of the Confucianism since before the Chinese influence in the 6th century, Japan didn't have a stratified society.

In Japan, Confucianism emphasizes harmony among heaven, nature, and human society which is achieved through each person accepting their social role and contributing to the social order by proper behavior. The Japanese culture is very unique that expresses a gamut of traditions, from exotic festivals and foods to traditional arts and historical temples to its folk art. Festivals and cultural events, for example, are observed in Japan in which some of the most well known festivals mark the changing of the seasons. Moreover, Japanese is the official language spoken in Japan in which it is spoken in many local dialects; however, there is also an emphasis on English being a second language. Moreover, Japan's oldest religion is Shinto; it is the native religion of Japan. However, there are other religions that are practiced in Japan: 84% of the Japanese people practice Buddhism in which many of these people follow Shinto; 16% practice other religions, which include 0.7% practice Christianity.

 

Economy

Despite its current slow economic growth, Japan remains a major economic power both in Asia and globally. Since the end of WW2 Japan has become a major economic power in which its power is still growing and is getting better and better. The country has the second largest economy in terms of GDP, in which its GDP is $3.3 trillion, with a GDP per capita at $29, 400. Japan has developed a strong, rapidly growing economy in spite of having limited natural resources. Japan must import many materials needed by its manufacturing industries. In order to pay for these imported materials, Japan sells the products of its factories to other countries throughout the world. Thus, the Japanese economy depends heavily on foreign trade.

Japan exports various resources which include rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit, pork, poultry, dairy products, eggs, and fish. Japan is also among the world's largest and advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel, ships, chemicals, textiles, and processed foods. Japan's imports are basically petroleum, natural gas, machinery and equipment, fuels, foodstuff, and raw materials. Japan's leading trade partner is the US, then leading after that is Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and the UAE.

 

Defense

Japan's constitution states that the country doesn't have the right to wage war or to have air, ground, or sea forces for that purpose. Thus, Japan maintains air, ground, and sea forces for self defense; however, Japan's involvement in the Iraqi war marked the first overseas use of its military since WWII which totally changes its national self defense standards. Most Japanese people believe that these forces are not unconstitutional. Japan's self defense forces have about 243 000 members in which the service is voluntary. Japan's military consists of the Self Defense Forces, the Ground Self Defense Forces, Maritime Self Defense Forces, and Air Self Defense Forces in which it is about the 4th biggest military in the world.

 

View on World Problems

Since WWII, Japan has closely allied with the US and has similar policies, however, Japan takes neutral and independent stands on some issues. Japan has diplomatic relations with nearly all independent nations and has been an active member of the UN since 1956. Its foreign policy mainly aims to promote peace and prosperity for the Japanese people by working closely with the West and supporting the UN. Japan is a member of the UN and affiliated agencies, the G8, and the G4 nations. Japan is a major aid donor to developing countries and it maintains diplomatic relations with almost all countries of the world. Japan is a member of the Asian Development Bank, the Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic and Social Development in Asia and the Pacific, the International Whaling Commission, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, as well as a number of other international organizations.

Japan's closest ally is the US; however, Japan also has ties with other nations in which it has good relations with its neighboring countries, though the relations between Japan and Taiwan are strictly economic, and has been increasing with Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Also, Japan's ties with both Koreas: the ties with South Korea has improved since mid-1980; however, Japan has limited economic and commercial ties with North Korea. Moreover, Japan's relations with Russia are in a weak position due to the two side's incapability to resolve their territorial dispute over the islands that make up the Kuriles seized by the USSR during WWII. Furthermore, Japan expanded its ties with the Middle East in which the Middle East provides most of its oil. Japan is also very active in Africa and Latin America in which it has helped support many development projects in both regions.

 

History

Historians know only little about the early days of Japan. The origins of the Japanese remain a mystery. It is believed that according to legend, Jimmu Tenno, who is a descendant of the sun goddess, became the first emperor of Japan in 660 BC. During the late 400's new ideas and technology began to arrive in Japan from China. The Japanese borrowed the Chinese system of writing and adopted their advanced methods of calculating the calendar. About 552, Buddhism came to the country from China and Korea. Japan's early relations with other countries mainly involved adopting features of their cultures. The Japanese felt safe from attack by foreign powers because of their country's isolated island position.

In 1868, during the Meiji period, Japan developed into a modern industrial and military power. The emperor issued the Imperial Charter Oath which announced the government's intention to modernize Japan and to turn to the Western countries for new ideas and technology. The leaders abolished the samurai and established a modern army and navy. The Meiji leaders encouraged industrialization. During the 1890's, Japan succeeded in revising the unequal treaties of the 1850's. The Westerners gave up their privilege of extra-territoriality and at about the same time, the Japanese government began a policy of imperialistic expansion. Japan wanted to gain control of the Korean trade and industry. It also wanted to increase its influence in China.

In 1894, Japan went to war with China over the control of Korea which had been under the influence of China for many years. Japan quickly defeated China. The Treaty of Shimonoseki, signed in 1895, gave Japan Taiwan and the Liaodong Peninsula and granted Korea independence which left the country open to Japan's influence. However, within a week, France, Germany, and Russia forced Japan to return Liaodong to China. After the Meiji constitution was proclaimed in 1889, political parties began to gain importance in Japan. Japan joined WWII in 1940 by occupying the northern part of French Indochina.

That same year, Japanese leaders signed an agreement with Germany and Italy in which to strengthen the alliance between the three countries. The expansion of Japanese power in Asia created increasing tension with the US. When the Japanese entered southern Indochina in 1941, the US cut off exports to Japan in response in which then the Japanese military leaders began planning for war with the US. In 1941, Japanese bombers attacked US military bases at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. They also bombed US bases in the Philippines. The Japanese then quickly won dramatic victories in Southeast Asia and in the South Pacific. However, the Japanese fleet sufferance its first major setback in 1942 when the US confronted a Japanese force in the Battle of the Coral Sea. As Japanese defeats increased, political discontent in Japan grew. In 1944, the Japanese prime minister fell. In early 1945, the US dropped the first atomic bomb in Hiroshima, a Japanese city. Two days later the USSR declared war on Japan. Japanese leaders realized that their country had lost the war, thus in August 1945, Japan agreed to surrender.

During 1945, Japan was occupied by mostly the Americans. The chief goals of the occupation was to end Japanese militarism and to create a democratic government. In 1946, a new Japanese Constitution was drafted in which it transferred the power from the emperor to the Japanese people, it abolished the army and navy and stated that Japan would give up the use of war as a political weapon. Economic reforms were also made during the occupation. In 1956, Japan signed a peace treaty with the Soviet Union ending the war between them. Japan then gained UN membership in 1956.

 

Policy Statement


The Situation between Eritrea and Ethiopia

Since the independence of Eritrea, the bilateral relations have developed steadily between Japan and Eritrea through visits of high officials and bilateral cooperations to help Eritrea's building efforts for its nation. In July 1999, Japan provided $500,000 to the WFP for the emergency humanitarian assistance for the displaced people in Eritrea that was caused by the border dispute with Ethiopia.

Japan + Ethiopia:

Diplomatic Relations:
Ethiopia establishmed an honorary consulate general in Osaka
Japan established a legation in Ethiopia
Japan restored diplomatic relations with Ethiopia
Both Japan and Ethiopia established embassies in each capital
There are about 121 Japanese living in Ethiopia

Japan and Ethiopia have long and friendly relations that dates back to the 1930s. These good relations are strengthened by the recent visits in 1996 and 1998 by Prime Minister H.E. Mr. Meles, and visits of VIPs and high officials. Regarding bilateral cooperations, Japan has been providing development assistance as well as humanitarian aids to Ethiopia to support its building efforts of its nation. In July, 1999, Japan provided $500,000 to the WFP for the emergency humanitarian assistance for the displaced people in Eritrea that was caused by the border dispute with Ethiopia.

Japan is a great supporter of both Eritrea and Ethiopia and has good relations with both countries; thus, it wants to see both countries resolve the issue. Thus, it has taken steps into solving the problem such as contributing financial aid to programs that are working in resolving the issue at hand. For example, on Friday, March 23, 2001 the Japan decided to contribute $ 1,083,000 to the Trust Fund in support of the delimitation and demarcation of the common border between Ethiopia and Eritrea, which was established by Security Council in 1998.

After the two-year border conflict since May 1998, Ethiopia and Eritrea finally agreed to the Cessation of Hostilities in June 2000. They also signed the Peace Agreement in December 2000. The Trust Fund establishment is intended to finance the cost for the delimitation and demarcation of the border in which it will be carried out by the United Nations in accordance with the Peace Agreement and the Cessation of Hostilities. Japan is made this contribution in response to an urgent appeal for Member States by the Secretary-General of the United Nations in 2001. This contribution is a demonstration of Japan's determination to foster the peace process in Ethiopia and Eritrea, and to help generate a momentum for the full and prompt implementation of the Peace Agreement.

Japan supports any resolution that aims for the elimination of this problem and bring upon peaceful consensus. Japan sees that there is a need for financial assistance to both countries as well as to the programs developed by the UN to eliminate this probelsm. Also there is a need for a facility that will accept refugees, displaced people, and demobilized soldiers in which this facility will provide treatments both medically and psychologically to these people and provide rehabilitation treatments for them in order to put them back on their feet.

Also, Japan sees that both nations should comply with the Algiers Agreement that both countries signed for as well as to full co-operate with the UNMEE (UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea) and with the Boundary Commission which both aim for the delimitation and demarcation of the border and seize the conflict between both countries.

 

 

 

Resolution

Preambles

Recalling that according to Eritrean claims, Ethiopia provoked the invasion because of a clash on May 6,1998 between Ethiopian police and Eritrean army units in Badimi,

Aware of the fact that according to the Ethiopian government, the Eritrean invasion which took place on May 12, 1998 violated the fundamental principle of international law,

Stressing that according to the Security Council 3895th meeting in 1998, the principle of peaceful settlement of disputes states that the use of armed forces is not acceptable as a means of addressing territorial disputes or changing circumstances,

Bearing in mind that according to CNN sources, there are economic problems between Eritrea and Ethiopia such as currency problems, trade problems, and different economic strategy plans that clash with one another,

Congratulating both countries who demonstrated a desire to put an end to the hostilities by signing a cease-fire agreement in Algiers on June 2000 and signing a comprehensive peace agreement, as well as the commitment to work closely with the UN and the Organization of Africa Unity (OAU) in implementing the agreements, according to Secretary General Kofi Annan,

Noting that according to CNN sources, during the middle of 1999, both Ethiopia and Eritea had accepted a peace plan made by the Organization for African Unity (OAU) in principle, however, they disagreed on the implementation issues and blamed each other for various things that ranged from who started the conflict, to who was not committing to the peace process,

Recalling that according to Commissioner Andebrhan Weldegiorgis (UNMEE) that violations have been made mostly by Ethiopia who has violated the issues of the TSZ, air corridor, providing UNMEE with information even though it has agreed to them and has signed the agreement,

Deeply concerned that according to the SG report in 2002, there is a lack of progress in the implementation of the decisions of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission, as well as with Ethiopia's rejection of important parts of the Boundary Commission's decision, and the continuing high concentration of troops in the areas adjacent to the Temporary Security Zone (TSZ), and the cross border harassment and abduction of citizens on both sides,

Further noting that according to official statements by the Government of Ethiopia and the Government of Eritrea, that they are willing to contribute to the continuation of the efforts to achieve a peaceful resolution that aims to reduce the threat to the citizens, economic and social infrastructure, and enable the continuation of normal economic activity,

1. Resolves that all parties will meet along with the SC members to fully discuss the Algiers Agreement and come to a consensus in which both parties will agree to in which no actual change will be made however amendments will be added, and then both parties must carry out all actions required to reach a peaceful border;

2. Further resolves a special team of investigators who will be from both the UN and the country itself will be assigned to see forth that
A. both countries are following the Agreement and that there are no violations,
B. if any violation occurs it will be reported to the SC and then the SC will take necessary actions;

3. Calls on all parties to fully cooperate with the UNMEE (UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea) and the Boundary Commission and to fully co-operate with their decisions in which both governments must:
A. refrain from establishing any settlements in areas near the border and retract any settlements that have been already made,
B. release without any further delay all prisoners of war,
C. allow the UMEE to effectively carry out its mandated tasks of observing, monitoring, and reporting on activities in the TSZ and adjacent areas,
D. safeguard the integrity and security of the TSZ,
E. establish facilities for refugees, displaced people, and demobilized soldiers in which its staff will be UN volunteers who will support human development by helping the refugees, displaced people, and demobilized soldiers medically, psychologically, and provide treatment and rehabilitation,
F. assume their responsibilities of fulfilling their commitment towards peace under the Algiers Agreement,
G. provide and assure all necessary security on the ground for the Boundary Commission staff who will make sure that the governments are fully implementing the Commission's Democratization Direction and Orders,
H. obey all international laws and all decisions made by the UN bodies and/or commissions/programs in which if any violation occurs the violators will be prosecuted and punishments will be carried out according to the verdict.

 

 

 

Opening Speech


Honorable Chair, fellow delegates,

Technology is advancing every day before our eyes and we can barely keep up with it. One day itís a 17" portable laptop, the next, a computer the size of your handÖ.. or a cell phone where you can actually see who you are talking to. All this is happening thanks to the geniuses in Japan who are able to keep up with our needs and develop new DEVICES that help make our lives easier.

However, why canít this technology help the people in Eritrea and Ethiopia? Those people who are suffering because of two governments who are at potentially in World War with each other? Itís because the governments are the ones who must help them. Itís the governmentís responsibility as well as the international community to see that these people are in a safe environment free from violence and fear. Thatís why we are here today, honorable delegates, to try and come up with a solution in which both countries agree to and to stop this war from developing.

Japan has taken its first steps in solving the problem by donating $500, 000 already to the Trust Fund to aid the Boundary Commission in its plan to stop the hostility; however, more must be done. We, Japan, desire peace for all time, We desire to live an honored place, in an international society that strives for the preservation of peace. However, this peace can never come to reality when two countries are at potential world war.

Eritrea and Ethiopia have been in hostility for a long time. SIX years, honorable delegates, it has been SIX YEARS and we have yet to come up with an answer that brings daylight back to those people who have been living in the dark. Let us try and bring back sunshine to the eyes of those who have been deprived of it. Let us try and solve the problem at hand peacefully and effectively.

 

 

 

Statement of the Delegate


This year's AAG event was an exceptional event. It was full of laughter and fun. We started off the first half hour by debating the actual issue concerning Ethiopia and Eritrea; however, the minute the Secretary General walked into the room, we kept on debating the crisis for the rest of the day. The crisis may have seemed ridiculous at first, but with time we realized that it was the solutions we came up with were ridiculous and not the crisis. There was a clause that suggested to allow James Bond, Bruce Lee, Jacky Chan, and the Fantastic Four to stop the terrorist and have Disneyland open for free and the US would pay the expenses. This clause was actually passed and made into a resolution. All in all, we had a good time and a good laugh.