Country: The Republic of the Philippines


Event: AAGIAC 2005

Students: Abdulaziz Al-Qatami




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The Filipino National Anthem




Pambangsang Awit Ng Pilipinas (Tagalog)

Bayang magiliw
Perlas ng Silanganan,
Alab ng puso
Sa dibdib mo'y buhay.

Lupang hinirang
Duyan ka ng magiting
Sa manlulupig
Di ka pasisiil.

Sa dagat at bundok
Sa simoy at sa langit mong bughaw,
May dilag ang tula
At awit sa paglayang minamahal.

Ang kislap ng watawat mo'y
Tagumpay na nangniningning;
Ang bituin at araw niya
Kailan pa ma'y di magdidilim.

Lupa ng araw, ng luwalhati't pagsinta,
Buhay ay langit sa piling mo,
Aming ligaya na pag may mang-aapi
Ang mamatay nang dahil sa iyo.

FILIPINAS
(Letra para la Marcha Nacional Filipina)

Tierra adorada,
Hija del Sol de Oriente,
Su fuego ardiente
En ti latiendo esta.

Patria de Amores,
Del heroismo cuna,
Los invasores
No te hollaran jamas.

En tus azul cielo, en tus auras,
En tus montes y en tu mar
Esplende y late el poema
De tu amada libertad.

Tu pabellon, que en las lides
La Victoria ilumino,
No vera nunca apagados
Sus estrellas y su sol.

Tierra de dichas, de sol y amores,
En tu regazo dulce es vivir,
Es una gloria para tus hijos,
Cuando te ofenden, por ti morir.

English: (MOST COMMON).

THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL ANTHEM

Land of the morning
Child of the sun returning
With fervor burning
Thee do our souls adore.

Land dear and holy
Cradle of noble heroes
Ne'er shall invaders
Trample thy sacred shore.

O'er within thy skies and through thy clouds
And o'er thy hills and seas,
Do we behold the radiance
feel the throb of glorious liberty.

Thy banner dear to all our hearts
thy sun and stars alight.
Never shall its shining rays
Be dimmed by tyrants' might.

O beautiful land of love,
O land of life,
In thine embrace
'Tis rapture to lie.

But it is glory ever
when thou art wronged
for us, thy sons,
to suffer and die.




The Philippines




Country Profile

Political Structure:

The Republic of the Philippines is governed under a constitution adopted in October 1986 and ratified by the Filipino voters in February 1987. The 1987 constitution provided for the separation of powers and guaranteed freedom of speech, religion, the press, and equality under law. These guarantees had been suspended when President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in 1972.

Philippines political structure is called a "Republic," a form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state, which is under a constitution made in 1986. This means that Filipinos elect representatives to run the government.

The head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces is the president, who is elected by direct popular vote for a single term of six years. The president in the Republic of Philippines (Gloria Arroyo) has the real power. A vice-president is elected to a six-year term and may serve two successive terms. The president governs with the assistance of an appointed cabinet. The Political Party that has the power and authority is the Lakas Ng Edsa -National Union of Christian Democrats party. There are three separate branches of Philippine’s government: the Executive branch, Legislative branch, and judicial branch.

The Executive branch is broken down into the chief of state, head of government, and the cabinet. The chief of state is the president is Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo currently and the vice president is Manuel De Castro. The chief of state is the head of the government. The head of the government elects the cabinet of ministers.

The Legislative branch consists of a parliament. This body consists of a Senate, with 24 members elected to six-year terms, and a House of Representatives, with a maximum of 250 members elected to three-year terms. The Congress approves treaties and passes legislation, sometimes over a presidential veto.

The Judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court that is composed of a chief justice and 14 associate justices. It also consists of the Court of Appeals. The president chooses and appoints the judges. The judges of the Supreme Court serve their term till the age of seventy years old.

The government is unstable right now because there are some people who are causing chaos and problems to the government. Also, the political parties, such as the LDP party, exert lots of pressure to the government. Communist Muslims groups and Abu Sayyaf are two main groups act a threat to the government. However, the political stability is being improved.

The government has made some progress in bringing insurgents to the negotiating table, including the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and the National Democratic Front, but a permanent solution is still a long way off. Source: (http://www.legal500.com/as500/frames/ph_fr.htm).

 

Geography:

The Republic of Philippines has one of the most important geographical features; in fact these features affect The Philippines in both negative and positive sides. One positive side is that the islands have different types of soil. These soils are fertile and very rich with minerals, which enable the Republic of Philippine to plant variety of cops.

It is located in South East Asia is made up of 7107 islands in the Pacific Ocean. Some islands are: Samar, Negros, Panay, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol, Masbate, Palawan, and Mindoro. The 11 largest islands account for more than 90 percent of the total national land area. The two largest islands, Luzon and Mindanao, comprise more than 70 percent of the land area and contain more than 70 percent of the population. The total area land area is about the size of Italy, but it is spread over a region three times that size. The Philippine islands have three seasons- rainy from June to October, cool from November to February, and hot from March to May. Rich tropical rainforests cover many of the islands and timber is an important export. Because the Philippine islands lie near the juncture of the two large, undersea tectonic plates named the Philippine and Eurasian plates, they are still experiencing earthquakes and volcanic activity. The larger islands have high mountains. The highest peak is Mindanao's Mount Apo, at 9,688 feet (2,953 meters), but the Cordillera Central on northern Luzon is the largest and most rugged mountain system. There are about 50 volcanoes in the Philippines, 14 of which are still active. It borders with the following seas Philippine Sea, South China Sea, and Celebes Sea.

The Philippines lies between about 5o and 20o N. latitude, entirely within the humid tropics. Monsoon climates predominate, so most of the islands experience typical wet and dry seasons. Because the islands are so near the equator, warm temperatures prevail throughout the year.

The Philippines can be divided into three regions, the northern islands (Luzon and Mindoro, the central islands (Visayan Islands and Palawan), and the southern islands (Mindanao). The mountains are the main geographical feature. The Sierra Madre Mountains on the Luzon forms the longest mountain ranges in the Philippines. Mount Pulog is the highest peak of the Luzon Mountain.

 

Natural Resources:

The Republic of Philippines depends on its natural resources except for coal and gas for its economy. Rich tropical rainforest cover many of the islands and timber is an important export. Almost one fourth of the Philippines are covered with forests. The trees range from those with rubber, various palm trees, banyan along with indigenous trees such as mayapis, apitong, lauan and camagon. These tropical rainforest have more than 3500 species of plants and animal. Most of the rainforest are located in the three islands: Bohol, Mindanao, and Palawan. The Philippines has lots of clay, limestone, marble, and phosphate deposits. Most Philippine woods are classified as hardwoods. These woods and several other forest species, including rattan, are widely used in furniture, paneling, interior finishing, and cabinetwork.

Most of the timber comes from the forest of Mindanao. The Philippines is also rich in mineral resources. It is estimated that its mineral wealth is about $840 billion. Gold, copper, chromite, coal, gypsum, sulfur, nickel, and silver are few minerals found in large deposits in the Philippines.

 

Cultural Factors:

The Philippines culture is really great due to its colorfulness, therefore, it is considered one of the most Westernized Asian nations. Mindanao, the second largest island in Philippines has come under scrutiny with the rise of Islamic terrorist organizations, such as Abu Sayyaf and Jemaah Islamiyah. There is an independence struggle between the Muslims and the Christainas. The majority of Mindanoa’s population is now Christians. This is an issue that angers poor and displaced Muslims.

Economic factors play a major role in Philippines where unemployment is high and the earning per months are low. In Philippines, a person who works with a terrorist group may earn 145 – 436 euros.

The Philippines has not been a good model for religions and economies. Their Filipino audience is not united or strong. As more religion and economics are applied, Filipinos get more divided and weak. Both poor Christians and poor Muslims and rich Muslims and Christians both have in common; they both are strongly bonded together by their wealth or by their poverty more than their religion. Politicians are mostly rich Filipinos, and voters are mostly poor. Poor Filipinos know they have little or no influence in the country; therefore, they just get distracted during the campaign season.

The Philippine population is estimated to be 87,857,473 and growth rate is about 1.84%. It is the 14th most populous nation in the world and the third most populous in Southeast Asia after Indonesia and Vietnam. As in nearly all less-developed countries, the majority of the people live in rural areas more than 60 percent in the case of the Philippines. They work in agriculture helping to produce rice, corn (maize), sugarcane, and coconut, the country's leading crops. More than two fifths of the population lives in cities. Nearly the entire Philippine population consists of Malay peoples of the Mongoloid race.

Collectively called Filipinos, the population is subdivided into a number of ethnolinguistic groups that come within the overall classification of the Austronesian, or Malayo-Polynesian, family of languages. The groups are divided more on the basis of language than any clear-cut ethnicity.

The largest of these ethnolinguistic groups are the Tagalog, Ilocano, Bicol, Pampangan, and Pangasinan of Luzon; and the Cebuano, Waray-Waray (or Samar-Leyte), and Hiligaynon (or Ilongo) of the Visayan Islands.

Pilipino, the national language of the Philippines, is based on the Tagalog language. English, which has been taught in the islands since the American conquest early in the century, is the most common second language; and it and Pilipino are the two official languages of the country. Both languages are taught in the schools, although English has remained the primary.

The society as a whole is characterized by sharp distinctions between rich and poor, majorities and minorities, privileged and underprivileged. The upper class ran governmental parties. While the lower class, work and bring the country’s budget.

The basic social unit in the Philippines has traditionally been the family, often the extended family that includes grandparents and other relatives. In traditional homes, men are heads of households and are responsible for the financial welfare of the family. Women often work outside the home. Filipino women work in a variety of city jobs and own or run businesses. Many women have entered the professions of medicine, law, and teaching. The high status of women in the Philippines is indicated by the fact that the head of state for much of the 1980s was Corazon Aquino.

The Philippines is the only nation in Southeast Asia with a Christian majority population. (Islam and Buddhism are the dominant religions of the region.) About 83 percent of Filipinos are Roman Catholic. More than 5 percent belong to Protestant denominations brought to the islands by missionaries during the era of American rule. Muslims now make up about 4 percent of the population and they mainly live in the southern tip of the Philippines. Buddhists and other religions account for 2 percent of the population.

The Christians and Muslims often have problems and fights with each other. This dates back, when the Christians made their own terrorist groups called Ilagas, and the Muslims made their own terrorist group called the Barracudas.

Although literacy rates are high at 83%, there is an unequal distribution of wealth and poverty is widespread.

 

Defense:

The Philippines is capable of forming a strong army, however, fighting against groups such as Abu Sayyaf has weakened the Philippines dramatically. The Philippines created the DND (Department of National Defense), which is a defense department that handled threats and obligations made by other countries. The DND was first established in November 1, 1939, is managed by the SND (Secretary of National Defense). The SND is helped by the USFA (Undersecretary for Finance and Administration), USIC (Undersecretary for Internal Control), USJDA (Undersecretary for Joint Defense Assessment), and the USPPSC (Undersecretary for Programs, Planning and Special Concerns).

The DND is broken down in four branches. They are: the Office of Civil Defense (OCD), the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), National Defense College of the Philippines (NDCP), and Government Arsenal (GA). The Government Arsenal formulates plans and programs to achieve self-sufficiency in small arms, mortars and other weapons and guns. The Armed Forces of Philippines was established after World War II and is broken down into the Philippine Army (PA), Philippine Navy (PN) and Philippine Air Force (PAF). It protects the country from threats, maintains peace, and makes sure that laws are enforced.

The PAF’s mission is to conduct immediate and sustained air operation, aerial survey, and surveillance operations. The PN sails across the nation and makes sure that the island is secured and safe.

The DND has brought peace and helped lots of countries, especially Iraq. The DND sent troops to Iraq and provided security. The DND was also responsible for bringing the Filipino hostages out of Iraq.

Although having lots of these defense systems, the Philippines is still experiencing terrorism. However, with the help of the United States, terrorism may decrease in the future. The US provided helicopters, counterterrorism equipments, and also funded negotiations against Abu Sayyaf. Despite of terrorism in the country, the government is not experiencing any problems with its army.

In 2001 the armed forces of the Philippines was composed of an army of 67,000 members, a navy of 24,000, and an air force of 16,000, therefore military service is voluntary. The Philippines tries to make peace with most countries therefore it don’t really have any enemies. Its closest allies are United States of America, Netherlands Hong Kong, China, Singapore, and Malaysia.

In 1991, the Philippines asked the government of the United States to withdraw its troops completely. These forces went out in November 24, 1992. However, according to this source. There are few American troops in the Philippines to guide and train the Philippine army.

 

Economy:

The Philippines is still largely agricultural, with nearly two thirds of the labor force living in rural areas and half of them in farm-related work.

Agriculture plays an important role in Philippine’s economy since most of the fertile soil is located in many of its islands. Agriculture accounts about 15% of its GDP (gross domestic product). It produces lots of food, therefore uses the food to feed its entire population. Rice is the main crop grown in Philippines. However, bananas, mangos, oranges, papayas, sweet potatoes, sugar canes, coffee are all exported to lots of countries. Also, arable land accounts 40% of the total land area, where planting is wide spread in these areas.

Timber and manufactured wood products account for about 8 percent of the total value of Philippine exports. The annual timber cut amounts to more than 14 billion board feet. The yearly rate of deforestation during the first half of the 1980s was nearly one percent, about 222,400 acres.

Fish and other seafood’s are the principal sources of protein in the average Filipino's diet. The annual per capita consumption of seafood’s is about 70 pounds. About 80 percent of the total fish catch is consumed fresh. The rest is salted, dried, or smoked.

The Philippines is still one of the less developed countries. Manufacturing, therefore, accounts for a relatively small share of total employment-about 15 percent, including construction and mining. Nevertheless, manufactured goods today account for the major share of exports.

The Philippines is very rich in minerals such as copper and nickel. Manufacturing food and beverages also accounts Philippine’s GDP. Industries there produce food, chemicals, cement, clothing, petroleum products, wood products, cigars, and etc… In fact, industries account 31.9% of its GDP. Also, industrial production growth rate has risen up to 5%. Nondurable goods and textiles, processed food, tobacco products are manufactured in the Philippines.

The Philippines depends on foreign trade. The annual trade accounts nearly 50% of its GDP. Exports such as electric devices, clothing, chemicals, and furniture and food products are often traded with Japan 20.1%, US 18.2%, Netherlands 9%, Hong Kong 7.9%, China 6.7%, Singapore 6.6%, and Malaysia 5.2%.

The Philippines is considered as a developing nation, however the annual growth rate of the GDP is 5.9%, and its GDP is about $430.6 Billion in 2004.

The lack of unemployment and the rapid growth of the population are two factors that had affected its economy. The high price of oil is a major problem that destructs Philippine’s economy.

Following through on its program of economic reforms, the government will try to ensure continued growth and provide an environment for foreign investments.  The Philippines tends to spend much more on imports than exports and is trading partners with several countries?

According to the ADB (Asian Development Bank), the economy in Philippines is improving slightly between 2004 and 2005. The ADO (Asian Development Outlook) said that the economic growth in Philippines raised about 1.0% greater than last year. (2004: 4.5%, 2005: 5.5%). Encouraging the private consumption growth is the continued rapid expansion in remittances from the country's seven million overseas workers. Remittances increased by 6.3% to reach $7.6 billion in 2003, which account 7.5% of its GDP.

 

Views on World Problems:

The Philippines have strong relationships with the United States of America. In 1991, the Philippines asked the government of the United States to withdraw its troops completely. These forces went out in November 24, 1992.

To prove that the Philippines has strong relationships with the United States, when the September 11 2001 attacks happened in the United States, the Philippines helped to fight war on terrorism.

The Philippines also sent military troops and labor forces to Iraq. The Philippines troops had to leave, since lots of Filipinos were kept as hostages in Iraq.

The Philippines is one of the five founding members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), an economic common market that was formed on Aug. 8, 1967. The other founding members were Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. The Philippines provided lots of solutions to energy and tourism conflicts.

The Philippine participates in lots of international organizations such as APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.

The Philippines is an active member of the United Nations. The Philippines is currently in conflict with the Republic of China, Vietnam, and Malaysia over the Spratly, Scarborough Shoal, and Sabah. China had claimed that the Spratly islands is hers and will not give to Philippines since its has large deposits of oil, gas, and rich fishing grounds.

Although there are some human rights violations in the country, the government will try its best to minimize the violations. (Source: http://www.abc.net.au/ra/news/stories/s1378603.htm). Military forces have discovered that there had been some violations but the status is improving greatly. Raul Gonzales, Philippine justice secretary said that human rights violations are occurring in Philippines because of lack of government resources.

The Philippines provided lots of solutions for the current environment. As stated in source (http://www.naturalworldtours.co.uk/article/november61999d.htm), the Philippines and lots of countries such as the US and the UK showed great concerns for tackling environmental issues.

Economic progress in the Philippines has been hampered over the past two years by the worldwide economic slump. The dual impact of the SARS virus on the Asia Pacific region in 2003 shocked the citizens greatly. Although the Philippines was itself unscathed by SARS, many of its citizens work in Singapore and Hong Kong, and the inflow of remittances from Filipino workers overseas is a key contributor to GDP.

 

History:

The history of the Philippines could be described as a very giant historic book. First, the Spaniards came to the islands during the 16th Cenutury. Throughout its history, the country is fighiting for its democracy and tries to get its full indpedence.

Spaniards arrived in larger numbers late in the century, named the islands after King Philip II, and invested a colonial rule that lasted until 1898. Spain ruled the lands of Philippines for over 300 years. The USA took control for the first half of the 20th century. The United States of America refused to accept the notion of Philippine independence. The United States wanted to establish a military and commercial presence in the Far East. Thus, a Filipino war for independence resumed, now directed against the United States. It was one of the fiercest wars ever paid by the United States. More than 1 million Filipinos died in the fighting. Some estimates place the number as high as 3 million.

During their settlelment, the Americans accomplished more things than the Spanish. The Americans used its books to make the Philippines the most westernized nation in Asia. This education made the literacy rate in the Philippines very high. Also, the Americans granted Filipinos the right to free trade and encouraged foreign investment in the Philippines. By using this trade, industries and trade were established.

By 1907 a national assembly had been elected. The Nationalist party, led by Sergio Osmena and Manuel L. Quezon became the dominant political force in the islands. In 1916, the US congress passed a legislation promising the Philippines independence. In return, the Philippines had to establish a stable government.

In 1934 the United States Congress passed the Tydings-McDuffie Act, whereby the Philippines was to obtain independence after a ten-year interval of self-government. In 1935 the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established, and Quezon was elected its first president. He held office until his death in 1944 in the United States, since the Philippines had been occupied by Japan in early 1942.

In October 1944, the Allied forces defeated the Japanese and retook the islands. The United States established better trade relations with the Philippines in order to help regenerate the islands. They also gave the Philippines several hundred million dollars as rehabilitation and war damage aid.

When the United Nations was established in September 1945, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was listed as a charter member. The Commonwealth was granted full independence in 1946 and renamed the Republic of the Philippines.

The ruling Filipino was challenged after World War II by a Communist-led armed peasant movement, the Hukbalahap--whose members are commonly called Huks. The Huks had originally emerged as an anti-Japanese guerrilla army. It was not until 1954 that President Ramon Magsaysay succeeded in suppressing the Huk rebellion.

Magsaysay was an extremely popular president because of his attempts to bring the government closer to the citizens. He instituted some agricultural reforms and the establishment of courts to handle their grievances. Unfortunately, Magsaysay was not able to continue his reforms because he was killed in a plane crash in 1957. People in the Republic of Philippines call him as John Kennedy.

In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos won the elections. Marcos declared martial law on Sept. 21, 1972, claiming that it was the last defense against rising disorder. This law caused the corruption in Republic of the Philippines politics. A new constitution providing for a parliamentary system of government was approved and ratified in a nationwide referendum in 1973. Marcos assumed the office of prime minister. Incomes of workers steadily declined during the 1970s, and a general disappointment developed about martial law.

The United States of America provided the Philippines with military and financial aid. The USA DIDN’T want Philippines do be a communist country because the Soviet Union was destroyed during the 1990s. The USA also provided the military aid because the US wants military bases in the Philippines.

In January 1981 martial law was finally lifted, though Marcos continued his dictatorial rule. He won a virtually uncontested election for a new six-year term. The powerful Roman Catholic Church openly criticized Marcos and also said that the elections were fraud. Under the Marcos regime, the country made little progress toward democracy, and economic conditions worsened. In 1983 the assassination of Benigno Aquino sparked widespread rebellion.

In February 1986, Marcos was overthrown from the presidency, after the Roman Catholic Church knew that the elections were fraud. Corazon Aquinto won the elections in 1986. Under her term, the country’s economy was devastated. She pledged to recover the billions of dollars that she said Marcos and his family had embezzled from the treasury.

In 1992, Field Ramos was elected president. He made economic and political stability in Philippines. Under, Ramos, the economy continued to strengthen. Ramos made effort to reduce restrictions on business, break up monopolies, and encourage foreign investment in the Philippines. Ramos also made progress in talks with Muslim opposition groups. The last U.S military base was removed in 1992.

The country continued to face internal struggles as well. After more than 20 years of guerrilla warfare against the government, the MNLF agreed to a cease-fire in January 1994. Some smaller Muslim separatist groups continued to fight for the creation of an Islamic state on Mindanao, however. In April 1995 members of the militant Abu Sayyaf (Sword of the Father) slaughterd more than 65 people in the town of Ipil. In June 1996 the Philippine government and Muslim rebels reached an agreement to end the fighting. The MNLF would head a council to supervise an area of 14 provinces and nine cities on Mindanao and outlying islands.

In 1998, Joseph Estrada won the elections. Under his term, the politics of the Philippines were infected. By creating an anti-corruption program, Macapagal was able to minimize the corruption of politics.

On June 30 June 2004, Gloria Arroyo was installed as president for a six-year term, winning the election.

 

 

 

Policy Statements:

Issue: Ethiopia and Eritrea

The war started from 30 years ago. Nearly 100,000 people died because of the civil war between May 1998-June 2000, one million people were exiled and displaced, and hundreds of millions of dollars were used for military weapons. People who were displaced are so poor, and government assistance so meager, that many, at least of the Ethiopians, may starve this year. During the 1970s, the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF) provided training and assistance to its counterpart from Tigray, in northern Ethiopia. The Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), in turn, provided the EPLF with fighters at critical moments in the conflict. In 1974, the Soviet Union provided $11 billion in arms to Ethiopia. In 1997, Eritrea issued its own currency, and this disordered trade with Ethiopia. A border commission between the two countries, established in November 1997, however, these two countries met only once and had made no progress before the conflict became bigger. Eritrea has been receiving at least $300 million a year for its war effort from its Diaspora. Recently the United Nations threatened sanctions on both Ethiopia and Eritrea if they use any military force against each other. Both governments rapidly recruited and rearmed, for example Ethiopia doubled the size of its army to 200,000. The UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) has already announced that it is pulling troops from 18 of 40 border posts and warns that it is now unable to properly monitor the border. If the UN does pull out completely, the war could restart. According to the United Nations, $185,993,300 was spent for peacekeeping troops between the two countries. In September 13, 2005 the Security Council adopted Resolution 1622, which calls Ethiopia and Eritrea to resolve peacefully their border dispute. Eritrea committed frequent and serious violations of international law in its treatment of Ethiopian civilians in Eritrea during and following the two-year armed conflict initiated by Eritrea against Ethiopia.

The Republic of Philippines position regarding to Ethiopia- Eritrea crisis is neutral. The Republic of Philippines, however, wants a peaceful agreement between these two countries. The Republic of Philippines emphasizes that both Ethiopia and Eritrea need medical and food aid. The Republic of Philippines thinks that providing financial aid would not solve the problem because it this aid was provided to both countries, they will both use that money to buy weapons and explosives. The Republic of Philippines will stand strongly with the Security Council decision for solving this crisis. The Republic of Philippines will support any decision made by the SC if that decision will be benefit to two sides.

 

 

 

Resolution:


Defining, a border according to bartleby.com, is a line or frontier area separating political divisions or geographic regions,

Keeping in Mind that according to globalissues.org, 100,000 people died between May 1998-June 2000 because of a minor dispute, and nearly $1 million were lost every day due to the war,

Bearing in Mind that according to resolution 1622, both Ethiopia and Eritrea have to refrain from any action, which may lead to an escalation of the tension,

Noting that according to globalissues.org, the major reason for this conflict is that Ethiopia doesn’t have a border along the Red Sea and its economy relies on trade goods to other countries,

Taking into consideration that according to globalissues.org, both Ethiopia and Eritrea allowed a peace plan made the OAU (Organization for African Unity),

Taking Into Account that the Eritrean invasion to Ethiopia in May 12, 1998, violated the UN charter,

Noting further that according to bbc.com, 750,000 refugees in Eritrea fled their homes,

Further Noting that according to alertnet.org, both Ethiopia and Eritrea traded blame for the rising tensions along their shared border on Friday, 25/11/2005,

Deeply concerned according to bbc.com, both governments rapidly recruited and rearmed, Ethiopia doubled the size of its army to 200,000,

Referring to cnn.com, U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan, both Ethiopia and Eritrea are making some progress after signing a treaty in 2000, but both countries have a long way to go,

Keeping in Mind, according to wikipedia.org, in May 2000, Ethiopia occupied about a quarter of Eritrea's territory, displacing 650,000 people and destroyed its infrastructure,

Taking Into Account, according to wikipedia.org, both Ethiopia and Eritrea signed the Algiers Agreement in 2000, and its purpose was to end terminate hostilities permanently and agree to refrain from the threat or use of force, and to release and repatriate all prisoners of war,

Taking into consideration that according to alternet.org, in September 2005, Eritrea warned that it might re-start its war with Ethiopia if the United Nations fails to resolve the dispute between the two countries,

Bearing in Mind that according to alternet.org, in October 2005, Eritrea banned U.N. helicopter flights in the border zone, these flights were used to carry supplies and peacekeepers, and to monitor the area,

Clause:

1. Resolves the formation of a United Nations Organization for Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNOEE) that acts as a sub-organization of UNMEE (United Nation Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea), which will:
A. Consist of:
i) All African members and the five permanent SC members,
ii) 1,000 peace keeping troops, which will monitor and report activities to the SC,
iii) 35 doctors who are expert in medical fields will provide medical aid to Ethiopian and Eritrean such as bandages, first aid, and etc, these doctors will be provided by the WHO (World Health Organization), and the medical aid will be distributed with the help of the UN Peacekeeping troops, and these 35 doctors will be recommended by state parties,
B. Have a headquarter in Switzerland, Geneva,
C. Have semiannual meetings every year, which will discuss economic, medical, and defense issues in both sides, and if an emergency happens, a conference will be held immediately,
D. Train Ethiopian and Eritrean nurses and doctors to perform operation and medical care for people who have serious health deteriorations during the war, these doctors will be trained in medical programs provided by the WHO (World Health Organization),
E. Try to increase trade relations between African members and Ethiopia and Eritrea,
F. Provide incentives to countries who are helping the UNOEE, which will include:
i) Economic aid, humanitarian aids and medical aid with the help of other UN organizations,
ii) Reducing economic sanctions,
G. Study the defense and health concerns in Ethiopia and Eritrea by:
i) Collecting annual data by using technologies such as computers and surveys on both sides and then the UNOEE will send the data to the UN explaining the current situation,
H. Provide and will ensure security on both sides by using metal detectors and satellites in both regions to ensure the safety of civilians, the UNOEE will ask developed countries such as the US and Russia to donate these satellites,
I. Establish a list of violations that is occurring in Ethiopia and Eritrea, which will be sent to the SC (Security Council),
J. Arrange more military armies along the borders of Ethiopia and Eritrea, and the number of armies will be decided by the UN, these military armies will monitor the borders since lots of violations are occurring,
K. Impose sanctions to Ethiopia and Eritrea if more violations are occurred,
L. Create public awareness of the situation between Ethiopia and Eritrea through media such as commercials, advertisements, posters, flyers,
M. Establish refugee camps for displaced people in Ethiopia and Eritrea, which will:
i) Be located when the clause passes,
ii) Help displaced people medically and mentally;

 

 

 

Opening Speech:


Honorable chair fellow delegates,

" Kapayapaan sa lahat"(Peace to you all)

The land in which peace and joy are widely spread among the people, the land of paradise, ladies and gentlemen, the land is called the Republic of Philippines. The Republic of Philippines welcomes you all to this Security Council session.

Delegates, over the past 30 years, Ethiopia and Eritrea have fought with each other. Nearly 100,000 people died in the civil war. Yes delegates innocent lives have been lost. Over the past three decades, both countries never experienced true security, and the conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea have worsened.

The Republic of Philippines, however, wants a peaceful agreement between these two countries. The Republic of Philippines emphasizes that both Ethiopia and Eritrea need medical and food aid. The Republic of Philippines thinks that providing financial aid by itself would not solve the problem because it this aid was provided to both countries, they would both use that money to buy weapons and explosives. The Republic of Philippines refuses to see more money go to into the air, as more people are dieing from the money. If the United Nations monitors the movement of the financial aid, then providing it may minimize the tension.

The Republic of Philippine thinks that there are other alternative sources to solve this problem rather than depending on money. Sending UN peacekeeping troops is a great solution that may minimize the tension between Ethiopia and Eritrea. The Republic of Philippines will support any decision made by the SC if that decision will be benefit to two sides. Remember one thing, we are here to solve problems not to make them.

Thank You,

 

 

 

Statement of the Delegate


During the AAG event, I represented the delegate of The Republic of Philippines in forum 3. Delegates in Forum 3 debated the Ethiopia and Eritrea issue. This forum was unusual because delegates were providing useless solutions. One of the clauses states that the UK troops will enter the US and will have full access to Disneyland. Also, these troops will enter a nightclub and have some French fries. The strongest delegate (US) surrendered and declared that she will hand her power to the delegate of UK. Although this forum was a mess, it was fun. Truly this event was a one life experience, therefore I’m proud for attending that event.