Organization: The Red Cross
Event: AAGIAC 2005
Student: Yousef Khalaf
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2005-2006 Team page
The map shows delegations, sub-delegations, assistance and protection centers, and operations around the world.
The Red Cross is funded by countries that have Red Cross delegations in them, governments that were present in the Geneva Convention, supranational organizations like the European Commission, and public and private sources. All the funding that the Red Cross receives is completely voluntary. The Red Cross does not wait for the funds before it responds to urgent situations. It depends on the countries or organizations that give the Red Cross money to fund them as soon as possible.
At the end of the year, the Red Cross makes two budget reports, one for the headquarters and the other for the field, to cover the following year. Operational information and statistical and financial tables are gathered in an annual report. The annual report contains all funds that the Red Cross has received during the year and shows how the money has been used and in what aspects.
The Red Cross was created in 1863 by five Swiss citizens that had the idea of treating the sick and wounded during combat. The year after that the first Geneva Convention was held and the idea of the Red Cross was shared by 12 countries. Two more Geneva conventions were held in 1929 and 1949. In 1965 the fundamental principles of the Red Cross were published and they were: humanity, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, universality, and impartiality. In 1977, there were two additional protocols to the Geneva Convention that was held in 1949 and they are: protection of victims of international conflicts and the protection of victims of non-international conflicts. In 1986, there was a statute of the Red Cross and Red Crescent movements. In 1989 there was an agreement between the International Committee of the Red Cross and the League of the Red Cross. Since then the Red Cross has helped many people in the world. Mainly, The people that were affected by the Ethiopian and Eritrean border dispute in 1998, the victims of Hurricane Katrina, the Iraqi conflict, Haiti, Liberia, Afghanistan, Yemen, Nepal, and Russia all in 2005.
The Red Crossís friends are all the countries that have donated to the projects of the Red Cross and that have supported it in any ways. The Red Cross does not have any enemies because it is an organization that helps all countries and that is neutral and independent at all times. The Red Cross can be found in many countries like the USA, UK, Kuwait, Ethiopia, Eritrea, France, and many more countries. The Red Cross goes to all the countries that have a conflict and the people are affected by it.
The Red Cross has many projects currently. The Most recent project that the Red Cross has been active in is the problem in Israel which includes the occupied autonomous territories. The Red Cross visited many prisons in Israel and in Palestine to see the treatment and living conditions. The Red Crossís family visit program allowed families from Gaza, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights to visit relatives that were held in Israeli prisons. In October 2,400 people went to 23 Israeli prisons were over 900 relatives were held. Also, the Red Cross started a program were relatives can send messages to the detainees in the prisons through the Red Cross. During the month of October, the Red Cross gave 7 families that had their houses destroyed relief kits. In Hebron the Red Cross distributed food parcels to around 2,470 families and more than 560 food parcels were distributed to vulnerable families in Gaza and the West Bank. The Red Cross wants to continue to restore family links and repair houses for the people. They also want to continue to distribute food to people that need it.
Another recent project that the Red Cross is involved in is the project in Iraq. The Red Cross is there to monitor the prisons and treatment of the detainees in Iraq. It also responds to the humanitarian needs of the people that have been affected by the violence. The Red Cross visited over 8,800 detainees during 33 visits to prisons all over Iraq. People that were visited by the Red Cross in prison were able to contact with their relatives in Iraq or abroad through the Red Cross. More than 4,420 messages were given to detainees from their relatives and 3,400 messages were collected from detainees to give to their families. There was a lot of violence in Tal-Afar which resulted in thousands of people fleeing their houses. The Red Cross distributed 120,000 liters of water per day to 450 families. The Red Cross provided the people with 5,000 food parcels, 1,000 jerry cans and buckets, 100 tents, 600 stoves, and 600 hygiene kits. Al-Qaim there are around 2,000 families that deserted their houses because of military operations. Around 600 families settled in a deserted area far west of the country. The Red Cross delivered 180,000 liters of fresh water per day to these displaced families. The Red Cross also gave out relief items to the families. In Erbil, the Red Cross donated medical and surgical materials to the local emergency hospital right after the bombing on May 4th. The donated material consisted of dressing material and fluids and covers the needs of 100 patients. The Red Cross constructed the Al-Yarmouk Hospital in Baghdad that covers the need of 2.5 million people. The Red Cross also started the rehabilitation of the Tikirit Hospital in Salah El-Deen which covers the need of 1.5 million people. The Red Cross finalized a water supply project to provide 55,000 people in eastern Baghdad with drinking water. Finally, the Red Cross supervises seven centers that care for the physically disabled, and they are located in Baghdad, Hilla, Mossul, Najaf, and Basra. The centers make artificial limbs. Like before, the Red Cross wants to continue to restore family links. Also, they want to continue to distribute fresh water to people that do not have access to it. Finally, the Red Cross wants to bring in more medical material to local hospitals in Iraq so that the people that have been affected by military operations can be treated.
1. The Border Dispute between Eritrea and Ethiopia:
Fighting between Eritrea and Ethiopia started in May 1998 because of border dispute. The Secretary General immediately contacted the leaders of the countries so that they can resolve the issue peacefully and offer assistance. In the Organization of African Unity (OAU) summit in July 1999, Eritrea agreed to redeploy its forces outside the territories they occupied after May 1998 and Ethiopia agreed to redeploy its forces from places it has occupied after 6 of February that were not under Ethiopian rule before May 1998. The document also states the creation of a neutral commission to determine the areas were the two sides should redeploy. It calls for the demilitarization and delimitation of the entire common border between the two countries. Eritrea agreed to the document; however, Ethiopia wanted the document to be more clear and specific. The SC had a special mission which included 7 nations: France, Netherlands, UK, USA, Mali, Namibia, and Tunisia. The missionís goal was to find peaceful ways to solve the problem without new fights. Despite all efforts, fights start again on 12 of May 2000. Resolution 1397 of the SC states the new violence had a humanitarian problem with the population of both countries. On May 17, 2000 the SC adopted resolution 1298 that prevented all states to sell or supply Eritrea and Ethiopia with weapons, ammunition, vehicles, and spare parts. As well as technical aid and the training related to manufacture or use of small arms. As of March 200 over 350,000 in Ethiopia and 370,000 in Eritrea have been affected by the war. In 31 March, 2000, the Secretary General appointed Ms. Catherine Bertini as executive director of the World Food Program. In 18 June, 2000 talks were held between the two countries and they signed on the agreement of cessation of hostilities. On 31 June, 2000 the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) was established. Recently, Ethiopia has been strengthening its forces on the border with Eritrea. There have been reports of movement on both sides of the Eritrean and Ethiopian border.
The Red Cross has opened a delegation in Eritrea in 1998 because of the start of the war. The Red Crossís goal was to help and protect people that were affected by the war. This involves restoring family links, distributing mainly non-food supplies, rehabilitating water and health facilities, and strengthening the Eritrean Red Cross. It has 80 staff members there. The Red Cross has been in Ethiopia since 1977. It has responded to the needs of the population during the conflict with Eritrea. It worked to improve water and sanitation systems and to strengthen the Ethiopian Red Cross. The Red Cross has 472 staff members there. Regarding the goal of restoring family links, the Red Cross has restored 12 families so far. To better restore the links the Red Cross wants to set up a building were all the families that have lost a member and cannot find them will go there and all the people that have lost their families will go there and then will re-unit. The Red Cross wants to start a water distributing project that will offer drinking water to all affected people. This project will set up one water fountain in 50 meter distance. Also, the Red Cross wants to set up buildings where Ethiopians in Eritrea can be protected until they are transported back to their country.
The Red Cross wants to continue to fix houses that have been ruined by the fights so that the people can have a place to sleep and live. Finally, the Red Cross wants to bring in more doctors, from countries that are willing to provide them, and assign to hospitals so that they can treat sick and wounded people.
1. Resolves the creation of an organization that is called the Organization of Peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea (OPEE) that will: A. Hold meetings between the two leaders of Ethiopia and Eritrea to decide on a treaty that will allow both countries to redeploy their forces in a designated are; B. The organization will work to form a treaty that both countries can agree on; C. Have a neutral third party to attend the meeting between the two countries to serve as a witness and help out in any way possible;
2. Further Resolves that both countries meet and have their borders drawn again so that the current disputes can end;
3. Calls upon the assembling of building where people of Ethiopian origin in Eritrea and people of Eritrean origin in Ethiopia can stay there and the building will be protected so that the people inside can enjoy their right of protection by the third and fourth Geneva Convention;
4. Urges that both countries seize their fighting and agree on a cease fire agreement so that they can work out the problem peacefully and without violence;
The crisis that is currently going on between Eritrea and Ethiopia is a major crisis and that is why we are all here in the SC. The situation at hand is not only affecting the people of both countries, it is also greatly hurting both countryís economy. The Red Cross has greatly contributed to the affected people of the conflict.
However, the Red Cross still wishes to help the people. The Red Cross would like to start a water distribution program to all the affected people because there is a shortage of fresh water. Also, the Red Cross wishes to set up buildings where people of Ethiopian origin in Eritrea and vise versa, can stay and be protected and so they can enjoy their right of protection by the third and fourth Geneva Conventions. Finally, the Red Cross wishes to rehabilitate houses that have been damaged by the conflict so that people can have a place to live in.