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The Russian Federation is one of the main superpowers in the world in all fields. Since the communism in Russia in 1991 fell and Russia became free, the country is trying to reform its strengths. The official name of the country is Rossiyskaya Federatsiya in Russian which means in English The Russian Federation, and its capital is Moscow. From its name its government is a federation, and the Russian constitution that is used now was used since December 1993. The legal system in Rosya is based on the civil law system, and judicial review of legislative acts.
There are three main branches in the Russian government the judicial, executive, and legislative branches. First the legislative branch head by the chief of state Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN, and then comes the prime minister also called premier Mikhail Yefimovich FRADKOV. However there are many deputy premiers that also represent the executive branch. Second the legislative branch which consists of bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of the Federation Council or Soviet Federatsii, and the and the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma( who provide drafts concerning political, social, and economic issues to the president, who makes the final decision concerning any issue). Last but not least , the judicial branch which consists of Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, and Superior Court of Arbitration, and the judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president.
There are many political parties in Russia and these parties are Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF, Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR, Motherland Bloc Rodina, People's Party, Union of Right Forces or SPS, and some others that are not as active as the others listed.
Russiaís president is elected every four years, and Russia is politically unstable lately. some of the main reasons include that they just were liberated before 15 years, low wages(huge difference between classes of people), and mainly terrorism.
The power that the Russian president has today is stronger than the parliament system or the (Duma). In democratic countries this should be vise versa, but it isnít thus the US is against it.
Russia survived many wars just because of its size. Russiaís location and size are important, because it makes it hard for foreign countries to invade Russia. Another important thing about its size is that itís a country between Europe and Asia, thus trade between Russia and its neighbors would be more.
Russia is one of the biggest countries in the world, and some consider the biggest. Russia is located in Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean. Its total are is 17,075,200 sq. km which consists of 16,995,800 sq. km of land, and 79,400 sq. km of water. Its size is nearly 1.8 times the size of USA thus it is counted one of the huge countries. Because of its huge size Russia borders many countries and these countries are Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 294 km, Finland 1,340 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,485 km, Norway 196 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Ukraine 1,576 km. The Russian Land boundaries are 20,017 km.
Russia has the tallest peak in Europe which is Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak. Despite the size of Russia, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates. The climate in Russia ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia, and the winter in Russia begins from the Black sea to Siberian dessert (one of the biggest desserts in the world). However the climate in Russia is mainly cold all over the year. The lowest point in Russia is the Caspian Sea.
Russia is one of the richest nations when it comes to natural resources, were it has a large variety of natural resources. Russiaís natural resources wide include: major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, and timber. Russiaís richness in oil makes it have a strong economy and depends on it a lot. This is the reason that the Russian government tries to always affect on the market for oil by trying to make them increase the prices.
The Russian oil is mainly found in the Siberian with huge companies and refineries located there. Another resource is coal which it is the biggest country that contains coal, but it doesnít benefit from it a lot, because its government doesnít know how to use it. Because of its richness in natural resources, it depends a lot on exporting them and getting money from them. Russia is not considered an underdeveloped country, but its economy says so right now. Comparing Russiaís economy to the USA, you notice the huge difference Russiaís main income is from natural resources. An undeveloped nation is marked as exporting raw material and importing other thing like medicine and food.
Russia hasnít got any agricultural resources worth noticing since it imports many of its agricultural resources. It has 7.3% of arable land and 0.11% permanent crops and 92.56% for other usage of land( which include oil refineries and companies). The irrigated land in Russia is approximately 46630 sq. km. The main reason why Russia doesnít depend on agricultural resources is that it does not have the knowledge in those fields and that the soil is bad for agriculture in Russia. Another factor that affected Russia's failure in the different fields of agriculture, is that after the USSR fell it left Ukraine which is a country that has a lot of agricultural land.
Russia was and still is one of the superpowers in the world , and mostly in the military equipment and machinery it had. The Russian is mainly is known for its discipline and its strength, that have changed since the breakdown of the Soviet Union. However, the militants in the Russian army are not in anyway strong anymore, since they lack the organization and discipline the USSR used to show. The Russian army consists of 5 branches which are Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, and Strategic Rocket Forces, and Space Troops. And the Russian secret service is mainly based on the Russian intelligence agency (FSB). The secret service is the strongest force in Russia were it gathers the foreign and domestic intelligence.
The power that Russia poses and mainly makes it a superpower is the nukes that they posses. The neighbors of Russia are threatened by this possession of nukes and these nukes are mainly put the Russian marine ships. Russia is a main ally with USís fighting terrorism battle were it showed it support in coordinating with the US FBI. In Russia a boy is able to join the army when he is 18 years old, and the military manpower in Russia is 35,247,049.
Russiaís main need in defense at the moment is to strengthen its personal and organize its troops. The troops should be trained, paid and equipped more. Since the troops are facing many problems. Like the rebels from Chechnya and terrorists. The weakest SC veto country is Russia right now, however at the time of the USSR Russia was shared the strength with the USA.
The Russian economy has been in very big problems since the fall of the USSR, it has been facing increased rate of unemployment. The government tried to recover from the problems, however it was hard and not easy to do that to a country that was just liberated. The Russian currency is the Russian ruble (RUR), which is equivalent to 28.814 rubles per US dollar.
Russia depends on many different exports, and these are mainly natural resources. Russia exports petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures. And its exports partners are Netherlands 9.1%, Germany 8%, Ukraine 6.4%, Italy 6.2%, China 6%, US 5%, Switzerland 4.7%, Turkey 4.3%. A main part of the Russian economy are exports.
Another part of the Russian economy is imports, and Russia imports many things and mainly agricultural resources. Russiaís imports are machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, sugar, semifinished metal products. Russiaís imports are mainly for civilian use not government use. Russiaís import partners are Germany 15.3%, Ukraine 8.8%, China 6.9%, Japan 5.7%, Kazakhstan 5%, US 4.6%, Italy 4.6%, France 4.4% . Imports in Russia are important and are lot in Russia now, however imports were not that much during the USSR since they didnít have the partners listed above.
One of the main factors that helped Russia in rebuilding the country was getting money from other countries. And this money is now counted as debts against Russia which total to nearly 170 billion dollars. The Russian economy has suffered a lot in the last 10 years were its unemployment rate reached 10%, strategies should be put together to solve this problem which could devastate Russia.
Russia has one of the oldest cultures in the world, and it has many ethnic groups and many different religions. The ethnic groups in Russia are Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1%. There are not any problems between the ethnic groups in Russia, however sometimes there are some problems between these ethnic groups. However, the problems occur when we consider religion, the Chechnya vs. Russia problem.
The main religions in Russia are Russian orthodox, Muslims, and some other religions that are consider as very low minorities. The main language in Russia is Russian, however there are some other minority languages.
The rate of Muslims in Russia is increasing, and decreasing in the Chechnya province. Russia believes that Chechnya is part of Russia, however Muslim rebels believe that Chechnya should be independent.
To conclude Russia has some problems between its different cultures, however the main problem is between the provinces and regions including the tensions between Chechnya and the Russian government. People die in Chechnya everyday just because of religion.
View on World problems:-
Russia in the latest years has become one of the most democratic countries in the world, and thus it has a new change in view and new prospective. One of the main issues that face Russia today is global terrorism, and it unites the US and UK to fight theses forces. Russia has taken a non-tolerance policy towards terrorists, and by this it adopted a US policy. The policies of both countries toward terrorism were results of the experience they had with terrorism. One of the main policies Russia adopted was to strengthen its army and become more strict in giving visas to foreigners. Russia has became an ally to the US in the latest years, mainly in the war on terror issue.
The stand that Russia took against the war on Iraq, was almost completely due to the economy of Russia. The main reason is that Russia first had oil companies in Iraq that would mainly be destroyed if a war happened, and another factor was that Russia has loaned Iraq money thus it knew a war would disable the Iraqiís to pay it money. Russia believes that Iran shouldnít posses WOMD, and North Korea too. However it opposes the US in many issues like Kosovo and Chechnya. Russia is against the USA since it was and is harassing it what Russia thinks its her property and province.
Russia is part of these organizations APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BSEC, CBSS, CE, CERN (observer), CIS, EAPC, EBRD, G- 8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMISET, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer), and ZC.
Russia is a very active member in the SC, since it posses and has the veto power. Russia vetoed many resolutions in the SC that were submitted by the US mainly on the issues of Chechnya and Kosovo. One of the main organizations that Russia became part of is NATO-Russia Council, and the evidence of their co-operation has been the joint commitment to promoting peace and stability in the Balkans. Close cooperation between NATO and Russia in the Balkans is very important in increasing relations and building trust between the Russian and Allied militaries, in all the fields from ground force to high commanders.
Russia is known to have bad US relations since it was formed, and it still doesnít and in many issues but one. Russia supports the USA in the war against terrorism since its interest is to do so. One of the main issue that Russians are against the Americans in is Kosovo, were Russia said it supports the Serbs and the Americans said they want to bomb the Serbs.
Russiaís relations with the EU are strong since it contributed a lot to Europe and is an active member of EU. Its main European ally is France, and its main European enemy is Germany. However, relationship with Germany improved in the last years, since both countries are considered democratic. Another thing that makes its EU relations a bit weaker is the EUís movement today along the borders.
The main events that highlighted Russian history were mainly the development of the USSR and its deployment. The Soviet Union in Russia was found and was developed on December 1922, by the leaders of the Russian communist party. The USSR or soviet union included at that time 4 countries which were the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, Belarusian SSR, and the Transcaucasian SFSR. The first constitution for the USSR was submitted at 1924 adopted a federal system. The development of a communist system that was dealt by the Politburo from Moscow, was the beginning of the regime.
Banks, railroads, and shipping were nationalized in the USSR at that time, which made strong opposition developing. Many of the opposition were peasants because they did not receive the cash for products and did not want their revenue to be given to the government, thus tensions begin to rise. Thatís when Lenin made a New Economic Policy (NEP) which was met with a good impression from the peasants. Peasants liked the NEP, because they were freed from wholesales levels of grains and allowed to sell the surplus they produce in open market. The NEP was beneficial for the economy itself, however the opposition was increasing from within the party itself.
The social effects of communism was that many rules changed in the USSR. First, to divorce women you would not need any court procedure. Second, the law of abortion passed, were it was legal for a girl to seek abortion. This increased the market for girls in Russia.
When Lenin died the new leader that took his shoes was Joseph Stalin, and there were many internal struggles for power within the party. One of the major things that Stalin achieved was increasing the economy by industrialization, and Stalin had control over the Russian society. The next major event that highlighted the history of humanity was World war 2 which Russia played a major role in.
World war 2 was triggered by Germany since it was the first to cross the border in 1941 were it threatened to take over Stalin grad and Moscow. The war then began thousands of innocent people were dying, and nobody could anything. The war was one-sided for Germany at first however then the Soviets got everything that Germany took over and by 1944 everything was back to the USSR. This war yet staged another victory for the strongest power of the world at that time, and showed how weak were the Nazis.
The Cold war one of the most important wars in the history also featured the USSR. The reason of the war that the US president and Stalin could not reach a decision for the future of Eastern Europe. The main two results of the cold war were that the World was being separated into a side that allies Russia and a side that allies the USA. The second result was that small countries had there way to becoming bigger countries, for example some began WOMD programs.
The Soviet Union became history at 1991 went it fell in Russia, and Russia became the Russian Federation. Since then Russia tried to become democratic country, and it was helped by many other nations like the US. However, after the Soviet Union fell Russia had a weaker economy, army, and government. It will take time but will it be a superpower again.
Russia is now considered a democratic country, but does it have a lot of democracy. The democracy in Russia is modeled by having the right to vote for a president or parts of the parliament, but there is a lot of corruption going on in Russian government and army(mainly). So in the eyes of the nations it is democratic, but we never know what lies beneath(including corruption, torturers, and not a lot of freedom of speech)
Issue Ethiopian Eritrean conflict
The Eritrean and Ethiopian conflict goes back in time from the days of them becoming Italian colonies. The conflict is based on a group of contested territories between the borders of both countries, mainly over the town of Badme. Many wars had happened between both sides and lead to the death of tens of thousands of people. The UN intervened in making a UN mission to solve the problem called United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), but isnít effective and failed since it didnít get enough help. A commission also was formed to solve the issue in the conference in Algiers and it also failed since it didnít give a decisive decision on who should be the main country that has the town. Thus both countries didnít believe in the commission and both didnít implement any of its decisions.
Russia is affected a lot by the conflict and by the trade ban that the UN imposed in these two countries. The reason relies that both countries depend on much of Russiaís sale of weapons. However, Russia would support having a peace treaty and always supported that to happen between both countries. On the other hand, it condemned along with Ukraine the trade ban, because it is bad for both countries since they sell weapons for both sides. Russia stands neutral to who should have the town of badme and shown its support to any peace deal by trying to persuade both sides to sign it. Russia urges all countries and the UN to act and try to help in this issue and remove the trade barrier since itís a way to bring in necessities in both countries.
Defining a conflict as "a state of open, often prolonged fighting; a battle or war, according to www.dictionary.com,
Defining a border as the line or frontier area separating political divisions or geographic regions; a boundary according to www.dictionary.com
Recalling that, according to www.BBC.co.uk, Eritrea was part of Ethiopia FROM 1962 to 1993, any fight at that time was considered a problem in Ethiopia, but in 1993 Eritrea became a state of its own without Ethiopian intervention in its government,
Noting with regret that these two neighbors began there conflict when they fought over a small town with a small population called Badme, which was located between both countries,
Recalling that, according to www.BBC.co.uk," Both countries promised the UN that they would accept whatever decision was reached and there was no right of appeal,
Aware of the border between Ethiopia and Eritrea is approximately 900 km long, and contains some of the driest, hottest and most hostile territory in the world. Much of it is defined by rivers, according to www.cnn.com
Bearing in mind at the OAU summit in Algiers in July 1999, the two parties accepted a document called "the Modalities for the Implementation of the OAU Framework,"
Having heard Eritrea committed itself to "redeploy its forces outside the territories they occupied after 6 May 1998,"
Keeping in mind Ethiopia committed itself to "redeploy, thereafter, its forces from positions taken after 6 February and which were not under Ethiopian administration before 6 May 1998.", according to http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/unmee/index.html
Reaffirming that On 31 June, the Security Council, by its resolution 1312 (2000), decided to establish the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) consisting of up to 100 military observers and the necessary civilian support staff in anticipation of a peacekeeping operation subject to future authorization, according to http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/unmee/index.html
Emphsazing that in 12 December 2000 in Algiers of a comprehensive Peace Agreement between Ethiopia and Eritrea, signing the 12 December Peace Agreement, the parties have undertaken to "permanently terminate military hostilities between themselves" and to refrain from the threat or use of force against each other, according to http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/unmee/index.html
Noting that a commission was formed for peace and finding whoís land is Badme by the two countries as part of the Algiers peace settlement signed by both parties in 2000, however no results happened and nothing was implemented, according to http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/unmee/index.html
1-Demands that a conference BE HELD between Ethiopia, Eritrea, Switzerland(observer), Egypt(observer), and a representative of the World Bank and the IMF as observers, and the SC members which will:- A. Create a peace treaty between Ethiopia and Eritrea and the UN nations immediately this treaty will include:- I. That Ethiopia and Eritrea will not attack each other in any military ways, and if an attack then the attacking side will:- 1. suffer economic sanctions, 2. suffer trade embargoes, 3. face cutting the aid to these countries from the UN, 4. leaders of the countries will face ICJ trial, II. The creation of UN temporary headquarters to report anything that each governments want to inform the UN of, III. Continue the work of the UN IV. Opening a fund for both nations if they donít attack each other including donations and dropping some economic sanction on these countries, V. Training Ethiopian and Eritrean students in developed and developing countries, VI. Incentives for countries to sign this treaty which will include:- 1. economic aid and encouraging economic projects at both countries, which will decrease unemployment, 2. dropping some economic sanctions, 3. setting up a UN headquarters in both regions so both regions will have active tourism, 4. providing humanitarian aid and medical aid with the help of other UN organizations, 5. opening a fund that will collect donation from all NGOs(if they want) and countries, VI. Be held in the Badme province, for peaceful reasons, preparations will take place immediately as this resolution passes, VII. Have goals of:- 1. increasing the ties between both countries economically by increasing trade between both countries, 2. creating public understanding of the situation to seek support and making both countries more closer by:- 3. making a yearly marathon that will take place in Badme which all participants will receive prices for attending to; 4. showing how the effects of one person could lead to a massacre; C. Schoolís will drop from its curriculum any thing that refers to the fight upon provinces being part of Ethiopia or Eritrea, D. Trying to help the countryís in any fields needed by contacting the UN and the UN will arrange for it in any ways needed,
Honorable chair, fellow delegates,
Russia stands today as democratic nations that faces many problems that were caused by many different parties that not only affected Russia but all the world. Our world today is the world were there is insecurity in any spot on earth, we face many important issues, countries facing each other just for a small peace of land. As we always stand with peace Russia stands today encouraging all countries to help solve the Ethiopian and Eritrean conflict.
We hope we could get the most of this meeting and request that the UN does some action. We wish that countries like us stand firm and help in anyway to help these countries as they are part of the poor countries in the world.