Country: the United States of America

AAGIAC 2005

Student: Abdulaziz Al-Bahar



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The American National Anthem



The Star Spangled Banner

Oh, say! can you see by the dawn's early light
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming;
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there:
Oh, say! does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In fully glory reflected now shines in the stream:
'Tis the star-spangled banner! Oh, long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion
A home and a country should leave us no more?
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution!
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

Oh, thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved home and the war's desolation!
Blest with victory and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: "In God is our trust":
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.


The United States of America




The United States: Country Profile

 

Political Structure

The United States of America is a Federal Republic, and proves that this superior democratic system is an infallible way of regulating a nation due to the innate system of checks and balances, where no single branch has complete power over the other. The government’s branches are: the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch.

The executive branch is subdivided into further entities, namely the President – currently George W. Bush - and his cabinet. The President is elected through the Electoral College, even if he loses the popular vote, such as what happened in the election of 2000. The legislative branch encompasses the bicameral, meaning two chambers, congress. The congress is made up of an upper body, the Senate, and a lower body, the House of Representatives. Congressmen and representatives are chosen by the individual states through a popular vote. Each state has two congressmen, and its representatives are apportioned based on the population of the state. The judicial branch is consists of the Supreme Court and district courts of the 50 states. The President elects the Supreme Court judges. An example of the checks and balances system is that if the President proposes a law, the Congress can reject it if there isn’t a two-thirds majority in the vote. The President, likewise, has the ability to reject a law that Congress passes. The powers of each branch are dictated to them by the US Constitution.

States must obey both laws passed by state legislatures and by the US Congress. There is a two-party system in the United States currently, with the Democratic and Republican parties. Other parties have existed, such as environmentalist groups, but their effect on the elections is extremely insignificant.

 

Geography

The United States shows the world that it is not only size that distinguishes a country. Although the US is the world’s 3rd largest country, in both size and population, amassing at around 9,631,418 square kilometers and 297,788,060 individuals, a closer look would show the further benefits of such an area. The US’s area is utilized greatly for many purposes from farming to industrial areas to transportation such as trains.

In comparison, other countries that have this much area such as Sudan are mostly deserts and barren land. It is located in North America, bordering Canada from the north and Mexico from the south. Its aquatic boundaries are mainly the Atlantic Ocean from the East and the Pacific Ocean from the West. The USA’s terrain includes various geographical features, ranging from the Rocky Mountains to the five Great Lakes, of which four are shared with Canada, to the Alaskan tundra to the sandy beaches of Hawaii. The USA contains the continent’s highest and lowest points located in Death Valley and Mt. McKinley, respectively. Its climate is significantly temperate, but regions such as the warm Florida and Hawaii and the snowy Alaska add to the diversity of the climate. The central part of the US is mostly plain when it comes to diversity of features. This geography only emphasizes the fact that its states are emphatically united under one banner, the red white and blue.

 

Natural Resources

As it is the third largest in the world, the USA evidently has abundant natural resources. Even with such resources, the USA does not satisfy its immense appetite for such resources, being the industrial power that it is. The US’s leading resources include coal, copper, lead, uranium, timber and petroleum. It has the world’s largest coal reserves.

Although the USA is the world’s 3rd largest producer of oil, it still imports significant amounts of it due to its incredibly large demand as an industrial power. The forests in the northern part of the US yield enormous amounts of timber, and its extensive aquatic boundaries make it capable of gathering great amounts of fish. Once again, although the USA has such resources, it is still the largest importer of goods worldwide. A sizable amount of the US’s land is used for farming and agriculture, and it is mostly self sufficient, with less than 5% of its imports comprising agricultural produce. The USA’s abundant natural resources testify to the degree with which it is benefiting the entire world, as it is the 2ND largest exporter of goods in the entire world. This shows that the US has to find an economically viable balance between imports and exports, since its products are of high demand but it still requires huge self sufficiency.

 

Cultural Factors

A country of many cultures and backgrounds united under one flag; this is the United States of America. America contains around 31 ethnic groups, each group containing more than 1 million members. Ethnicities range from white 81.7% to black 12.9% to Asian 4.2% and American Indian 1%. Religions are also as diverse, ranging from the fanatically religious priests to the atheists. The breakdown of religions is interesting, standing at Protestant 52%, Roman Catholic 24%, Mormon 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 1%, other 10% and none 10%. This shows that 76% of Americans are Christian, while 10% of them do not believe in the existence of a superior being. The majority of Americans, it is safe to say, are white Christians. America is the land of freedom, where one is free to practice religious beliefs and personal views are always endorsed.

The diverse ethnic and racial groups in the US are due to numerous factors. The USA is and has always been a shelter for the oppressed where people can pursue their dreams. The rate of Hispanics is increasing gradually due to immigration from Mexico, and the blacks are primarily due to the past decades of slavery. The majority are white Caucasian, the original settlers of the colonies. Amerindians, or American Indians, were the first inhabitants of the USA before it was colonized. Racism was prevalent in the past, but America has proven it can defy this and it is now completely eradicated.

The USA is also home to several major languages. The nation’s official language is American English, with Spanish spoken by over 10% of the population. This is primarily due to the large number of Hispanics populating the USA. Some states have even adopted a second official language, such as Spanish in New Mexico and French in Louisiana. Even though such diverse cultural backgrounds exist, that does not affect the firm educational system in the US, where 97% of the population is literate.

 

Economy

The United States has the most superior and largest economy in the world, ranking 1stt with its GDP of 11.75 trillion US dollars. The US also has the second largest per capita GDP. Although these seem like promising figures, the US is unfortunately in debt to itself. Its expenditures are almost a trillion dollars greater than its revenues. Industrial supplies, capital and consumer goods make up 90% of the US’s exports. The USA exports a variety of products from computers to automobiles to medicines. Imports include crude oil, which takes up almost 10%, and also mainly machinery and automobile parts. Its economy is unbalanced, however, because it’s imports are greater than its exports. Due to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), its primary trade partners are Canada and Mexico, and the other major ones are China, Japan, Germany and the UK. These few countries provide 50% of the USA’s imports and exports.

The US’s official monetary currency is the US Dollar, the most popular and widely used currency in the world. The dollar is used interchangeably to substitute for many currencies such as the Lebanese Lira, and is the official symbol for money worldwide.

The USA operates under a Free Market Economy, governed by Adam Smith’s "invisible hand" of the marketplace. This successful system produced the most powerful economy in the world, as buyers and sellers are constantly establishing equilibrium. The USA is a fervent member of the WTO, and provides around a quarter of the UN’s funding, showing its dedication and resolve to spread peace worldwide.

 

Defense

No armed forces in the world can match the USA’s technologically advanced, efficient armed forces. The unique armed forces are split into three powerful branches: the Army, the Navy and Marine Corps and the Air Force. The coast guard could be considered a fourth entity, but in times of war reports directly to the Navy. The USA’s weapons arsenal includes many satellite operated, extremely precise weapons and missiles. Nuclear weapons are one of the strong points of the US arsenal, as it saliently demonstrated in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but hopefully that will not have to be repeated. The US’s fighter jets and spy planes are undoubtedly the most capable in the world, and are used when needed to support our ground troops. The USA has also developed a successful missile defense system.

The USA is involved in peace operations throughout the world, and is continuously aiming to eradicate terrorism when needed. It is an active member of NATO, and has contributed a substantial number of peacekeeping troops to the UN. It has also conducted and is conducting several military operations that aim to free countries of extremist and terrorist governments that are threatening the world, such as the successful mission in Afghanistan and the ongoing stabilizing efforts in Iraq.

The United States today has received the largest increased in its defense budget since the presidency of Ronald Reagan. The Department of Defense has been given the largest cut of the budget "pie", at 419 billion dollars allowed spending in 2006, at an increase of 5% from 2005, and an increase of 41% from 2001 primarily due to the war on terror in Afghanistan and Iraq. The Commander’s Emergency Response Program (CERP) is an additional protocol allowing up to 300 million dollars in extra funding to be requested by commander’s based on their region’s needs. The United States’ military spending accounts to almost half the entire world’s spending.

The USA’s weapons arsenal is tremendously effective. It has missiles ranging from tomahawks, which can span a distance of over 1,000 miles and are laser guided, to missiles based on GPS systems, to "smart" bombs which can operate in any weather condition whatsoever and be deployed from land or air. These extreme capabilities allow the US to go to war on almost any turf they want. Its ballistic missile defense program receives more funding than any other weapon system in the defense budget. The USA is home to around 103 nuclear power plants, many of which are used to enrich uranium for nuclear weapons. The USA generates around 800 billion kilowatt-hours of nuclear energy. It currently has stockpiled over 10,000 nuclear warheads, rendering it the world’s largest nuclear arsenal with around half the world’s nuclear warheads. Therefore, the US could wage a nuclear war against the entire world and still stand a chance.

 

Views on World Problems

The US mission in Iraq is the main policy of the Bush doctrine. Iraq was once a troubled state with a dictatorship and a ruler who encouraged terrorist and extremist ideals. Saddam Hussein has been eradicated and the Iraqi state is now free. What concerns the US mostly is the stability in the state, and the ideas of terrorism that are spreading amongst Islamic extremists. These filthy ideas are penetrating the minds of young men, twisting their thoughts, and leading them to conduct suicide operations within Iraq. The US believes that these ideals are worthless and incorrect, and that for the democratic state of Iraq to emerge victorious they should be eradicated. The Iraqi state still needs US support as it cannot support itself with internal affairs concerning defense and protection of individuals. Although a government has been established thanks to the coalition’s efforts, stability and peace need to be completely prevalent before the US can have any thoughts of pulling out its troops.

Iran is a country that has been a source of a major headache to the USA in past years since the Iranian hostage crisis. Iran’s determination to hide its nuclear weapons program from the international community is disgusting the US, and the fact that it hid its uranium enrichment program from the IAEA and the international community for such a long time is more of a reason to doubt its intentions. The US stands firm by its decision to refer the issue to the Security Council if Iran doesn’t show any willingness to cooperate. The US finds Iran’s verbal degradation of the state of Israel very disturbing, and views the radical terrorist ideas that are spreading in Iraq to be primarily emerging from the Iranian state, as it neighbors Iraq and can easily send activists to the people there. The US hopes that Iran will follow the example of North Korea and cooperate with the international community on this issue, as the world does not need a radical nuclear threat.

The US believes that the world should cooperate with it to eradicate terrorism after the disturbing events of September 11th, 2001. Terrorism is the main threat to the world. All the world is seeing these days is innocent people dying, children crying and families weeping for their lost relatives. This is all due to terrorism. The world should unite under one banner; to eradicate terrorism is to save the world from an epidemic that is plaguing it and deteriorating the peace fortress that is the international community.

Natural disasters have always had a profound impact on the world. It is now the US’s turn to ask for the world’s help, where the disasters of hurricanes Katrina and Rita have engulfed the Gulf Coast. Millions lay displaced, not knowing where their fate will take them in the next few months. The USA is extremely saddened, and is trying its best to use emergency relief funds to alleviate the stress of these poor people. The US hopes the world will sympathize with it as the USA did with the recent Tsunami disaster and aid it in relieving the distress of these people.

The USA has many allies worldwide, and these numbers have been altered due to the war on terror. The USA’s major allies now are Canada, Mexico, the EU, Pakistan, Israel, Russia, the Gulf countries but that’s primarily due to the oil supply, the far East such as Japan and the Philippines. The USA doesn’t have many enemies, but it has made extremist enemies in countries such as Iran, Afghanistan and Iraq previously and North Korea when the nuclear debate was heated. The USA only makes enemies when they extremely oppose their ideals such as the terrorist ideals and anti-Western sentiments.

 

History

The US of A has always been a majestic nation, and has one of the most fascinating historical backgrounds of determination and justice in the entire world. Since settlers established the original 13 colonies, individuals within the USA have been fighting strife and the burden of an unruly government to emerge as the democratic states of America today. After the Declaration of Independence in 1776, the treaty of Paris in 1783 witnessed Britain’s acceptance and recognition of the USA as an independent nation, freeing it from colonial forces. With philosophies such as Manifest Destiny, the US continued to expand westward, establishing many states and territories until it emerged today as the 50 United States. The USA was not always united, however. Extreme events such as the Civil War in the 19th century, which witnessed the secession of 7 states from the union to form the Confederate States of America, only showed the determination of the colonies to uphold the righteous beliefs of freedom for all. The states reunited and the US of A remains united today.

The USA’s majestic history does not go unscarred, however. A series of wars and traumatic events pierced its bubble, and the US has shown its perseverance to recover from them all. After the Industrial Revolution and the decline of power in Europe, the USA emerged as the world’s leading power. In 1914, Europe plunged into chaos when Germany, Austria and Hungary waged war against the UK, France and Russia. The USA decided to remain neutral at the beginning, but after German submarine attacks on its ships and the interception of the Zimmermann telegram, the US decided to get involved. The USA’s involvement immediately tipped the scales, and the triple entente was defeated.

The Second World War was soon to follow. Germany, Italy and Japan allied against their European neighbors to mark the start of the Second World War. Operation Barbarossa marked one of the key turning points in the war, as the German military’s invasion of the Soviet Union barely failed due to the harsh Soviet winter. The USA decided to remain neutral again in this war, however, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and Germany’s declaration of war against the US gave FDR the pretext needed to join the allies. The allied armies of the USA, UK and USSR proved to be dominant in this war, and the allies succeeded. Of the events that were named in history was the US dropping of atomic bombs on two islands in Japan, therefore largely pressuring Japan into officially surrendering aboard the USS Missouri battleship. The Yalta Conference of 1945 witnessed the formation of the United Nations by the allies.

The emergence of the USSR and the USA as simultaneous superpowers succeeding the war proved to be unhealthy. The Cold War, a period of heightened tensions between the USA and the Soviets, proved to be an arms race that almost lead to a Third World War. The Cuban Missile Crisis, among other events, led to almost direct confrontation between the two powers. Finally, the collapse of the Soviet Union ended the confrontations.

The USA continued to involve itself in global peacekeeping efforts and efforts to eradicate terrorism and filthy ideals. It acted as the "World’s 911" as some said, but proved to be a pioneer in this aspect. The USA continuously helped sovereign nations gain their legal rights and freed them from oppression, such as in the Gulf War, the war in Somalia and the stabilization of Afghanistan and Iraq.

 

 

 

Policy Statement


The conflict between Eritrea and Ethiopia is one of the largest in the African Continent. For three decades, Eritrea has been fighting an ongoing war of independence from Ethiopia, and has recently succeeded in 1993. Succeeding the war, the nations both claimed territorial possession of some disputed areas. Thus, the Eritrean-Ethiopian war was ignited once again, and lasted for two whole years until June of 2000. Much was spent during the war in order to purchase military supplies, although both countries had populations who were in dire need of that money. The countries proceeded to fight fervently, and hundreds of thousands of people were displaced and killed. Near the end of the war, Ethiopia captured territory within Eritrea it claimed as its own and forced the Eritrean government to surrender and sign a peace treaty marking the end of the war.

The Algiers Agreement signed in the end of 2000 brought an international perspective into the issue, and established a Temporary Security Zone governed by peacekeeping forces from the UNMEE. In 2002, the boundary commission under the Algiers agreement awarded territories to both sides, giving the disputed territory of Badme to Eritrea. This fueled Ethiopian emotions of oppression at first, but by the end of 2004 Ethiopia claimed it agreed to "the principle" of the decision. Ethiopian intentions are doubtful, however, since in 2005 it has now begun mobilizing troops across its border with Eritrea, and there is great fear that the two belligerent entities might go to war once more. The governments of both nations are accused with fueling the war in order to escape internal conflicts and feelings of opposition within their respective nations. Recently, Eritrea has banned UN peacekeepers from flying over its airspace or patrolling at night, which has increased concern in the UN. There are an estimated 350,000 troops from both sides near the UN-Patrolled zone.

The USA has urged both sides to stop this warring, and loathes the prospect of another war between the nations, as they are both experiencing famine, drought and various other internal problems within their nations. The US. is pleased with the recent announcement by UN peacekeeping troops that Ethiopia may be willing to pull back its troops near the secured border. It has been rallying support from both nations for the war on terror and the situation in Iraq as they are both parties of the "coalition of the willing", and is unpleased with the developments on the quarrel between the nations. The US urges both nations to act maturely and accept international decisions and UN demands, as it will only benefit their countries to do so.

The USA is a trade partner with both parties, importing at around a 5% rate with each nation. However, Eritrea’s main import partners are the USA at 19% and Ireland at 25%, while Ethiopia’s main import partners are the USA at 15% and Saudi Arabia at 25%. The USA’s exports to Ethiopia have primarily consisted of aircraft parts. The USA also has several strategic military bases that cover certain regions of the African continent. One of its prime bases in Eastern Africa is the one in Uganda, bordering Ethiopia’s western front. Even more important is the US’s base in Djibouti, which is located in the horn of Africa and has borders with both Eritrea and Ethiopia. The greater portion of Djibouti, however borders Ethiopia. This US base is so important because it is used to monitor rogue Arab terrorist groups in the Middle East and Africa, and also to secure its oil and trade interests as it borders the "Ban El-Mandab" strait which is a busy shipping port. The US representative Donald Yamamoto has recently met with Ethiopian president to discuss matters of security and internal affairs.

 

 

 

Resolution


Noting with Concern that, according to BBC, Ethiopian servicemen have been defecting to various countries including Djibouti and Belarus, in order to escape the harsh regime,

Fully Deploring the fact that, according to UNMEE Force Commander Rajender Singh, there have been Ethiopian movements towards the border of the Temporary Security Zone (TSZ),

Alarmed by the fact that, according to BBC, Eritrea has forced UNMEE peacekeepers to evacuate 18 posts in the TSZ,

Deeply Disturbed by, according to the UNMEE Force Commander Rajender Singh, the fact that the UNMEE’s abilities have been reduced 40% due to Eritrea’s placed restrictions and limitations alone,

Confirming that, under the Algiers Agreement, the Boundary Committee should be respected and allowed to make all the decisions it deems necessary to preserving stability within the disputed conflict’s time frame,

Expressing Its Appreciation towards the UNMEE peacekeeping personnel in Eritrea and Ethiopia, as their jobs are not simple and they have to deal with strife and continuous prospects of hostility,

Viewing with Appreciation the Japanese representative to the UN’s statement that, "Ethiopia would not be the first to fire in the event of a border conflict with Eritrea",

Viewing the entire border dispute as a waste of the countries’ time, effort and financial assets as they have more important internal issues to deal with,

Welcoming that, according to the UNMEE Force Commander Rajender Singh, he is "optimistic that there will be a withdrawal of Ethiopian troops",

Noting the relevance of article 39 of the UN charter which states, "The Security Council shall determine…restore international peace and security," to the issue at hand,

Encouraging the Security Council to consider complying with article 42 of the UN Charter, as it authorizes the use of force which may be necessary to solving this conflict,

Referring states to UN Security Council Resolutions 1507, 1586, 1560 and others that all extend the mandates of the UNMEE, showing the importance of the UN’s presence there,

1. Demands the following measures be taken in order to efficiently solve the Eritrean-Ethiopian Conflict and improve conditions in the region in accordance with the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) and the Algiers Agreement:
A. The reinstatement of the UNMEE’s patrolling rights by Eritrea, so as to alleviate tensions of doubt and concern between the two entities,
B. The acceptance of Ethiopia for the boundary committee’s decision to rightfully award the region of Badme to Eritrea, which if it does will yield the following:
1. Lifting of some economic sanctions off Ethiopia,
2. An increase of funds and proactive awareness from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and relevant NGO’s in the state itself,
C. The retreat of both sides’ armed and unarmed hostile forces to the levels present on the 16th of December 2004,
D. Any breach of the Temporary Security Zone (TSZ) set up by the UNMEE or a breach of the ceasefire will result in the following:
1. Immediate economics sanctions upon the state the began the warfare, and that state should be named by the UNMEE,
2. A military unit from the African Union (AU), to be sent to the area where the hostility has/is taking place due to its proximity,
3. A further military unit, if seen as needed, to be sent by NATO into the area, but only if the AU fails to maintain stability,
D. The removal of both warring states from the coalition of the willing in Iraq until the above points are fulfilled,
E. Increasing the activity and magnitude of aid from the UNICEF and the WHO in order to further eradicate health problems including HIV/AIDS,
1. The establishment of a permanent ambassador to the SC in the TSZ, who would be directly affiliated with the UNMEE and would:
a. Be appointed by the Security Council member countries by process of nomination,
b. Report to the SC at regular intervals given by the SC in a later session,
c. Ensure that the Security Council remains actively seized in the matter until a sign is given that shows the conflict is finally over, upon which the UNMEE will take over as official ambassador to the Security Council,

 

 

 

Opening Speech


Honorable chairs, fellow delegates of the United Nations Security Council, and respectable guests,

All 50 of the United States of America are proud to be represented at today’s council. We stand in front of you today as a nation whose ethnical and racial diversity is strikingly large. The plethoric population of the USA is as diverse as a nation gets in this world, and each and every individual within our great nation is united under the banner of the red, white and blue.

Red; our soldiers have incessantly been subjected to this color through the blood that they have sacrificed during war. White; a color we wish to spread throughout the world, as much as we wish to spread peace and stability to all nations in the international community. Blue; calmness and tranquillity can be spread through the quest for freedom and equality to all. We, the red white and blue seek to eradicate oppression and spread peace in order to allow the world’s people to enjoy tranquillity and freedom indefinitely.

Unfortunately, one of the events that has obstructed our quest today is the Ethiopian-Eritrean conflict. Both sides have been plaguing each other, displacing and slaughtering each other’s people and mutually disintegrating their economies. The USA stands before this council wishing for a viable resolution to this ongoing conflict. We will stand firmly by the United Nations Security Council in every decision it makes that would bring this conflict to a peaceful end, and will hopefully need to pledge only our White and Blue through this solution.

We would like to deeply welcome all nations to this year’s council, and Thank You.