Event: KITMUN 2006
Students: Abdullah Al-Ibraheem (HR-Amb) Mays Abdulaziz (SC-V.Amb) Bader al Omairi Abdulaziz al Qatami Ahmed al Mughni
Political structure (Mays Abdulaziz):
People’s Republic of China has been known as a communist state after World War II. China’s constitution was last adopted and reinforced in 1982. National People's Congress makes major decisions in China. It has 2,985 seats, and the members are elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms). The National People’s Congress (NPC) elects an at least 45-year old male president and vice president to serve a five-year term. He can not perform for more than one term. The president of China, HU Jintauo, has been in authority since 2003. He was elected president by the Tenth National People's Congress with a total of 2,937 votes (four delegates voted against him, four abstained, and 38 did not vote).In iheory, the President, in accordance with decisions made by the NPC, has the power to put legislation into effect.
The President also has the power to appoint the Premier, Vice-Premiers, State Council members, all ambassadors to foreign countries, Ministers of all departments, and all legislative committee chairs, treasurers and secretaries. The President has the power to give Special Presidential Decrees, and can declare State of Emergency, and declare war. He is assisted by the vice president. As the President is legally China's head of state, he is responsible for China's foreign affairs. Since the early 1990s, the President has generally be responsible for establishing general policy and direction for the state and leaves responsibility for the implementation details to the Premier of the People's Republic of China, who is in theory, the Head of government. In marked contrast to the system of the Soviet Union when the President was a powerless figurehead, the Chinese Presidency has grown to be a quite powerful position. Also since the 1990s, it has been general practice for the President to also serve as the General Secretary of the Communist Party.. This effectively removes any power tension between the top communist leader and the Head of State.
The leading political party in China is the Chinese Communist Party. With more than 63 million members, the Communist Party of China is the largest political party in the world. Men and college educated are more likely to join because of economic benefits. Authoritarian in structure and ideology, it continues to dominate the government. In periods of relative liberalization, the influence of people and organizations outside the formal party structure has tended to increase. There are also eight other small parties existing in China. However, they are legally obligated to accept the leadership of the dominant party. No substantial political opposition groups exist in China. However, the government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the China Democracy Party as subversive groups. The China Democracy Party was significant in China for a while. However, all forming members were arrested.
The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China. The organization consists of both Party members and non-Party members, who discuss Chinese communism's principles, and occasionally, create new government organizations. The members are chosen by the Communist Party of China, but are from a somewhat broader range of people than normally chosen for government office. However, the CPPCC was never officially added to the Chinese constitution. It just acts as an advisory upper house.
So, to answer the question of who has the real power in China, we could say that the power is shared between the president and the Chinese Communist Party. The power that each has is supossed to be equal. However, the Chinese Communist Party has a great influence and therefore is slightly more powerful than the president. As mentioned above, the Chinese Communist Party is capabe of dominating the government.
What’s also significant about the chinese government is that, not only is it coomuunist, it is also authoritarian to a high extent. The Chinese government enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against any sign of disobedience. Many argue that the Chinese are not satisfied with the government; however, they are too scared or careless to oppose the government in any way.
Geography (Abdulla al Ibraheem):
Although China appears as large as the USA on the map, in fact the arable area of China is a small collection of riverbeds surrounded by a large waste area of mountains and desert in which few people live. China covers 9,596,960 sq. km of East Asia. One of the world’s largest countries, it comes forth after Russia, Canada, USA. It lies between North Korea and Vietnam and has boundaries with Afghanistan, Bhutan, Burma, India, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Vietnam, Hong Kong, and Macau. It also borders the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea. Specifically, it is located based on the geographical on 35 00 N, 105 00 E.
With this gigantic land, the weather is extremely diverse, it is usually tropical in south to sub-Arctic in north. Not only the weather, but the terrain is mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east. With these large variations, China is rich with natural resources. Unfortunately, many natural hazards threaten China, like frequent typhoons, about five per year along southern and eastern coasts, damaging floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, droughts, and land subsidence. However, China remains the most generous land with all what it gave to its people.
Cultural Factors: (Abdulaziz al Qatami)
The Chinese culture is really great due its colorfulness and its legends about the beginnings of the world and about ancient China and its people. The vast majority of the people who live in China speak Chinese, but there are many different languages such as Chinese, Manchu, Mongolian, Uighur, Tibetan, Kazakh, and other. China’s population is 1,306,313,812 according to July 2005. This population had grown rapidly in recent times, expanding by approximately 15 million each year. China has a very high birth rate it was about 0.58% in July 2005. This rapid growth has occurred because the death rate has dropped sharply. The birthrate has also fallen, but the total population is enormous, and there are many young people. The family is also an important economic unit.
In rural areas, where about 72 percent of China's people live, the traditional family consisted of the head of the household, his sons, and their wives and children, often-living less than one roof. There are 56 ethnic groups in China, the Han Chinese (91.9%), Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Mancho, Zhuang, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, and other. In all ethnic groups, people are treated equally and local governments give all the ethnic groups power to control their own affairs.
The Hans consists of 92% of China’s population, while the other 55 ethnic groups cover three-fifths of the country’s area. The government takes care for the standard of living and most importantly is caring for literacy.
But the problem is that most of their economies are not as developed as the Han. Therefore the Chinese government made lots of policies and laws to help strengthen their economies. Ethnic groups in China have no problems with each other; this caused the lives of Chinese to cooperate with each other without seeing any difference.
There are many religions in China. The major religions of China are Daoist; also know as Taoist, Buddhist, Muslim (1%-2%), and Christian (3%-4%). The official religion is atheist, a belief in which there is no God. It is considered as the most commonly spread religion in China. Confucianism is another religion practiced in China that strengthens the relationships between family members. Such as a husband to his wife, elder brothers to younger brothers, and sisters to brothers.
Traditionally Taoism and Confucianism provided ethical guides to the proper behavior of individuals. Taoism wanted to promote the inner peace of individuals and the Confucianism is an ethical system that wanted to teach the proper way for all people to behave in society. However, calling Confucianism a religion is wrong because it’s rather than a philosophy.
Also there is another belief called the Fulan Gong, a mixture belief of Buddhism and Confucianism. This belief tells people that it makes people stronger, wiser, and more intelligent. People have migrated a lot during the Chinese history. Before, in ancient times it was political rather than economic issues. Because China has a very high rate of people, lots of these people live in poverty and hunger.
The Chinese government has encouraged Han Chinese to settle in Tibet. This caused incidents of political violence including bombings to targeted people. Fights between Hans and Muslims occurred, causing lots of problem in the Chinese society. But since the end of the Cultural Revolution, mosques have been allowed to reopen and Islamic education permitted because Chinese policy has been to tolerate religious minorities. The Hans claim that most of the terrorist attacks in China come from Muslims. In June 1990, 12 Muslim bombed a bridge in the city of Asku. The Muslims population in China is estimated at more than 48 million (10.5% of the Chinese population).
Economy: (Ahmed al Mughni)
China has suffered and experienced lots of economic issues, such as the Great Leap. The Great Leap was an economic program that was developed by Mao Zedong. Although it has lots of benefits, it caused lots of problems to the Chinese people such as unemployment, shortage of food, and etc.…
China is technically a still a "developing" nation; it is considered the most rapidly developing economically. During the 1950s, the Chinese government developed a system called a command economy. In 1979, China began working with economic developments to expand its economy. China’s new system is referred as a socialist market economy. As a result of the economic development, China’s GDP increased at a rate of 10.2% in the 1980s. But these developments, also called reforms, caused lots of problems. This caused unemployment to Chinese people, and income gaps was resulted.
China has lots of partner traders. China’s export partners are: The US (21.1%), Hong Kong (17%), Japan (12.4%), South Korea (4.7%), and Germany (4%). China’s import partners are: Japan (16.8%), South Korea (11.1%), US (8%), and Germany (5.4%). China’s GDP was recorded in 2004 as $7.262 trillion and is expected to grow since the GDP is increasing 9.4% each year. China’s external debt is $233.3 Billion in the year 2004. Most of the high GDP comes from three reasons: agriculture, industries, and other services. Because of this high GDP, the living standards of urban and rural workers continued to improve.
Agriculture and rural activities are important in China for several reasons. Farming provides the food and fiber needed for the sustenance of China's people. At the same time, about 60 percent of the people depend on agriculture or related rural activities for their livelihood. Agriculture is the economic way of life followed by the bulk of the population. Agriculture, moreover, has always provided the means of employment for most new workers entering the labor force. Chinese agriculture is productive which causes the rate of economic growth to increase.
The whole range of industrial goods is produced in China today. China’s factories many make textiles to railway locomotives, jet planes, and computers. In fact, China is the world's largest producer of inexpensive cotton textiles and exports large quantities of textiles and garments. Industries nearly count 17.1% of its economy. Also, these industries produce footwear, toys, electronics, rail cars, ships, telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, and satellites.
China's principal food crops are rice, wheat, corn, gaolian, millet, barley, and sunflower seeds. Of these, rice is by far the most vital. China is the world's largest producer of rice, and rice accounts for almost half of the country's total food-crop output. Rice, wheat, and corn together make up more than 90 percent of China's total food grain production. China produces 360 million tons of grains each year. There has also been a steady rise in the output of industrial crops, the most important of which are cotton, oil-bearing crops, sugar, tobacco, bast fiber, tea, and fruits.
The increase of fuel’s price affected lots of people since the Chinese consume about 4.956 million bbl/day. Without the fuel people lived in very hot conditions, and lived in poverty since fuel provided them transportation from farms fields to another. China has lots of people to feed and it is estimated that 10% of China’s population live in poverty. The WTO (World Trade Organization) helped China to strengthen its ability to maintain very high growth rates. Because lots of people lived in poverty, many poor and middle peasants were attracted to political movements.
China has political, economic, and social stability. China’s economy tends to grow more during the near future. China is considered very active in economic organizations.
Natural Resources: (Ahmed al Mughni)
China has a large and varied stock of natural resources. The variety of different landforms, soil conditions, and climate patterns offers many different kinds of agriculture production. A tremendous range of food and industrial crops can be grown, and this makes it possible for China to keep imports to a minimum. This climate causes China to have a rich variety of natural resources; they even have potentially the largest Hydro Power energy. They also have a fair amount of oil along with natural gases. China also has mineral richness. It has Coal Iron ore, Petroleum, Natural gas, Mercury, Tin, Tungsten, Antimony, Manganese, Molybdenum, Vanadium, Magnetite, Aluminum, Lead, Zinc, Uranium, and Hydropower. Agriculture plays a very important role in China 85% of its land produce food products such as rice, peanuts, potatoes, cotton, pork, and fish. China has agreements with lots of countries such as the US, Japan, South Korea, United Kingdom, and Russia. China provides these countries with mineral fuels, chemicals, iron, steel, and oil.
China has lots of energy resources, to prove this there is 11 trillion metric tons of coal, 147 billion barrels of petroleum, 40 billion metric tons of iron ore reserves, 1 billion metric tons of aluminum, and 2 million metric tons of tin. Reserves of tungsten, antimony, tin, mercury, salt, fluorspar, and magnesite are among the largest in the world, and the tungsten and antimony deposits may be the largest. China leads the world in the size of its coal reserves, which are estimated at more than 600 billion tons. These reserves would keep China supplied with coal for about 500 years if usage were to continue at its present level. China is believed to have extensive reserves of petroleum on both land and offshore. These natural resources is used in domestic manufacturing and exported to obtain money, these resources provide China with a solid foundation for rapid industrial growth.
Despite China's large land area, its forest resources are reserved. Much of mountains are very high or too dry. The forests are harvested for building material and firewood. It was estimated that about 8 percent of the total surface of the country was covered with forests. As China's population and economy have grown, demand for wood and paper products has risen rapidly. To prove this paper products are much expensive in China but rather cheap in the US. China has a long tradition of ocean and freshwater fishing and of aquaculture. China is a leading producer of fish. In 1993 it produced 17.6 million tons, first among the world's nations. More than 57 percent of the total catch was from the ocean. The remainder came from rivers, canals, lakes, and ponds. All the coastal seas (Bo Hai Gulf, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea) have mixed cold and warm water currents which creates an environment suitable for ocean fishes, , tuna, herring, and sharks.
Defense: (Bader al Omairi)
China has the People's Liberation Army (PLA): made up of Ground Forces, Navy (includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (includes Airborne Forces), and II Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police Force (internal security troops considered to be an adjunct to the PLA); Militia. As well china owns a nuclear arsenal of which are 150 bombs, 50 DF-3/3A’s, 20 DF-4’s, 4 DF-5/5A’s, 96 DF-21/21A’s, 24 JL-1’s, and around 150 other tactical weapons. To join the army you must be between the age limit of 18-22 years. The PLA has 2,820,000 that are divided into seven military regions. PLA is also divided to 24 separate armies. China has an 8,000 battle tanks, organized through the PLA into 1,200 light tanks, and 5,500 armored vehicles.
Nuclear weapons in China are under the control of the Central Military Commission, which is headed by the President. Other members of the commission are generals from the People's Liberation Army (PLA).
China maintains one of the largest militaries in the world, based on its inventory of major weapon systems. However, the bulk of China's holdings are old in both physical age and technology. Many weapon systems that came into service in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s remain in the inventory today, and all of those systems use 1950s-era technology originally imported from the Soviet Union. While China is modernizing its conventional forces, the new systems are entering at a low rate compared with the overall size of the older forces. As a result over the next decade, as the oldest weapon systems are fully retired, the size of China's conventional forces will shrink dramatically.
The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is moving toward an overall reduction and reorganization of personnel and equipment with the goal of creating a more modern and mobile army. In the year 2000, the total estimated personnel strength of the Chinese military is 2.5 million, which seems to be a large number, but is very small when compared to the country’s 1.2 billion people.
China It wants to achieve equality in military strength with other great powers. China also wants to become the preeminent Asian power by generating enough "strength" so that no major action will be taken by any other international actor in Asia without first considering Chinese interests. One definite way China is trying to achieve that is through the development of nuclear weapons. The Nuclear Proliferation Treaty legalizes Chinese possession of nuclear weapons. It is well-known in the international community that China has taken great advantage of the NPT since 1945. However, specific data and statistics concerning the Chinese nuclear program are kept highly secretive by China.
In conclusion, China's military modernization plan has highlighted the inability of the indigenous arms industry in China to produce the advanced technology weapon systems that the military wants. The recent return to dependence on foreign assistance (specifically, aircraft and naval vessels from Russia, and technical assistance from Israel) runs contrary to the Chinese government’s desire to fully control its own military destiny.
China may eventually change its policies and invest more financial resources in military modernization; but for the foreseeable future, China's potential for military action in Taiwan and other areas will remain limited. China may take a more active military role in its region, but the overall balance of power in East Asia will remain unchanged. China will always remain the strongest in relevance to East Asian countries. If present trends continue, Beijing believes it will achieve the status of a "medium-sized" great power by 2050 at a minimum. A fundamental objective of China's military modernization program is to create a force sufficient to defend against any regional opponent, maintain the credibility of territorial claims, protect national interests, maintain internal security, deter any moves by Taiwan toward independence, and deter aggression.
Views on world problem: (Bader al Omairi)
Some of China’s allies are Iraq, Saudi Arabia, North Korea, Cuba, Pakistan, Canada, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Iran, and Cambodia. Also, China has recently established trading relations with the EU.
A few countries are considered China’s enemies, however, China has trading relations with them, and these countries are South Korea, Japan, and the USA. China is part of organizations: IAEA, I, UN, UNSC, WHO, OPCW, UNIKOM , UNITAR, UNMOVIC, WTrO, APEC, AsDB, BIS, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM.
China has land dispute between it and India, India says that the land is Pakistan gave to china in 1965 is part of the Kashmir province and India deserves to the land not china. As well as that the US are claming that Taiwan is not part of china and that it is a province is not part of china. North Korean migrates r immigrating in to china which is already an over populated country, in 2002, Tajikistan gave up 1,000 km2 of the Pamir Mountain range to China.
China is also struggling with AIDs, 860,000 Chinese citizens infected with AIDs, and 30,000 that have all ready died from the diseases.
China is also a large influence and plays an important role in the international community. China’s opinion is always recognized in the United Nations as it is a permanent member in the Security Council. China, therefore, has Veto rights. China has a very strong voice in resolutions and decisions being discussed in the Security Council. Because it is a Communist nation, relations with countries like the United States are frequently strained.
China is also very concerned for the threat of nuclear weapons in the region by the recent nuclear weapons that DPR Korea has admitted to have. China was always reluctant to pressurize North Korea, and never did. Therefore, North Korea sought to keep a good relation with China. China is one of the six-party members.
Americans are more apt to view the US-China relationship as unfriendly than friendly, but only a small minority views China as an outright enemy. China is nor considered very cooperative with the war on terrorism, since it did not support the Iraqi invasion. Most Americans do not see China as a very serious threat, and there is low concern about a military conflict with China; but most want the US to keep a close eye on China, and there appears to be some concern about the future. A strong majority views relations with China as being important to US interests and growing more important, with a modest majority seeing China as on its way to becoming a superpower. It is clear that China is trying to compete with the US (and other superpowers) for prestige and military power.
The relationship between China and Japan can be perceived as nothing less, but tumultuous. They have a very close bond, but both countries seemed to part ways, due to Western intrusion. The bond might be regarded as close but it also seems relatively fragile, as each country is suspicious of the other’s intention and role in the global economy. Although both countries have a very significant role in the global economy, they seem to be weary of forming close ties with any particular nation, although China seems more defensive in reacting with other nations, Japan seems to be on the guard as well.
Russia’s desire for economic and political strength are pushing both nations stronger together. Even though China and Russia have differen ideologies, Russia no loger percieves China as a threat and relations between the two are getting stronger.
China and India constitue 40% of the world’s population. Their relationship has a global impact. Indian relations today are enjoying a period of stability and growing economic ties. However, there remain unresolved disputes and emerging conflicts between the two countries, ranging from boundary issues to energy security.
History: (Abdulaziz al Qatami)
Two thousand years ago, China was an empire that carried on many traditions, which went back another thousands years or even more. No other country can trace its language or its ways of life and traditions, over such a long period of time. The Chinese divided all their history into several dynasties. The Chinese often blamed their emperors for the misery caused by the foreign devils.
On October 10, 1911 a revolution broke out overthrowing the Manzhou rule. China became a republic led by a president and was divided among the warlords whose armies fought each other.
Between 1931 and 1945, Japan attacked and occupied parts of china. Chiang Kai-shek’s, a general who set up the Guomindong Government, sent armies but retreated. Japan was beaten in 1945 in World War II and had to leave China. In 1946, China was recognized by the new United Nations as one of the five great powers. With the help of the China Aid Act and the Chinese American Joint Commission on Rural Construction, China applied a land reform program in Taiwan during the 1950s.
In December 1949 the Soviet Union and China signed a 30-year alliance for defense against Japan. The Soviet Union extended economic and technical assistance. The armies of Mao Zedong, a peasant’s son, fought a civil war with Chiang Kai-shek’s. Chiang Kai-shek’s lost and left China and went to Taiwan.
In 1949, Mao Zedong set up the People Republic and a communist government that ruled all China from Beijing. Mao Zedong’s government made important improvements in the way that Chinese lived. Women had equal rights to men for the first time ever. Many diseases were wiped out and children and adults were taught to read and to write.
In the 1950s, China made a huge social and economic renovation. Leaders gained power and restored China’s economy. In 1958, Mao announced a successful economic program "Great Leap Forward". This economic program aimed the increasing of industrial and agriculture production. Some people think that the failure of the Great Leap was the direct cause of famine in China and that the Great Leap caused the economy of China to be devastated. After a year of establishing the Great Leap, steel produced was of low quality, and the quantity fell short. The effect of the Great Leap Forward on the people and the economy was devastating. Coupled with three straight years of poor harvests, it resulted in a severe food shortage and industrial decline.
In 1971 the UN General Assembly voted to turn this seat over to the representatives of the People's Republic. The People's Republic is recognized by most nations as the valid government representing Mainland China. After 1971 China joined a number of UN and other international organizations, such as the International Monetary Fund. It has become a more active participant in international programs.
The new leaders were still Communist who tried to see that the Chinese people had more food to eat and more goods to but in shops. In 1986 some students led demonstrations demanding more freedom and democracy and the government killed more than 2000 unarmed demonstrators in Beijing.
Both the Nationalists and the People's Republic insisted that Taiwan was an integral part of China. In the early 1990s a movement for independence for Taiwan threatened to disrupt relations between them. Relations with other countries gradually improved, by the year 1995, Chinese industries were doing well, and the economy was continuing to grow. The Chinese government experienced a momentous change on Feb. 19, 1997, when long-time leader Deng Xiaoping died.
Deng Xiaoping was a revolutionary leader in the Communist Party of China and under his rule; China developed one of the fast economies in the world. Under his rule the relations with the West was improved greatly. He argued that China is in the stage of socialism and the party’s duty was perfect under socialist parties. He emphasized to his people that socialism does not mean shared poverty. Deng provided a theoretical background and a political support to allow economic reform to occur. Deng’s reform centralized and managed the economy.
In April 1997, Jiang Zemin emerged as China's leader and the Chinese government announced that it would obey the International Covenant of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, one of two major international human rights treaties, but abstained from signing a second treaty on civil and political rights. In March 1999, the United States officials knew that Chinese were spying and knew highly classified information about American nuclear warheads. Also the United States House of Representatives claimed that China had break into the most sensitive nuclear research laboratories and that they had gained technological information about every type of the nuclear warheads arranged by the United States.
On May 7, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) forces bombed the Chinese embassy in Belgrade during their air and the United States apologized to the Chinese government and claimed that it was an accident. The Chinese made lots of protests and the bombing brought relations between the two countries to their lowest point in years. China suspended talks with the United States over several issues, including human rights, but declared o continue talks on trade issues.
Security Counil (Mays Abdulaziz):
1. Nuclear Research in Iran
Today, the whole international community knows that Iran is developing its nuclear capabilities. Unfortunately, many states automatically disregarded the possibility that Iran might be enhancing its nuclear capabilities for peaceful purposes. From China’s experience, we could say that Iran is a very cooperative state. We mutually complement each other. They have industry and we have energy resources. Iran, like any other nation, has the right develop and strengthen its nation. Condemning Iran and considering it to be evil will just complicate the situation even more.
China strongly supports Iran-EU negotiations should continue to solve Iran's nuclear issue within the framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Those negotiations should not stop until Iran is satisfied. Iran should not feel humiliated nor pressurized. Iran should feel that its national sovereignty is highly respected. The case should only be settled diplomatically. China will only support a solution that are fair and beneficial to Iran. Any act that will make Iran feel as if it is inferior to other states will never be supported by China.
2. The further development of the fledgling Iraqi democratic state.
As all members of the international community know by now China opposed the invasion of Iraq in 2003. The invasion was not the best way to tackle the issue, but now we have to talk about the future. However, today, China is fully supportive of re-building Iraq. China and the international community have made great efforts on the Iraq issue and have provided humanitarian assistance to Iraq. Relevant countries' legal rights in the reconstruction of Iraq should be respected and all countries should equally and jointly participate in Iraq's reconstruction.
China truly hopes that Iraq would be a sovereign democratic state one day. However, it is not the job of a relatively small coalition to achieve that goal. The United Nations remains stronger than a coalition of 11 states. That is why Iraq should be declared as a UN trusteeship territory. This responsibility should be internationalized and all capable states need to contribute in order to form a strong and independent Iraqi state.
3. Controlling the spread of ideologies that encourage terrorism.
Today, terrorism is a serious challenge to human civilization and international peace. Terrorism endangers innocent lives, causes losses of social wealth and jeopardizes security of states/ The Chinese government strongly opposes and condemns all forms of terrorism and is against using terrorism as a means of achieving political objectives. Regarding terrorism in China, the government knows how to keep everything under control. China knows how to control the spread of evil ideologies that encourage terrorism. China will not tolerate the spread of evil ideologies in its borders. That’s why we have taken firm actions towards any unacceptable behavior. We have very sound cooperation with many countries in the world at multi-lateral forums to eliminate terrorism.
The fight against terrorism should be conducted in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and other established norms of international law. There should be a comprehensive approach, involving political, diplomatic, economic and other means, to address both the problem of terrorism and its underlying causes, in an effort to eliminate the root causes of terrorism. One of the root causes of terrorism is the spreading of immoral ideologies. Uncontrolled and false religious beliefs are the root cause of terrorism. As we said before, China supports all efforts to eradicate such ideologies as long as they are within the framework of the United Nations. Last but not least, each government knows how to deal best with the spread of terrorist ideologies within its borders.
Social (Aziz al Qatami):
Issue 1: Establishment of methods to enhance the status of women in developing countries.
The improvement of living conditions for people in developing countries has long been recognized as one of the most challenging issues. This problem affects all people but women are recognized to be among the most disadvantaged groups. In developing countries women live under the same conditions as men, but suffer much additional social and policy unfairness. Statistics estimate about 564 million women are living through poverty in 1988. The situation is worsening because of many possible explanations, and one of them is education. In many developing countries, the majority of women have lower social status to men, occupying the lowest paid and most insecure positions requiring the least skill.
Women are given less educational opportunities than men in the same society, for example globally it is estimated that 32% of women are literate. The percentage is much lower in developing countries, such as Africa and Asia. Female children may receive less nutritional and health care than male children. The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and the UN Committee on the Status of Women strengthened ideal of equal rights for men and women. Attitudes within households are responsible for the cause of this situation. Women in developing countries are like a piece of property that is traded between families; she is neglected of health during her childhood. The life expectancy of women in northern countries is thirty years more than that of their sisters in Ethiopia, Afghanistan, or Nepal. Nearly, half a million of women die annually of causes related to delivery and most of them is preventable. Women are responsible for a large proportion of the world's food production. Women's economic importance in terms of their contribution to global food production was only officially recognized in 1974 during the World Food Conference.
Gladly, women in China have equal rights after the Communist revolution in 1949. Women could own land, could be educated the same as men. Women are very recognized in the society. For Example, China outlines women contributed to economic and environmental development, such as Niu Yuqin, a woman who created a forest from desert land. Each year, 120 million Chinese women take part in the "March 8th Green Project" - a voluntary reforestation scheme. This caused the building of 60 thousand small orchards, mulberry fields, and other green bases. Truly women had important roles to the society. Chinese women constructed water conservation facilities, managed small drainage areas, collected organic fertilizers, and circulated new farming technologies. If women in developing countries had a role or a level in the society, the society will experience effective changes.
China assures that this issue has caused the death of lots of women in developing countries. Yet, developed countries are standing and doing nothing. China would like to point out reasonable solutions to increase the status of women in developing countries. One of them is to provide one or more educational program in countries that are affected most to young women and unemployed women in order to give them skills and knowledge that will help them enhance their status. Teachers, books, and other things must be sent as soon as possible. Education is a human right and is an essential tool for achieving the goals of equality, development, and the peace for women in poor countries. The education of women is an important key to improve the health, nutrition, and also empowers women to participate in decision-making in a society. The education of women and young girls has proven that it is one of the best means of achieving sustainable development and economic growth. Creation of an educational and social environment, in which women and men, girls and boys, are treated equally, reduces discrimination against women. Also, China thinks that by providing youth organizations, communities, and career planning could prepare women to participate in a society. Also, by providing the universal access in developing countries to ensure gender equality and those women are being educated.
China as a communist country wants all women to have equal rights in political, humanitarian, economic and other fields. China is looking for a resolution that is effective and is new and creative. The resolutions that were send in the General Assembly and the Security Council were not effective and didn’t have any action or didn’t proposed a way to solve the problem. In order to solve the problem, China is aware that enhancing the status of women in developing countries might be hard but if a resolution was made and developed a long term positive plan, then women could have a better and successful life. China thinks that a good resolution that provides educational programs to women and provides money. China thinks that the women’s status is considered very low because developing countries need money. By providing this money to countries in need and making them to sign an agreement that tells countries to use the money properly.
China also thinks that lots of youth organizations such as the as Leagues for Young Communists, Workers and Peasant Unions, and other work very hard to increase the status of women especially girls.
Issue 2: Long-term development plans for reestablishing the infrastructure of areas devastated by natural disasters.
A natural disaster is a catastrophe that occurs in the form of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, droughts, landslides, famine, and blizzards. These natural disasters affect nearly thousands of people globally each year. Natural hazards are continuing to affect Small Island developing States. Over the past two years, the Asian and Pacific region has suffered lots of heavy losses from natural disasters. It was estimated that the total damage in 1997 caused by floods was about $7,230 million in only seven countries. In 1998, the most extreme floods in several decades devastated several countries in the region, particularly Bangladesh, China, and Vietnam. Also, floods caused water shortages and forest fires in lots of developing countries. Earthquakes, tsunamis, forest fires, and lots of other natural disasters claimed thousands and thousands of lives and coasted nearly billions of dollars. The ESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific) aimed to collect information dealing with recent natural disasters affecting the region and the progress that had been made. In 2004, a tsunami was hit in the Pacific Ocean that caused the death of nearly 250,000 people. The USAID (the US. Agency for International Development) received $656 million to train teachers, rebuild roads and bridges. The TLC (Temporary Living Centers) has provided lots of people in the Pacific with food, water, and shelter. Natural disasters have caused the destruction of the economic status of developed and developing countries. Ten years ago, governments and international organizations made two global commitments towards reducing the impact of extreme events on the development process of Small Island developing States, they are the Barbados Program of Action (BpoA) and the World Conference on Disaster Reduction.
China points out that it is gladly to help the suffering countries. China encourages all developed countries such as France, Russia, and the United Kingdom to donate money, teachers, food supplies, medicines, construction workers, and etc.… China thinks that the most important plan is to build houses provide food and medicines. Countries in the Pacific Ocean are lying dead due to starvation and the lack of medical requirements. In order to build houses, China points out that developed countries have to donate construction workers to build. Doctors and nurses must examine ill people. According to Provincial Health Office (PHO), WHO and UNICEF, nearly 37,630 children between the ages of 6 months and 15 years are affected to malaria. The WFO and the WHO have to donate more money and send medical doctors to India, Indonesia, and Philippines. China applauds countries that are fully cooperating with the UN. China thinks that more foreign humanitarian organizations and agencies have to participate since these countries have asked for desperate help.
China is hoping that a good and a very detailed resolution will reduce the crisis. Every year thousands of people are killed, millions and millions of dollars are spent to improve the economy. Why is this happening? China thinks that this is happening because there is a lack of solutions. Yes, resolutions that were passed from the General Assembly weren’t detailed; in fact it was very vague. Some of the resolutions do have excellent solutions but the problem is that there is no long-term development plans. All resolutions that were passed from the GA only solve the problem for a year or two. However, a plan must be developed and must have at least a 15-year developing plan.
Also, China believes that such resolutions have to provide aid to suffering countries in the form of money or the form in sending volunteers. This assistance will be chosen by the country itself and China believes that by sending these assistance will not violate the national sovereignty of the country. Also, developing countries have to have equipped by satellites. These satellites will determine the weather and will predict if a hurricane, an earthquake, or a flood hits a country.
Issue 3: Addressing Terrorism
Terrorism is a method of repeated violent action employed from an individual or a group for criminal or political reasons. Terrorists attempt to show panic and also weaken the government of the targeted country. Terrorist groups consist of few members that have a limited firepower. Terrorism occurred throughout the history, probably 2000 years ago, and remains today in lots of countries. It frightens people around the world because of political, economic, or even religious purposes. According to following articles, the Security Council has to apply action against terrorists to ensure a stable environment for the people:
Article 39: "the Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security".
Article 40: The Security Council has to, call upon the parties concerned to comply with such provisional measures, as it deems necessary or desirable. Such provisional measures shall be without prejudice to the rights, claims, or position of the parties concerned. The Security Council shall properly take account of failure to obey with such provisional measures.
Article 41: The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations.
Article 49: The Members of the United Nations shall join in affording mutual assistance in carrying out the measures decided upon by the Security Council.
Terrorism and violence are the two problems China suffers from right now. The Chinese government has encouraged Han Chinese to settle in Tibet, this caused incidents of political violence including bombings to targeted people. China has ten different Muslim minorities totaling 17.5 million people. Fights between Hans and Muslims occurred, causing lots of problem in the Chinese society. But since the end of the Cultural Revolution, mosques have been allowed to reopen and Islamic education permitted because Chinese policy has been to tolerate religious minorities. The Chinese government thinks that the increase of violence during its recent years is from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan. Documents states that there are four or five Uighur nationalist political groups headquartered, former officers in the East Turkistan army run most of the attacks. However the governments of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan have begun an attack on such activities as part of an effort towards improving relations with China. Also, the Pakistani organization Tableeghi Jamaat is believed to have supplied arms to Muslim individuals. The region has little chance of gaining independence but the periodic violence is likely to continue.
China thinks that the most effective solution to decrease terrorism in the world is by send peacekeeping troops from the UN to countries were violence most occur. China also believes that fighting against terrorists have to be dealt with the principles of the UN charter.
Also China supports any effort made by countries in the UN if and only if the ideologies are within the framework of the UN. Countries who have terrorists’ organizations must be checked regularly and must send recent documents to the Security Council. Countries who are disobeying the laws and spreads violence and terror to the world must be punished right away. China urges all countries to think wisely and make the world a better place. The General Assembly resolutions must be effective and must have an action or a way to stop violence in Africa and Asia. Countries have to cooperate with each other in order to spread peace. Such cooperation includes armed forces, information, and other efficient equipment. China condemns terrorism in all of its parts and thinks that it endangers innocent lives, causes losses of social wealth, and jeopardizes state security.
China has already been in nine to twelve international conventions against terrorism and is very active in the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombing and the International Convention for the Suppression of Financing of Terrorism. The Security Council should play its objective part and establish an international anti-terrorism programs and facilities. Since the creation of the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombing and the International Convention for the Suppression of Financing of Terrorism, International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and a Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism, terrorism has decreased a little bit, more effective organizations must be developed. States are encouraged to participate in international anti-terrorism conventions. States should take necessary measures to cut off any financial, material, military and all other sorts of support to terrorists. China thinks that resolution 1373 adopted by the Security Council on September 28th should be implemented as soon as possible.
In order to eliminate international terrorism, efforts must be made to address both the sign and its essential causes. The international community should strengthen its efforts to get rid of terrorism and have to see the UN charter. The Chinese government has dedicated itself to the cooperation against terrorism and has developed the Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, Separatism, and Extremism.
Although China wants peace to the world, China doesn’t want the United Nations to send peacekeeping troops to its country because China is capable of dealing with its terrorists. Also, sending troops to China violates its national sovereignty. However, that doesn’t mean that China doesn’t want money from developing countries such as he US, France, and Britain. China will express its full appreciation to all countries that are helping to reduce terrorism in its society.
China is looking forward for a good resolution that will effectively reduce terrorism in many countries. China believes making an organization or a sub-organization is not a very good way to solve this problem. Since lots of organizations have been developed and by making an organization will waste lots of time. The most effective way is to order organizations and reminding them that there job is to help people and not sitting and doing nothing. Also, putting economical sanctions is not a very good idea because if these sanctions were raised then poor countries will be affected.
Also, China thinks that the United Nations must decrease terrorism. Also China thinks that when the UNDHR helps to reduce terrorism it’s considered meaningless and a waste of time. China thinks when other organizations including the United Nations help and cooperate with each other, terrorism will definitely decrease. Although China wants to decrease terrorism around the world, it is better for Western Nations such as the US and the UK to stay away from China because China fears that its government may be affected.
China thinks that most of the terrorism that occurs in our days is a result of poor education. Lots of countries have a shortage of schools, and lots of families don’t have enough money to provide their children with education. Families often send their children to very cheap schools were people teach them terrorist ideologies China thinks that there are lots of ways to reduce terrorist ideologies, some of them, is to: 1. Monitor schools regularly. 2. Check school curriculums.
Human Rights: Abdulla al Ibraheem
1. Towards the writing of a declaration of the rights of religious speech.
Religion is a personal idea that shouldn’t be public. People who publicly practice and call for their religion are considered law breakers. Although it is not necessary, some people would rather show it off. It is not essential to have a religion, however, a person has the right to do so. However, that person doesn’t have the right to spread, teach or call to his religion. The religion is personal and a person must keep it to itself. As a matter of fact, China believes that having religions will make differences and will have negative affects on the population. People will think differently of other people where they are really all equal. Since all people are equal, China believes that a person doesn’t have the right to belong to a secret society. This may cause a gigantic eruption in the equality of people. Therefore, China believes that having religions and spreading them will cause a really severe conflicts. The definition of religion is something optional that a person MUST keep to himself.
China believes that creating a declaration will intervene with national sovereignty. Each country has its own set of rules and system or ruling. Especially if the UN forces this declaration on countries. China believes that nobody has the right to teach or spread his religion. Religion will make differences and levels in the populations, when they are all really equal. If a person has a religion, he has the right to keep it personal, and there is no need for the religious speech. Religious groups who don’t adhere to this point are considered violators and should face the consequences of their actions. China urges all nations to choose the track those violators who cause devastation to a society. Religious groups should have extremely limited speech freedom, or hardly any. This is because of the negative influence they have on the society. Religion creates social gaps which creates classes to people who ARE equal.
2. The establishment of preliminary measures to combat child labor.
Though restrictions on child labor exist in most nations, an estimated 246 million children are engaged in child labor. Of those, almost three-quarters work in hazardous situations or conditions, such as working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or working with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, laboring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. Instead of getting education, many children choose, or are forced to work illegally. This is an extremely serious problem threatening the world community. This world-wide spread idea is mainly taking place in African nations, and Central Asian countries and other nations. China itself has this problem; however, China is committed to ending child labor. According to the ILO, China has ratified two ILO conventions on labor practices. China has pledged its support to eradicate this problem.
To start with, China officially bans work for children under the age of 16. To solve the problem, the state must offer compulsory education, in order to keep the under age busy. In addition, the state should also offer a substitute to students who need income to support their family. For example, an after-school program that allows students to work. This will be monitored and run by UN workers. Not only this, but the UN or UNESCO also monitors the educational system. This way, the students will go to school, in addition to working legally and support their families. No need for child labor in areas where it is illegal and dangerous. All of this of coarse, will be after the approval of the state itself. China would accept any procedure similar to the one above. The UN should have a greater share of its budget for educating and eliminating the threat of child labor.
3. A United Nations study on the role of the World Bank in preserving the rights of citizens in debt-ridden countries
Citizens in debt-ridden countries suffer directly and indirectly. Because of Rising debts, the country may act in a way that will negatively affect the citizens. For example, the government may print more money, which will make the value of the currency drop massively. Who will be affected? The citizens, the money they have won’t have any value. Not only this, but the country may also raise the taxes, which again make the poor level of the populations suffer in an inhumane way. The leading party is the major source of the problem, as it doesn’t own any property.
To solve this problem, China suggests that the country to change its ruling way. Capitalists don’t own much property in their area. There are many Non-Governmental Organizations. Because there are no governmental organizations, the country won’t have enough income. In a communist party, the government owns most of the organization, and therefore doesn’t need loans and fall in this trap of debts. China is willing to be an example to those nations, and serve financial aid to help nations overcome this problem. China believes that the World Bank should also consider the rights of the those specified nations and their citizens. In addition, the World Bank should re-establish the committee that would study the situations and come up with reasonable ways to minimize affect of the citizens. This organization is called Warsaw Pact, and its mission is to minimize the negative affect on the debt-ridden countries.
4. The rights of individuals detained indefinitely.
If a person uses his freedom in an incorrect way, or in a way to harm others, the only way to stop this is by taking away this freedom. The rights of the society override the right of a person. Detainees held indefinitely have been considered dangerous criminals and should face the consequence of their crime. Their rights are limited. The first, and most important, right is to have a fair trail. They also have their rights such as the right to practice their religion and prayers, live and other rights. They should not be beaten, tortured, insulted or humiliated. Other than this, they don’t have many other rights. Unfortunately, many nations blame other sovereign countries for violations of prisoners while THEY publicly violated those rights. One of the biggest examples is the Guantánamo Bay detention camp. Detainees have been captured in the claim of the war on terror, as they are captured and detained indefinitely without any clear reason or a fair trail.
China believes this is a very serious issue and should be handled cautiously. Since there are many violations, the UN needs to step in and take serious and effective action to stop this crisis. The UN should apply the law of individuals detained indefinitely and set consequences for any violators. Each state is responsible to adhere to this law or else it will face the consequences. The UN will treat any violation from any state and make sure that the country follows the law and doesn’t violate it. This way, the violating nations will make sure to be fair and issue the detainees all their legal rights. China publicly refuses inspection or intervention with the sovereignty of nations.
Disarmament: Bader al Omairi
1. A United Nations study on connections between foreign aid and build-up of conventional weapons in Africa
The proliferation of small arms and light weapons on the African continent is highly necessary. African presidents are complaining that those weapons have fueled conflicts and facilitated criminal and terrorist activities. African leaders are seeking the assistance of the international community in combating the excessive accumulation and illicit trafficking of those weapons.
China has always hoped for the best for the struggling continent of Africa. China is well-known for its high encouragement and respect for African efforts of fighting their weaknesses. We highly respect the Africa's national sovereignty and independence. China also congratulates all UN and foreign aid to help Africa solve its issues. The Chinese Government always bases itself on the principle of equality and mutual benefit in providing aid to other countries. It never regards such aid as a kind of unilateral alms but as something mutual. This is why China believes that its dreadfully unfair to blame African leaders for the spreading on conventional on their land. It would be unjust to ask all African leaders to face all challenges in their own. We shouldn’t blame the African leaders for the spread of those weapons because a mechanism to control them is lacking. It is the responsibility of the UN members to come up with this mechanism to control the "plague" small weapons. This is the joint responsibility of the functioning bodies of the United Nations. Limiting the spread of such weapons should be taken through increased UN inspective forces to eradicate the smuggling of conventional weapons. So, let’s take action instead of pointing fingers at African leaders.
2. Measures to eliminate the use of child soldiers in combat.
Children are our coming generation. This facts makes this issue highly disturbing. China is especially disturbed by the harmful and widespread impact of armed conflict on children and the long-term consequences this has for durable peace, security and development. China strongly condemns this unmoral targeting of children. We consider it to be a violation of international laws and treaties.
China has always known how to protect is children, and hopes that other states will know what action to take. In order to solve this issue, the root causes need to be solved first. China encourages conducting UNICEF researches to find out the reasons for recruiting children as soldiers. China also urges the necessity of taking into consideration the economic, social and political root causes of the involvement of children in armed conflicts. To tackle the issue, those root causes need to be eradicated too. The special needs of those children also need to be met.
3. The formation/re-establishment of an improved anti-ballistic Missiles (ABM) treaty involving more global support.
China has always believed in states’ right to self-defense. Therefore, China recognizes the importance of defensive anti-ballistic missiles. China has always been cooperative when it came to ratifying effective treaties. ABM treaty is a treaty for nations to have an anti ballistic missiles defense. This will stop any nuclear bombs or cruise missiles fired at a country. However, the treaty at the time being is a major failure. Not all nations deserve the power that the treaty is offering the. Some nations will abuse the privilege, and we can’t afford to risk that. China will only ratify the treaty when it imposes appropriate limits and boundaries. The treaty has to guarantee limited power of certain nations to attack. As we said not all nations deserve certain privileges.
4. The arms build-up in the straits of Taiwan.
Twain (a province in china) people clam Taiwan is an independent country. And should have its own rights. But it is a province in china. Some rebels have formed and have weapons and there is starting to be a weapons build-up. The USA is interfering into an issue that’s none of its business by selling arms to Taiwan. We demand the US to stop such ridiculous actions.
China is against this issue being in the UN. This is an internal issue. And also China is only willing to discuss this issue in the GA, but in will not allow inspectors and other peace keepers into china. Although china will allow the GA to give china aid and the power to crack down on these rebels. Taiwan will always be part of China, which is something for Taiwan to be proud of. Also china would like the UN to stop the USA of selling weapons to Taiwan. China knows how to keep the situation under control, and will do anything necessary to protect its own land, people, and sovereignty.
Ahmed al Mughni: China-Environment
1. Combating environmental racism in countries around the world:
The racism relating to the environment, unlike social racism doesn’t necessarily concern color or ethnics. Environmental racism concerns the dumping of wasted by economically large nations onto smaller nations or communities, which don’t have the voice to declare "no". Many times this involves the dumping of pollution and toxic substances on human communities and habitats, or the placement of heavily polluting industries and unpleasant public works facilities such as sewage treatment plants by these areas without any concern on how the people will be afected or will react. For example, worldwide toxic-waste sites are more prevalent in poorer communities. The USA have been accused of doing so, because it comes out that "Three of the five largest commercial hazardous-waste landfills in America are in predominantly black or Hispanic neighborhoods, and three out of every five black or Hispanic Americans live in the vicinity of an uncontrolled toxic-waste site". And till today, American cooperation’s have continually shipped their hazardous wastes to developing nations.
To point out China gives its full pride to itself since it doesn’t dump its nuclear and other wastes in poorer countries. China thinks that the best way to reduce environmental racism is to put economic sanctions on developed or developing countries. By putting these sanctions lots of countries will think back and will not think of dumping the wastes in the land of poor countries. China urges all nations to reduce environmental racism as soon as possible. It could be reduced, if the UN puts economic sanctions to countries, or establishing more harsh laws and regulations in developed and developing countries then the problem reduces significantly. Also, China thinks that the UN has to provide cleaning techniques to poor countries, to clean the wastes that have been dumped by developed countries.
2. Maintaining biodiversity in areas of the world prone to habitat destruction:
Habitat destruction is a worst threat to species than being hunted down by humans. Hunting targets individual species but destroying a habitat affects all organisms in that area. The main reasons for destroying habitats are the expansion of human agriculture, which mainly destroys forests, wet, and grass lands. And for rain forests, logging has been typically used to destroy its habitats. The importance of these reasons may vary, but still play an immense role in habitat destruction. As the human population grows, people use more land to build homes and harvest resources. It is estimated that habitat loss causes 75 percent of the extinctions now occurring. Most habitat destruction occurs in developing countries because these countries have poor soil and farmers have to travel and go to another land because of farming and animal grazing.
China feels that this topic is sometimes over exaggerated. If a steady plan is made out, then there should be no more problems, the basic method is to log or farm evenly. China thinks that the best way is to develop harsh laws and regulations. Most nations including the US, developed laws and regulations that prevented the extinction of many species. An important law was established in 1973 when the US congress passed the Endangered Species Act that protected lots of plants and animal species. If these laws were established in developing countries, then habitat destruction will be reduced. China thinks that it’s useless to make an organization since lots of organizations worked to protected species on a worldwide basis. Such as the World Wildlife Fund, The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International, Friends of Earth, Greenpeace International, and the IUCN (International Union of Nature and Natural Resources). China thinks that there are lots of ways to slow the loss of species. There are lots of ways to decrease the loss of animals and plant species, such as building captive breeding programs, botanical gardens, and germ- plasma banks.
3. Establishing an international disaster relief network:
Natural disasters are becoming more and more vicious and have a lot more of destruction and fatalities, mostly because of the larger population. In the last two years there were a record amount of natural disaster, the Tsunami that hit Southeast Asia and hurricane Katrina in the USA are the ones that really show out. These disasters nearly affect thousands of people every year.
We may not have away to accurately predict when and where a natural disaster but we must try to cut down the aftershocks after receiving one. It is great to see many nations help out one another every time, however, it is much better to have an official agency to sort out the needs to the wounded, families of fatalities, and the homeless. It would also hopefully cut down the diseases caused by a disaster, like what happened to our neighbors.
China thinks that every suffering nation must be provided with either money or assistance. This money might be collected by donating countries or will be provided by the World Bank. Also, China thinks that by sending volunteer workers such as doctors, nurses, teachers, and etc. is a very good way to solve this problem. Suffering nations must be provided with assistance and aid as soon as possible because people are dying very quickly. It our duty as nations from the UN to help these countries who are desperately needed. Also, China urges the WHO and the FAO to send more aid such as medical and food to suffering countries. China also applauds to the UNEP, due to full cooperation towards solving natural disasters. The UNEP strengthened the importance of managing the natural disasters caused by nature.
4. Combating water pollution (caused by toxic material in lakes, rivers, seas, and oceans)
In the last 20 years, developed nations have made enormous solutions in cleaning up water supplies that were polluted. Due to the lack of clean water, the economy of the country soon decreases dramatically. Water pollution in less developed countries remains a big problem. In very poor countries, industry is not the cause of water pollution. The problem comes from the population itself that has outgrown the water supply. It has two causes industrialization and the human population expansion.
China thinks that world and the people had enough with dirty water and diseases that aggravated lots of people. China thinks that by establishing laws and regulations that minimize the production of pollutants such as carbon dioxide, and lead. These laws and regulations must not be very harsh to countries, because if pollution was cut down very fast, then the economy of countries will be reduced. The United Nations has to help both developed and developing countries by providing humanitarian and financial assistance. By providing this money, China and lots of other countries will invest this money and will reduce pollutants by providing new techniques such as scrubbers in factories, catalysts, and other ways. However, China thinks that if the UN puts economical sanctions on countries that continually produce pollution, the problem will not be resolved. Since lots of developing countries produce pollution and if the UN puts economic sanctions to developing countries, the economy will decrease since the economy of lots of developing countries is very low.
Also, China believes that toxic chemicals must not be dumped into lakes and oceans. These wastes have to be dumped in lands were the wastes is away from people and the environment. China thinks that the UN has to provide assistance to all needed countries, such as providing cleaning techniques that cleans wastes from water.
Issue 1: Establishment of methods to enhance the status of women in developing countries. Country: China Commission: Social Defining that a developing nation according to dictionary.com, is less industrialized and their citizens have a much lower average income (between $40-$130 a year), Deeply Concerned, according to tcd.ie, women are given less educational opportunities than men in developing countries and globally it is estimated that 32% of women in the world are literate (960 million illiterate adults in the world are women),
Keeping in Mind that according to the Oxford Encyclopedia, two-thirds of the world’s work is done by women; they earn less than 70% of the male earnings and own less than 7% of the world’s wealth,
Noting that, according to china.org.cn, 120 million Chinese women take a part in the "March 8th Green Project" - a voluntary reforestation scheme, every year and this project caused the building of 60 thousand small orchards, mulberry fields, and other green bases as stated in,
Referring to Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states, "Everyone has the right to education. Elementary education shall be free... compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights.... "
1) Calls upon for the creation of WERO (Women Equal Rights Organization), which acts as a sub-organization of OHCHR (United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights), which will do the following: A. Provide and improve lifelong educational programs and awareness programs to countries in need, these programs will be checked and monitored by the WERO every 6 months and will teach women about: 1. Leadership and partnership training that will help women to take a level in the society, 2. Workforce training and career development;
2) Provide scholarships and money to women, the money will be either provided by donating countries or the World Bank, the country who receives the money have to sign an agreement made by the WERO, which tells the country to use that money properly, also this agreement will be kept by the UN, and all of the funds will be monitored regularly;
3) Provide a regional training center supported by the UN and it will be in Africa, the specified region will be determined when this resolution passes;
4) Ensure countries that women will have full and equal access to all levels of education to improve their status the WERO: A. Will make sure that women will have an access by asking the Ministry of Education to check on them twice a year, B. The WERO will send annual documents every year to the UN explaining the situation and improvements about the women status, C. Enhance awareness about the status of women and education through media such as commercials, advertisements, posters, flyers, and if countries don’t have the media, the WERO will send people (messengers) and aware them about their status and the importance of education in their lives, D. Consists of 20 members, 5 members from developed countries and the 15 remaining members will be from developing countries, the members will be chosen by the UN and will work on a 4 year rotating basis, E. Establish laws and regulations that will ensure women to have full and equal rights to own land and other property, including through the right of inheritance, access to markets and information, and if anyone who violates these laws will be punished, and the punishments will be determined by the SC, F. Create jobs for women in developing countries were the women’s status is very low by: i. Providing educational programs provided by the WERO that will teach women career development such as making pottery, sewing clothes, and carpets, ii. Encouraging women to work in factories, in their house, in their communities, in farms, and etc.;
5. Declares that countries in need will be eligible to apply the WERO according: A. If they have terrible financial status, B. If they have deteriorating financial status;
6. Affirms that the WERO will have the responsibility to make a plan that will emphasize the importance of education by sending experts provided by the WERO to countries in need and this plan will: A. Monitor the educational programs, by: i. Checking the curriculum of the educational programs every 1 year, ii. Sending WERO members to these programs, the members will make an appointment with programs making sure that it is well organized, planned, and includes main subject areas, B. Monitor the financial aid (money) provided by countries and the World Bank, the aid will be monitored by keeping accurate documents, and as stated in clause 1, sub-clause 2, countries have to sign an agreement, C. Distribute the money to countries in need according to the country’s financial status, D. Improve educational programs by improving and updating the knowledge of teachers in specific subject areas, their knowledge would be updated with researches, news, books, articles, and other resources provided by the WERO;
7. Takes note that the WERO would have its headquarters in Switzerland, Geneva, and will have annual meetings every 4 months and if an emergency happens, a conference will be held immediately, and the WERO will have 15 branches, 5 in Africa, 5 in Asia, and 5 in South America and will discuss the following issues: participation of women in social issues, economic issues, humanitarian issues, and environmental issues;
8. Declares that the WERO will send teachers if required in Africa, South America, and Asia, and these teachers will be women, and the number of teachers will be decided when this resolution is passed and these teachers will teach: Mathematics, Science, Technology, and Leadership;
9. Further reminds that the WERO will ask: A. The OHCHR to elect a president, a vice president, and 5 senates regularly every 4 four years, B. The Ministry of Education of the country to check the school’s curriculum regularly twice a year to be sure that they are in the right track;
10. Expresses its hope that the WERO will reduce the illiteracy of women and will enhance the status of women to countries in need.
Delegation: China Committee: Disarmament Delegate: Bader al Omairi Issue: The arms build-up in the straits of Taiwan
Further Noting that Taiwan should stop its worthless and illogical attempts at independence for the following reasons: A. It is originally a Chinese province, B. It has brought a lot of harm upon its government and people, C. It would save china, bordering states, and most importantly itself, a lot of political, financial, economical trouble;
Bearing in Mind that Taiwan is originally a china state, clarifying the reason for it to declaim its independence;
Believing that Taiwan is not an independent state and should not be considered as one and that it is an integral state/part of China;
Realizing that Taiwan is unable and unqualified for securing its people and protecting, supporting, and aiding them;
Reaffirming the disabilities faced by Taiwan, which put it at a foul disposition for independence, and these disabilities are: A. Taiwan does not posses the capabilities that qualify it for the big responsibility of taking care of its own people, B. The willingness of Taiwan to put its people, civilians, government in grave danger;
Further Realizing that The china can support an extra state amongst its own and is capable of providing the necessary supplements for the advantage of Taiwan;
Desiring and Expecting no help or aid from the UN in this issue, especially in reference to the following: A. China’s responsibility and its common sense in taking care of all of its states, B. China’s willingness in helping Taiwan refugees in Ingushetia even though Taiwan has been causing Russia a lot of problems lately, (esp. the apartment buildings’ bombings);
Noting that the United States itself and other countries have, in the past, denied independence to provinces that attempt to unilaterally declare independence from the country, and that these have been put down sometimes by force in: A. The American Civil War, B. The British efforts to retain Northern Ireland, C. The French efforts to suppress independence movements in Algeria, Vietnam, and other places and in their incorporation of certain former colonies as "Departments of France";
Reminding the states of the GA and the SC of the general principles of National sovereignty that include non-interference in the internal affairs of fully-functioning states,
1. Affirms that Taiwan is a Chinese province, and not an independent one;
2. Emphasizes that Taiwan should stop its failed attempts at independence;
3. Regrets the fact that Taiwan doesn’t know what it is putting itself up against when it is demanding independence, and it is going to face: A. Economic and financial deficiencies, B. Political and governmental insufficiency and weaknesses, C. Shortages in food and crops, D. Many possible deaths due to the following: i. Starvation, ii. Lack of shelter, iii. Potential large-scale military and army attacks;
6. Expresses its Hope that the UN will not interfere regarding the status of china’s states and their well-being and regarding the fact that china is capable of handling this situation, (as with many other situations);
7. Expresses its Hope that Taiwan will understand the reality of the consequences of its independence and will, henceforth, declaim its independence and stop its attempts at independence;
8. Resolves China reunites with the province of Taiwan peacefully in which: A. Socialist system will be practiced in the main part of China and the capitalist system will be practiced in the province of Taiwan. B. Social systems will co-exist peacefully without one swallowing the other. C. The USA withdraws all of it’s forces in the region and will stop selling weapons to the province of Taiwan, and especially withdraws it’s forces from Japan since they are causing a regional continuos tension and threat. D. The province of Taiwan will have a Special Administrative Region in which this Special Administration will handle every issue concerning the province of Taiwan with the permission of the main government of China;
9. Further Reminds that Taiwan is not an independent state, so it should not be referred to as one, and that it was originally, and still is a china state;
10. Request China to take actions towards the issue of the province of Taiwan by sending a committee studying the current situation in the province of Taiwan;
11. Has resolved that Taiwan will end its efforts at independence and will reclaim itself a china state, which would be for the good of all;
12. Further Resolves that this situation will be under the complete control of china and china troops and mercenaries, and that the UN will have no involvement whatsoever in this china-controlled matter;
13. Resolves that china will solve its own problems on its own with no interference whatsoever from any organizations whatsoever.
Country: China Issue: The issue of the establishment of preliminary measures to combat child labor. Student: Abdulla al Ibraheem
Deeply concerned that The International Labor Organization (ILO) has estimated that 250 million children between the ages of five and fourteen work in developing countries-at least 120 million on a full time basis,
Noting with regret that, according to The Human Rights Watch Organization (HRW), %61 of these child workers are in Asia, %32 in Africa, and %7 in Latin America,
Noting with deep concern that, according to The Human Rights Watch Organization (HRW), some child workers have been tortured or abused, according to HRW (Human Rights Watch), 4 year old workers have been tied to rug looms to keep them from running away,
Having studied that, according to The Human Rights Watch Organization (HRW), child labor ranges from four-year-olds to seventeen-year-olds helping out on the family farm,
Draws attention that, according to The Human Rights Watch Organization (HRW), in some cases, a child's work can be helpful to him or her and to the family; working and earning can be a positive experience in a child's growing up. This depends largely on the age of the child, the conditions in which the child works, and whether work prevents the child from going to school,
Viewing with appreciation the fact that China’s Government officially bans work for children under the age of 16,
Concerned that the ILO is failing in its mission since there are enormous number of child labors,
Welcoming the ILO and any other organization of country willing to take action is solving this issue,
1) Declares the creation of a sub-organization of the ILO, called UNOCCL (United Nations Organization to Combat Child Labor), the organization will have its: A. Headquarters in Switzerland (Area closest to the working field.), B. President elected by the ILO, vice president elected by the UNESCO (knowing that this organization will be a combination, in which the UNESCO will help in schools and ILO will deal with the labor issue), C. Workers of UNESCO to help with schools, as explained further in this resolution, D. Divides the combat into two stages, researching stage and combating child labor stage;
2) Requests that the UNOCCL will first: A. Identify the factories in countries that use children as labor force, B. Research the children condition, needs, and reasons for those children to work, C. asks the permission from countries before working with that nation, D. Provide reasonable incentives to countries to encourage them to act as soon as possible, such as, but not limited to: 1. Suggest lifting sanctions from cooperating nations, 2. Provide financial aid to government to enhance educational levels, E. Create a well trained team called the "convincing team" to convince the parents of the children of the importance school. , in ways such as, but not limited to: 1. Holding lectures by specially chosen experts to discuss the issue, 2. Public awareness in media means, (i.e. radio, TV, even flyers) F. Locate near by schools that children could attend instead of working;
3) Further requests that the UNOCCL after finishing the first stage of researching to act on stage two to: A. Divide the work into countries that need them most like 61% in Asia 32 Africa 7% America, B. Provide children that attend school instead of work a daily meal. C. Improve the education system on buildings of schools that many labor children attend according to the budget and the severity of the condition which the UNOCCL should evaluate, D. Offer families of children how pass school annual grants and honor students with great grants to encourage children to go to schools, E. Supports law suits against the host of the children at their labor, and sue the industry;
4) Accepts all donations from countries and individuals since the more donation given the more successful the program is;
5) Urges the UN to increase its budget in favor of minimizing the number of child labors and take action to re-construct the future of the children;
6) Strongly urges all nations to cooperate and take any action to decrease or solve the issue in hand.
Resolution (Environment): Delegation: China Forum: Environmental Issue: Combating environmental racism in countries around the world
Defined as "racial discrimination in environmental policy making and the enforcement of regulations and laws; the deliberate targeting of people of color communities for toxic and hazardous waste facilities; the official sanctioning of the life-threatening presence of poisons and pollutants in our communities; and the history of excluding people of color from the leadership of the environmental movement" by the Toxic Waste Lupus Coalition,
Understands we suffer from the remnants of this sordid history, as well as from new and institutionalized forms of racism, which coincides with profits before people, as off the actions being done by nations setting up extremely toxic wasteland on a community of color, and acknowledges that polluted air spreads through the atmosphere very quickly, garbage thrives, and with little space for disposal and removal, and poisons gases destroy the ozone layer that may cause global warming; deforestation leads to soil erosion, a lack of carbon storage, poor fresh water quality and quantity, and the extinction of species, thanks to the studies of the "Holt" ecologists,
Condemns that the fellow Veto nation, USA, has located three of their five largest commercial hazardous waste landfills in communities of color, by the statistics made by the Corp Watch Organization,
Bearing In mind that globalization has sparked environmental racism around the world, with developed countries often seeking off to developing countries as new dumping grounds for unwanted and often toxic wastes, unfortunately, these countries often lack the appropriate infrastructure to sufficiently handle the environmental and health troubles that go along with these hazards, as of the studies made by the International Corp Watch Organization,
1. Establishes the Environmental Justice Court (EJC) as a new branch of the Hague Intentional Criminal (ICJ);
2. Affirms the each sitting would consisted of: A. One Environmental Judge, B. Two Environment Commissioner, C. Two regional environment expertise;
3. Approves the court’s work include of the following sections: A. Public works as in energy projects, hospitals, schools, prisons, fire stations, and major private projects such as dairy factories, tourist resorts, or shopping centers, B. Water works such as water conservation, toxic dumping on sea, lakes and rivers; sewage works, underground mining and permits for water dams and diversions, C. Land division pollution causing factories, highways for sewage movements, and dumping in forests D. Environmental enforcement forcing, revising, or creating new environmental laws;
4. Reaffirms that the ECJ court proceedings that are discussed on the different branches, is to protect the rights of humans; the goals of each single division are basic environment goals which the EJC plans to achieve; the EJC plans to: A. Stop the corrupting of spiritual and ancestral land, B. Misuse water resources which includes the use for electrical generation, C. Cut down the destruction of the physical feature of the environment, D. Cut down the amount of noise pollution surrounding inhabited areas, E. Increase public safety and awareness; caution the damage after natural disasters happen near an inhabited toxic site such as earthquakes or flooding;
5. Approves that all parties at the court are represented as lawyers, appear in person, or be represented by another agent; and because of the gravity and complexity of the matter at hand of the measures, oral decisions may be given, and decisions are announced at another meeting scheduled ate a later date.
SC (Mays Abdulaziz):
Honorable chairs and fellow delegates,
Before we proceed, People Republic’s of China would like to express its honor and pride to be present here for discussing crucial issues we face today. China has always been a nation of success, glory, and power. As one of our Confucius philosophers once said, "Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall. China has always known how to take overcome obstacles and thrive, and we are here to contribute with our competent abilities.
In China and Asia we believe that the benefit of society comes before the benefit of the individual, therefore we should achieve what is best for the international community first. Our self-interest comes after we achieve what is best for all of us. Therefore, some states need to stop being selfish. We all have equal rights and privileges in the United Nations, which is the basis of Chinese and Asian ideologies. It is a joint responsibility of all of us to tackle the issues at hand only within the framework of the United Nations.
One of our proverbs says, "One cannot refuse to eat, just because there is a chance of being choked." We should all keep this proverb in mind when dealing with Iran. We should have faith in Iran, and give it the chance to cooperate as it has always done.
Regarding the issue of forming a stable Iraqi state, "only when all contribute their firewood can they build up a strong fire" this is also one of our proverbs. Only the international community as a whole is able to contribute to building a strong Iraqi state. The community as a whole is always stronger than the individual. That’s why we need to EQUALLY share benefits and responsibilities when rebuilding Iraq,
It is a joint responsibility of all of us to tackle the issues at hand only within the framework of the United Nations.
One proverb too many still!
General Assembly (Abullah Ibrahim)
Honorable Chairs, fellow delegates,
Our great mother China has been for many centuries has been the source of the most respected humans to ever exist on the face of earth. Our homeland is an ancient civilization full of dragons and mythology, China’s history goes back to more than 5,000 years ago! China represents one gigantic family with its population of 1.3 billion people. Those people are protected with the only man-constructed wonder that can be seen from the moon! The great wall of China cannot protect the whole world.
China is truly concerned about how a such an independent state can claim its independence. Countries that are unaware of China’s fascinating history tend to aid that state which is a part of China. China CAN deal with its own issues, and can return one part BACK to its land. China believes it can create one ENORMOUS wall to shield the WHOLE world, so stand with us today.
Security Council, Mays Al-Saad
This KFSAC conference was one the most challenging and entertaining conferences I participated in. Since it was only my second time in Security Council, it was truly a whole new experience for me. It involved higher intensity of debating and negotiating. Representing a superpower, made the debate even more challenging. Unlike debate in the General Assembly, every word I said counted and had its effects on the other delegates. Also, in the Security Council I was taken seriously and I received great attention. What made the Council even more intriguing, are all the other delegates. Those delegates where more professional, experienced, mature, and prepared for an intense debate. Their high sense of humor and speaking skills made the Council shine. All I could say, is that this conference was truly unforgettable.
What made the event far more entertaining is representing China. There is great controversy around Chinese politics, which made defending Chinese ideologies a demanding task. However, as a Chinese delegate I managed to achieve a lot for China. First, I passed a clause on the Iranian issue. If we were in the real world, this clause would really satisfy Chinese-Iranian relations, and China would get all the oil it wants. Further more, I passed another clause on the fledgling Iraqi state. This clause satisfies the Chinese goal of benefiting from the Iraqi situation. It also minimizes the power of the coalition forces, and gives the UN more power. Also, regarding the Spartley Islands issue, I succeeded in guaranteeing China at least 50% of the oil in the islands. This showed me how threatening to use you VETO power can get a state what it wants. The more affluence a state has, the more its gets. Not only does this apply in the real United Nations, this also applies in MUN.
Abdulaziz Al-Qatami, Social
My wish had become true when I wished in 2004 to become the delegate of China. During the KFSAC event I met lots of new people in Kuwait, I consider myself to be honored to have met these people. In the social commission committee, we debated four issues, In lobbying and merging, I made 40 countries to sign on my resolution. Russia, France, UK, and lots of other countries signed. The humor was that when the delegate of the United States signed my resolution without knowing that were are enemies. After an hour passed by, she came to me and said that she has to delete her country’s name because we were enemies. I was the main submitter for my resolution and it passed the approval panel after 4 hours of really hard work. When the crisis was brought to our commission, I stated my country’s point of view towards the issue. I found out that it was really useful to prefer to the policy statements during a crisis. I really enjoyed being the delegate of China in the social committee.
Abdulla al Ibraheem: China - Amb.
In the KSAA 2005, I was the ambassador of China. I represented China in the Human Rights Commission. For China's point of view, I wrote a resolution on the issue of child labor. The resolution was a step towards the solving and minimizing child labor. I merged the resolution with China's allies and many other nations concerned by the issue. I was the main submitter. The resolution was approved and was debated in the Human rights commission. With a very intense debate, China and its allies managed to pass the resolution. This is very important for China to pass the resolution. This shows and clearly proves China's existence and power in the General Assembly. In addition, I stressed on showing China's point of views regarding the emergency situation. China was powerful and clearly stressed on its own sovereignty and the sovereignty of China's allies.
Bader Al-Omairi: China Disarmament
In the KSAA 2005, I was the delegate of China in the Disarmament Commission, I wrote a horrible resolution on the issue of arms build up in the straits of Taiwan. I was the main co-submitter in the resolution with Cuba. it was approved by the panel, and we had an amazing debate in the commission. as china, the crisis really affected me. I up held my countries policy on the issue, and when France tried to enter my country, i said , and i am quoting myself, "France we have are nukes, are scuds, and troops. you want to come in, come and get in!". and all the delegates were awing at me. i controlled most of the debate in my commission. the only time the chair kept china out of the issue is when i was in the General assembly, the chair was more powerful than the secretary general. and picked his own class mates. and it was very offensive to me.
Ahmed Al Abdulmugni : China Environmental
The 2005 KSAA MUN event was held at AIS. I was the representative of China at the Environmental forum. The first day all delegates lobbied and merged their resolutions.