Students: Mohammad Al-Mailam: Social-Ambassador Yasmeen Dashti-Environmental Abdulaziz Al-Mutawa-Disarmament Reem Al-Thekair-Human Rights
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Political Structure: (Mohamed)
Fidel Castro has been the head of state and head of government since 1959, first as prime minister and, after the abolition of that office in 1976, as president of the Councils of State and Ministers. He is also a member of the National Assembly of People's Power from the municipality of Santiago de Cuba since 1976, First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, and commander in chief of the armed forces. And that the president is obviously running a communist country, meaning every individual or citizen is and would be treated as an equal. However Fidel Castro the president has turned to a dictator ship where runs everything going in that country, where it acts as a communist nation in front of all other nations, to be treated with respect and to act as a civil nation.
In Cuba there is only one political party that is lead by the countries president Fidel Castro. It is know as the Cuban Communist Party or PCC. Since the mid-1960s, Cuba's sole legally recognized political party, the PCC, has been the paramount institution of the regime. In the early 1990s, the PCC claimed almost 1.5 million members, or approximately 10 percent of the population. The PCC performs many roles within Cuban society. Among them, the most important is that of ideological "rudder" of the regime. As the sole institution with exclusive authority to decide fundamental political, economic, and social issues, the PCC determines the parameters within which all other institutions--most notably the state--may operate.
Geography (Yasmeen D)
Cuba is a country that lies in Central America and has various landforms on its land. Cuba lies about 140 kilometers of Key West, Florida, USA; and since Cuba is really close to one of the states of the United States, many illegal Cuban immigrants are found in the USA. Not only that, but recently Hurricane Katrina hit the US which in return affected Cuba with Hurricane Rita. Heavy rain and waves were sent by Hurricane Katrina in August 2005 that forced many people to be evacuated from the central and western part of the island, including the capital Havana. Later in September 2005, Hurricane Rita blasted the island where many homes, plantations and businesses were destroyed.
The Cuban mainland is the largest and the westernmost island in the West Indies with a varied landscape in which most fertile farms lie between the mountains ranges and in the northern and southern parts are forests where most of the population is situated at. 200 harbors along the coast of the island have narrow entrances which protects the inner area against winds and waves. The most important harbors include Havana in the northern coast, Guantanamo and Santiago de Cuba in the southern coast. Surrounding the islandís main land are 1,600 islands; the largest island, the Isle of Youth, is covered with forests in the northern and southern parts, and flat marshes lie in the center.
The semi-tropical climate of Cuba make helps it grow resources like bananas, sugar, coffee and tobacco. Because of its geographical location, Cuba faces a lot of hurricanes during the summer. Also, Cuba suffers from other disasters such as water pollution, droughts, biodiversity loss, and deforestation which are the most critical environmental issues in the Cuban territory.
Natural Resources (Yasmeen D)
Most of Cuban land is arable land that is used to grow crops that are used to feed its people and has the potential to produce its own goods; however, because of the US embargo, Cuba has little people to trade with. The access to harbors enables Cubans to transport agricultural products to foreign markets. The agriculture sector contributes about 65% of Cuba's GDP and provides jobs for 21% of the workforce. Cuba mainly exports sugar, nickel, citrus fruits, seafood, and tobacco (cigars). It exports to Russia, Canada, Netherlands, and Spain. Cubaís imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, food, fuel, lubricants and oil which gets it from Spain, Russia, Mexico, Canada and Venezuela.
One quarter of Cuban land is covered with forests that include trees like pine trees and mahogany. Due to Cuba's tropical climate, fertile soil and mineral deposits, Cuban farms are grown with citrus fruits, vegetables and, most importantly, sugar canes that the most important crop in Cuba and is exported. Tobacco is also grown in northwestern Cuba and is the second most important crop.
Other natural resources include offshore oil fields and large deposits of limestone that are used in making cement and fertilizers. Other deposits include chromate, copper, iron, manganese, gold, sulfur, cobalt, pyrites, gypsum, asbestos, oil, salt, sand and clay. However, Cuba also has one of the world's largest nickel ore reserves (11% of the world) that lie in northeastern Cuba.
Cultural Factors: (Reem)
During the past decades there have been serious changes in the Cuban Cultural Factors! Cubaís multiracial society consists of mainly Spanish and African origins. With a population of 11,346,670, Cubaís population is divided into four main ethnic groups, mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11% and Chinese 1%. The largest organized religion is the Roman Catholic Church, many Protestant demonstrations have continued to grow rapidly. Other religions are Afro-Cuban religions, a blend of native African religions and Roman Catholicism, are widely practiced in Cuba. For most of the Castro era, Cuba has been an atheist state. In 1962, the government of Fidel Castro seized and shut down more the 400 Catholic schools, claiming that they spread dangerous beliefs amongst the people. In 1991, the Communist Party lifted the prohibition against religious believers seeking membership, one year later the constitution was amended to characterize the state as secular instead of non-believing. Until the Cuban constitution recognizes the right of freedom of religion, the government De Facto restricts that freedom. Since Cuba has adopted communism, there is little to no racial tensions between the community.
The Cuban Council Churches (CCC) consists of 22 denominations including, including Presbyterians, Episcopalians, and Methodists. Although the government doesnít favor any one particular religion or church; it does appear to be more tolerant of the churches that maintain close relations to the State through the CCC. Unregistered religious groups experience various degrees of official interference, harassment, and repression. The Ministry of Interior engages in active efforts to control and monitor the country's religious institutions, including through surveillance, infiltration and harassment of religious professionals and practitioners. The most independent religious organizations continue to operate under significant restrictions and pressure imposed on them by the Cuban regime.
The Cuban Government continues to refuse to allow the church to have independent full access to the media; to train enough priests for its needs or allow sufficient numbers of foreign priests to work in the country; or to establish socially useful institutions, including schools and universities, hospitals and clinics, and nursing homes. Luckily, in 1998 Pope John Paul II visited Cuba; this visitation was extremely important since his visit brought out a message of hope and the need for respect of human rights. Unfortunately, the improvements that were made during his visit did not continue, after he left. The Cuban Conference of Catholic Bishops in February 2003 openly criticized the governmentís strict control over the activities of the Catholic Church, especially state restrictions on religious education and Church access to mass media.
His relationship with Pope John Paul II was somewhat better. In the early 1990s Castro agreed to loosen restrictions on religion and even permitted church-going Catholics to join the Cuban Communist Party. After the Pope accused the U.S. ban on Cuba as "unjust and ethically unacceptable", the relationship between the Pope and Castro improved, to the point that the Pope even visited Cuba in 1998, the first visit by a ruling bishop to the island. Castro and the Pope appeared side by side in public on several occasions during the visit, and afterwards. Cubans were allowed to mark Christmas as a holiday again and to hold religious processions. After the Pope's death in April 2005, Castro attended a mass in his honor in Havana's cathedral. His previous visit to the cathedral had been in 1959, 46 years earlier, for the wedding of one of his sisters. Cardinal Jaime Ortega, who led the mass, welcomed Castro, who was dressed in a dark suit, and expressed his gratitude for the "heartfelt way the death of our Holy Father John Paul II was received (in Cuba)."
Since Cuba has adopted communism there has been little to no signs of racism between members of the community. Unfortunately, the Cuban government has shut down 400 catholic schools in Cuba! Since catholic is the largest religion practiced in Cuba, pope John Paul II has visited Cuba twice to try to loosen the restrictions on the practicing of religion, even tried to permit church going Catholics to join the Cuban communist party. During his second visit, the message that he brought with him was heard! Cubans were allowed to mark holidays, practice religions. For the first time in 46 years Castro attended a mass in honor of Pope John Paul II in Havanaís Cathedral.
Cuba has avoided the severe repression of the old Communist governments in the USSR and Eastern Europe though free speech is limited and dissidents have been arrested. Largely absent has been the development of a personality cult.
The Cuban party is more committed to the concept of socialism than other ruling parties and has been forced to accept some capitalist measures in its economy due to the collapse of the USSR and the resultant loss of Soviet economic subsidies. The Communist Party of Cuba has had a very internationalist outlook in favor of supporting revolutions abroad and was active in assisting the FMLN in El Salvador, the Sandinistas in Nicaragua and Maurice Bishop's New Jewel Movement in Grenada in the 1980s. It has been forced to retreat from this policy due to growing American hegemony in Latin America and the halt of military aid from the Soviet Union. However, the party continues a commitment to internationalism by supporting a policy of sending thousands of Cuban doctors on humanitarian missions throughout the developing world. More recently the party has sought to support left wing leaders such as Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in Brazil and Hugo Chávez in Venezuela in hopes of creating an anti-U.S. bloc.
The discussion of how American imperialism and informal domination of Cuba 1900-1959 led to the fiercely independent and nationalist attitude of Cuban Revolution; and the discussion of Castro's pre-revolutionary ideology finds that he was not a Communist until taking power, but was always sympathetic to socialist ideas.
The Cuban constitution states that, the Communist Party of Cuba is the superior guiding force of society and the state. Members of the Communist Party of Cuba are selected by the party in a thorough process that includes interviews with co-workers and neighbors. Those selected are considered model citizens. They are selected because they are viewed as strong supporters of the revolution. It makes recommendations concerning the future development of the revolution, and it criticizes tendencies it considers counterrevolutionary. It has a relatively large influence in Cuba, but its authority involves right and wrong and how individuals should behave, which is not legal. The Communist Party of Cuba is not an electoral party; Laws and election of the 31 member Council of State (including the President), are carried out by the National Assembly, who is in turn elected by the people. However, power is concentrated on the Cuban Communist Party, and the elections are not regarded as free or fair by international civil rights organizations. Where this is all Castroís personal philosophy,
Cuba's socialist economy is based on state ownership with some small scale private enterprise existing. Hiring labor, however, is not allowed, on the theory that private employment will lead to worker exploitation. For 2005, 68% of the state budget spending is to be directed to raising the levels of education, public health, social security, culture, sports and science and technology. (According to Cuban government statistics)
Historically, sugar, tobacco and (later) nickel were the main sources of income for Cuba. But in the 1990s tourism saw an explosive growth. In 1993 the U.S. dollar was made legal tender (the country operated under a dual-currency system); this arrangement was, however, revoked on 25 October 2004. At that time, use of the dollar in business was officially banned, and a 10% surcharge was introduced for the conversion of dollars to convertible pesos, the island's new official currency. Other currencies, including the euro, were not affected. The two noticeable sources of truism to Cuba are Florida Cubans going home and people visiting Cuba for prostitution.
Since 2003, both tourism levels and nickel prices increased. One other factor in the recovery of the Cuban economy is the remittances from Cuban-Americans (which constitute almost 3% of the Cuban Economy, by some estimates). However, Cuba owes billions in Paris Club debt to nations such as France, Japan and Germany. And thatís when Cuba new or recognized the World Bank issue a very severe one, and that Wolfowitz should be taken of the presidency.
Cuba currently trades with almost every nation in the world, albeit with restrictions from the U.S. embargo. Any company that deals with Cuba is barred from dealing with the United States, so internationally operating companies are forced to choose between Cuba and the United States, which is a much bigger market. This extraterritorial U.S. legislation is considered highly controversial, and the U.S. embargo was condemned for the 13th time in 2004 by the General Assembly of the United Nations, by 179 countries (out of 183). The main current trading partners of Cuba are: Spain, Venezuela, the Netherlands and Canada. As China normalizes relations with the Caribbean, China may also become a more important Cuban trading partner.
Cuba is notable for its national organic agriculture initiative. In the early 1990s, post-Soviet Union, Cuba lost over 70% of agricultural chemical imports, over 50% of food imports, and an equally significant amount of oil. Today, Cuba is a leading nation in biotechnology.
On a total population of 11 million, Cuba has 250,000 educators, 67,500 medical doctors, and 34,000 physical education and sports professors and technicians. And the economy has been decreasing ever since and Cuba is basically known as bankrupt.
The military now is just a division of what it was before. Cuba now is not active in spreading communism as before. When the Soviet Union collapsed and Moscow stopped the Cuban aid 1993, the army grew weaker. Cuba military branches are the Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) including Revolutionary Army ER, Revolutionary Navy MGR, Air and Air defense Forces DAAFAR, Territorial Militia Troops, and the Youth Labor Army. 15 years old is the military manpower age. Cuba has a manpower fit for military service 1,932,967 Males and Females (2004) 1,875,412. Military manpower availability males: 3120702 and females: 3,049,927 military fit for military service 1,932,967 males and Female 1,875,412. Almost all of the mentioned numbers of both males and females are fit to combat, however they canít all be in their combat divisions, due to the lack of weapons. With the severe weapons lacking problem only about a quarter of the 1,932,967 males can fight, and only a quarter of the 1,875,412 females can fight. Cuba spends 5% of its GDP on military.
The Guantanamo Bay conquering plot is considered an invasion even though there were agreements in the past; Cuba has tried to end them with no promising results. Also the fact is that Guantanamo Bay was leased from Cuba many years ago , we as the Cuban reserve the right just as any other nations does to change our minds about an issue, and we are willing to stop receiving money from the USA for rent of Guantanamo bay prison and therefore the USA will be violating national sovereignty and will be asked by the UN to leave but as we all know they wont. Yet, an American invasion would not be retaliated, due to the fact that Cuba now is literally defenseless due to its old weaponry and the embargo. Also, the soldiers would need food to fight, and food is scarce in Cuba. With the official inventory of weapons Cuba could not repel an invasion such as it occurred in Haiti in 1995. However the weapons that are not on the record may be used and possibly may repel small attacks
View on World problems (Aziz)
Although Cuba is not lost in thought or concerned of modern world problems, unless they had to do with the promotion of hate towards the USA. Cuba was a very vigorous country in the 1970s and 1980s in the hope of spreading communism and socialism. Cuba expanded its military existence abroad, spending millions of dollars in exporting revolutions. Deployments of troops reached 50,000 troops in Angola, 24,000 in Ethiopia, 1,500 in Nicaragua, and hundreds more elsewhere. Cuban forces played a key role in Ethiopia's war against Somalia and remained there in substantial numbers of garrison force for a decade. Though since the end of Soviet support, Cuba appears to have largely abandoned support for guerrilla movements and its involvement in regional politics in Latin America and Africa, though it maintains relations with several guerrilla and terrorist groups and provides refuge for some of their members in Cuba Cuba has loyal allies such as China, Russia, North Korea and many more, but Cuba has enemies too, more precisely one enemy. When Fidel Castro freed the people form the capitalistic government that the US had installed in Cuba, the US-Cuban relations were changed forever. Cubans were tired of the US's intervention in Cuban affairs before the revolution so they regarded Castro as a savior and a hero. Cuba grew to hate the US because of the embargo. The embargo affected the Cuban people so much that in the Bay of Pigís Invasion the 1,200 solders captured by Cuba were given to the US in return for food and medicine.
US-Cuban relations have remained hostile ever since the United States has continued to support Cuban exiles anti-Castro move. It has also maintained its trade embargo and tried to isolate Cuba. In 1962 Cuba was expelled from the Organization of American States (OAS). It was accused of attempting to foment rebellions in Venezuela, Guatemala, Bolivia, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Grenada.
In 1992 US president, George Bush, approved the Cuban Democracy Act, which strengthened the trade embargo by making it even more strict and tight. This brought opposition from Canada and many European countries and the UN General Assembly voted in favor of a resolution calling for an end to the embargo.
President Fidel Castro visited Canada in 1959 and 2000, on the latter occasion to attend the funeral of former Prime Minister Trudeau. A long-standing policy of engagement has allowed for the promotion of Canadian interests and values in Cuba through trade, aid, political and cultural programs. Canada and Cuba will be celebrating "60 years" of diplomatic relations in 2005.
Cuba was the last major Spanish colony to gain its independence; following a long struggle which began in 1868. On February 15th, 1898, the USS Marine sunk in Havana Harbor due to an unresolved explosion which entered America in the battle of Cuba and Spain. As Spain resigned the Treaty of Paris, America conquered Cuba. On May 20, 1902, America granted Cuba its independence, but America still has the right to interfere in its stability under the Platt Amendment. In 1934, the Platt Amendment was canceled. The United States and Cuba concluded a Treaty of Relations in 1934 which, among other things, continued the 1903 agreements that leased the Guantanamo Bay naval base to the United States.
Fidel Castro Ruz has led Cuba since 1959, when, leading the 26th of July Movement, he overthrew the regime of Fulgencio Batista, and transformed Cuba into the first Socialist state in the Western Hemisphere. During his more than 47-year government, he has emerged as one of the most controversial political figures in the world. Internationally, his leadership has been marked by tensions with the United States (peaking in the Cuban Missile Crisis) and a close partnership with the Soviet Union. Nationally, he has overseen the completion of essential land improvement, and social programs that organized universal healthcare and free education. Castro initially won general support among Cubans but disappointed many from the middle and upper classes. Hundreds of thousands of Cubans eventually fled the country for the U.S., particularly the nearby city of Miami, Florida. About 7% of the entire population fled during the first three years of the Revolution.
The Spanish established sugar and tobacco as Cuba's primary products. Natives from Florida and Bahama were imported as slaves, and as that population became mixed as well, field labor was harder to come by. African slaves were imported to work the plantations in order to replace the field labor. However, restrictive Spanish trade laws made it difficult for Cubans to keep up with the 17th and 18th century advances in processing sugar cane pioneered in British Barbados and French Saint Domingue. Spain also restricted Cuba's access to the slave trade, which was dominated by the British, French, and Dutch. One important turning point came in the Seven Years War, when the British conquered the port of Havana and introduced thousands of slaves in a ten month period. In the 1800s, Cuban sugar plantations became the most important world producer of sugar, thanks to the expansion of slavery and a determined focus on improving the island's sugar technology. Cubans were torn between the profits generated by sugar and the hatred for slavery, which they saw as honorably, politically, and racially dangerous to their society. By the end of the 19th century Slavery was abolished. Many Spaniards immigrated to Cuba, calling it a "place of safety".
On April 15, 1961, the day after Castro described his revolution as socialist, four Cuban airfields were bombed by A-26s bearing false Cuban markings. These bombing runs were the beginning stages of the Bay of Pigs invasion. The United States staged an unsuccessful attack on Cuba on 17 April 1961. When President Kennedy withdrew his support for the invasion at the last minute, by canceling several bombing attacks that would have damaged the entire Cuban air force. The cancellation also prevented U.S. Marines waiting off the coast from landing in support of the Cuban exiles. Two U.S. supplied support ships, the Houston and the Río Escondido, were sunk by Cuban propeller-driven aircraft. Castro gained even more support from ordinary Cubans due to his actions during the attempted invasion. In a nationally broadcast speech on 2 December, Castro declared that he was a Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba was going to adopt Communism. On February 7, 1962, the U.S. imposed a ban against Cuba, which included a general travel ban for American tourists. This has been repeatedly mentioned by Castro as a major factor in Cuba's economic troubles.
Tensions between Castro and U.S. heightened during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, which nearly brought the USSR and the US in direct confrontation. The U.S. government viewed the installation of Soviet nuclear weapons 90 miles south of Miami as an violent act and a threat to U.S. security. As a result, the U.S. publicly announced its discovery on 22 October 1962 and applied quarantine around Cuba that would actively capture and search any vessels heading for the island.
Following initial U.S. hostility, the establishment of diplomatic ties to the Soviet Union, and the Cuban Missile Crisis, Cuba became increasingly dependent on Soviet markets and military and economic aid. Castro was able to build a formidable military force with the help of Soviet equipment and military advisors. The KGB kept in close touch with Havana, and Castro tightened Communist Party control over all levels of government, the media, and the educational system, while developing a Soviet-style internal police force. In 1967, Guevara left for Bolivia in an ill-fated attempt to stir up revolution against the country's government; Castro did not provide him with promised material and logistical support. One reason given for Castro's refusal is the fact that Moscow did not approve of revolution in Latin America unless it involved groups whose idea of communism was close to the Soviet model. On November 4, 1975, Castro ordered the deployment of Cuban troops to Angola in order to aid the MPLA-ruled government against the opposition, supported by the government of South Africa. Moscow aided the Cuban initiative with the USSR engaging in a massive airlift of Cuban forces into Angola.
When Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev visited Cuba in 1989, the close relationship between Moscow and Havana was strained by Gorbachev's implementation of economic reforms. "We are witnessing sad things in other socialist countries, very sad things," stated Castro in November 1989 in reference to the reforms that were sweeping such communist allies as the Soviet Union, East Germany, Hungary and Poland. The Soviet Union had subsidized the Cuban economy for decades, paying $1.23 per pound for sugar, the world market price of which had been steady between 17 and 22 cents per pound. According to Castro, "the sun vanished from the horizon when the Soviet Union collapsed." Cuba entered what it called the "Special Period". The effects were immediate and devastating; people began eating cats and dogs because of meat shortages. After all the cats had been eaten, rats proliferated, and became a delicacy.
Castro remains a verbal opponent of United States policies, speaking against the continuing economic ban against Cuba, and U.S. attempts to overthrow his government. Recently, he has harshly condemned U.S. travel permit, which severely limit travel between the U.S. and Cuba. Castro also opposes the growing costs of servicing foreign debt. Castro claims that, during the Cold War, the United States engaged in a variety of covert and often deadly attacks against Cuba in order to weaken the entire country as a way of weakening Castro's government. Between 1960 and 1965, the U.S. government made plans to murder him; he has accused the CIA of, among other things, having his Havana broadcasting studio sprayed with a mind altering chemical, poisoning his cigars, dusting his boots with a chemical that would cause his beard to fall out, and planting an explosive seashell in the area where he was known to scuba dive.
After Kennedy's election, the President's close advisers set up their own covert structure to eliminate Castro. Launched in November 1961, it was code named Operation Mongoose. According to James Bamford in Body of Secrets: Operation Northwoods, which had the written approval of the Chairman and every member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, called for innocent people to be shot on American streets; for boats carrying refugees fleeing Cuba to be sunk on the high seas; for a wave of violent terrorism to be launched in Washington, D.C., Miami, and elsewhere. People would be framed for bombings they did not commit; planes would be hijacked. Using phony evidence, all of it would be blamed on Castro, thus giving Lemnitzer and his group the excuse, as well as the public and international backing, they needed to launch their war. In 2000, four Cuban exiles with ties to the Cuban-American National Foundation were convicted in a Panamanian court of plotting to assassinate Castro during a regional summit. The four were pardoned in 2004 and all but Luis Posada Carriles entered the United States. Posada appeared in the U.S in May 2005, but was arrested and faces banishment to Venezuela. All four men have been accused of working for the CIA at one time or another.
Environmental: Yasmeen Dashti
1. Combating environmental racism in countries around the world
Environmental racism is an environmental policy enforcement that specifically and directly affects people of color or certain ethnic/racial groups in a negative manner. Many times this involves limiting such peoples or animals to live in polluted lands, the dumping/releasing of pollution and toxic substances in such their communities and habits, or the placement of heavily polluting industries or unpleasant public works faculties such as sewage treatment plants near or in these areas. Worldwide toxic-waste sites are more common in poorer communities. Environmental racism takes international forms as well. The developed world has shipped large amounts of toxic waste to developing countries for less-than-safe disposal. Experts estimate that 50 to 80 percent of electronic waster produced in the United States, is shipped to waste sites in developing countries, such as China and India. In China, laborers with no protective clothing regularly burn plastics and circuit boards from old computers. These activities pollute the ground water beneath the site that drinking water is trucked in to the area from a town.
We recognize environmental racism as an environmental rights violation and a form of discrimination caused by government and private sector policy and other places based on race, class, security of communities, and other bases. In Ecuador, cancer rates, spontaneous abortions, and respiratory infections among indigenous people have increased dramatically due in part to the dumping of more than 20 billion gallons of toxic waste and 16 million gallons of crude oil into the Amazon. Other places such as Puerto Rico, the United States-Mexico border, the United States, Guyana, Cubic Bay, Philippines, and the Niger Delta, Nigeria, also contain many manifestations of environmental racism.
This civil rights act must be amended in order for governments to comply with and enforce international treaties, laws and policies that ensure the fundamental rights of all peoples to clean air, land, water, food, and safe decent housing for their citizens. Furthermore, poor countries shouldn't be treated as garbage bags for rich nations, thus governments who violate these laws and policies must pay fines for such actions. Cuba also thinks that poor communities should be helped in order to close down on unwelcome dumps and factories. If governments still want to use poor communities as land for their garbage, these governments should be charged to "renting" this land.
Cuba knows that the reason behind environmental racism is the lack of money, and therefore, the lack of power. Poor communities lack the resources to combat this type of prejudice. Money, political power and education are all resources that wealthier communities have on their side. Thus, Cuba urges UN and international organizations to stand up and work against these wealthier communities and provide resources to poorer communities to fight industries and keep them away such as, for one, money that will give power. Also, increase environmental consciousness and social responsibility in these communities.
2. Maintaining biodiversity in areas of the world prone to habitat destruction
Biodiversity is known as the variety of life from different plants, animals, microorganisms, their genes and their ecosystem. Biodiversity found on Earth today is the result of four billion years of evolution. However, some scientists believe that the present rate of extinction is enough to create a major mass extinction in less than a hundred years. Species become extinct or endangered for a number of reasons, but the primary cause is the destruction of habitat by human activities. Others argue and suggest that the present rate of extinction could be sustained for many thousands of years before the loss of biodiversity matches more than 20% losses seen in the past events. Positively, new species are regularly discovered, average about three new species of birds each year. Many are not yet classified. The estimate states that about 40% of fresh water fish from South America are not yet classified yet.
Biodiversity is decreasing and becoming affected by the habitat destruction situation. An increasing number of studies indicate that elevated rates of extinction are being driven by human use of organic resources. It is estimated that more than 40% of the Earth's biomass is tied up in only the few species that represent humans, our livestock, and crops. These studies warn that the global ecosystem is destined for collapse if it is further reduced in complexity. Other scientists argue that there is not enough data to support the view of mass extinction. They also say that the global destruction of rain forests, coral reefs, mangrove swamps and other rich habitats. There is also a growing awareness that the introduction of exotic species around the world by humans is a potential threat to biodiversity. When exotic species are introduced to ecosystems the common species that have not evolved to cope with the exotic species can't automatically be expected to survive. That is what many situations the animals won't survive.
Cuba is very much involved in this issue since one of the environment current issues that Cuba is concerned of and has to do with the country. Certain measures must be taken in order to keep and to stop the endangerment of the earth. The world must put efforts of captive breeding of several endangered species in order to restore or add to a breeding population. Also, genetic cloning techniques may one day help for endangered species that reproduce poorly on their own, as well as cloning plants. Furthermore, donating and delivering equipment as much as possible to nature reserves and biodiversity institutions and funding them to help and support them in coming up with plans to manage wildlife reserves, parks, etc. as well as coming up with ways that will help keep endangered species alive. Also, funding research programs and institutions that aim to maintain biodiversity and relive habitats that are prone to destruction. Cuba supports resolutions that include financial gains and funding for governments and programs that work for biodiversity, as well as resolutions that make sure the biodiversity will remain and not get ruined as well as resolution that aim for improving land use and support animal and plant life.
3. Establishing and maintaining a foreign policy between developed and developing countries to aid nations hit by natural disasters.
A natural disaster is any event or force of nature that has catastrophic consequences, such as avalanches, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, forest fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, tsunami, and lighting. Countries such as the Australia, Canada, and the UK, as well as other various nations in the world, have been affected by natural disasters. The most recent natural disaster the world has witnessed is Hurricane Katrina that has hit Southeastern United States in August 2005 and has taken the lives of about 2, 576 and still counting. This disaster has brought a lot of media attention to it as well as disaster relief efforts. Efforts to the disaster that include the military, government, NGOs, the rich and famous, and international responses. Last year, the Southeast Asia tsunami has had many countries involved along with the UN. Another natural disaster that has been a world wide concern is the depletion of the ozone layer. In 2000, the UN launched the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction to address the underlying causes of vulnerability and promotes awareness of the importance of disaster reduction as a main component in its agenda and has a goal of reducing human, social, economic, and environmental losses due to hazards of all kinds.
Given Cubaís geographic location, it has suffered natural disasters from earthquakes to floods to landslides, but most of all, Cuba is prone at least once a year to hurricanes that took the lives many. Thus, Cubans have adapted to this kind of lifestyle by being prepared for natural disasters. According to the UN Undersecretary for Humanitarian Affairs, Cuba is among the countries that stand as a world example in terms of preparedness and response to natural disasters. Also, Cuba has been cited by the United Nations, the International Federation of the Red Cross, the Red Crescent Society, and other agencies and authorities who deal the effects of natural disasters as the world model in disaster management, not only for the underdeveloped countries but for all countries. Cuba participates in the Committee that coordinates the Action Program of Hyogo for disaster reduction for the 2005-2015 decade that tries to prevent floods, droughts, typhoons, and even global warming.
Cuba calls for the most developed countries to reduce military expenses and to increase their contribution to the developing countriesí advancement for the protection of the population in the event of disasters. Furthermore, there should be regional and international cooperation, as well as free data and information exchange. Furthermore, since Cuba is a worldwide example used for disaster relief and preparedness, Cuba would like to see "Weathering Storms: Lessons in Risk Reduction from Cuba," a study done about Cuba be turned into a resolution that helps prevent natural disasters, be prepared for disasters, and relief efforts. In addition, Cuba supports all kinds of relief aid and efforts and thus wants to see other nations help also. Also, whenever there is a natural disaster, all countries should be ready to jump in and help in aiding the nations by providing medical, food, and educational services as well as refugee camps for victims to stay in.
4. Combating water pollution (caused by toxic material in lakes, rivers, seas, and oceans).
Water makes up three quarters of our world. Among the total quantity of water 97% is salt water while the other 3% if fresh water in which only 1% can be used. Every year, the needs of water increases twice as fast as the world population. There are already water shortages in more than 80 countries which represent 40% of the global population. Pollution is the action of polluting especially by environmental contamination with man-made waste. Water is pollution is the pollution of water in lakes, rivers, etc.
Water pollution happens when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water. High concentrations of these materials results in bacterial contamination and excessive nutrient loading. The causes of water pollution can be divided into two groups: anthropogenic and natural sources. Anthropogenic sources of pollution are those due to human choices. They include discharge of sewage, acid rain caused by industrial discharge, runoff from construction sites or farming, etc. Natural sources of pollution are those resulting from forces included to the environment such as silting due to floods, runoff from naturally acid soils, acid rain caused by volcanoes, etc. The consequences of water pollution are really serious. Health problems, ecological consequences, and economic consequences are among some of the consequences that arise with water pollution. Countries such as Brazil, Canada, China, Columbia, France, Germany, Mexico, USA, and Cuba are affected by water pollution.
Water pollution is one of the most critical environmental problems in Cuban territory. Water pollution around farms, factories, and large cities continues to challenge Cuban resources. Water supply in most places is safe to drink even though there are occasionally shortages of supply. In Havana and large cities, a person canít smell the odor of human sewage as it is the case in other 3rd world countries. Cuban agriculture has long been affected by environmental problems. The most serious problem is soil salinization. About two million acres of farm land in Cuba suffers from salinization. Only lately has the government and people of Cuba have realized that the environment is in trouble. For that, they have started working together to clean up. They have started recycling and are helping each other learn about the environment. Due to the help and concerns, Cubaís environment is starting to get better and hopefully in the future, the problems that have aroused will be diminished.
Cuba not only wants to see change in its territory, but also change in the world. Cuba supports all actions that will diminish this problem. Cuba is a strong supporter of the United Nations Environment Program. This program objective is to coordinate the development of environmental policy consensus by keeping the global environment under review and by bringing emerging issues to the attention of government and international community for action. Cuba supports all actions and policies concerning water pollution. Furthermore, Cuba supports resolutions that include educating the people about the issue, recycling wastes, treating polluted water bodies, having special dumping places for industrial and farming sites, treating sewage, and prevent water pollution from happening again, as well as resolution that will fund programs that are aiming to solve water pollution and any methods that will work to diminish this problem. Funding might come from international organizations, governments of other nations, and donated money. Also, the desire to make possible, protect and promote private participation and investments, reducing pressure on public budgets and spend more public money in areas that are more urgent, and to improve the economic efficiency of water resource management and the provision of public services by either having tariffs, transferable rights, fees, etc.
Reem Al Thekair: Social:
1. Establishment if methods to enhance the status of women in developing countries.
Fidel Castro played a significant role in liberating women in Cuba during the Revolution. He didn't, however, encourage women to work full-time jobs and raise families at home, since he insisted men would help with the housework and raising children. This wasn't exactly the case in many Cuban families. Prior to the Revolution, Castro claimed that many young women depended on marriage to men of higher status in order to get along in life. A majority of those who did not marry ended up in brothels. Few women were fortunate enough to work in offices, bars, hotels, and stores, since they were hired based on their appearance. Black women were discriminated against in favor of white women in Cuba, denying the former work as nurses, a popular occupation. The Revolution freed the women of Cuba, but prejudices did not fade overnight. Women had to fight for respect in the workplace. Castroís move to put women in the workplace proved to be a success. In 1959, less than 200,000 women worked in Cuba. By 1990, with a population of 10 million in Cuba, women accounted for 39% of the workforce, and 58% of them were in technical positions. In addition, 55% of university students were women, and they also accounted for the majority of medical students in Cuba. In a period of less than half a century, women's employment increased almost 400%.
Ms. Magalys Arocha Dominguez, representative of Cuba, has recently stated that the 90 measures confirmed with the national priorities established with regard to womenís employment, access to decision making, the reflection of womenís images in the media, community participation in health services, community social work, improvement of legislation, attention to womenís human, sexual and reproductive rights and the improvement of research on women and gender relations. She also stated that the advances in the implementation of the National Plan of Action were due to Cubaís economic recovery. The Cuban gross domestic product (GDP) has risen by 6.2% in 1999 and had been accompanied by a 5.4 % rise in job productivity and 8.8% investment growth.
Cuba encourages all state parties to solve the discrimination of women in their community, by insuring that no discrimination actions will be taken agisnt them by placing security system which will monitor that; also by placing laws and punishments for whom ever stops women from receiving their full rights. With that in mind, Cuba would gladly vote for all policies whose aim is giving the women in their society their full rights; which means educational rights, health rights, employment rights, community social work, etcÖ
2. Long term development plans for reestablishing the infrastructure of areas devastated by natural disasters.
The incidence of natural disasters, has increased in the 1990s. In 1999 alone, there were more than 700 disasters with widespread economic and social damage leading to the death of approximately 100,000 people. When disasters strike, the poor and socially disadvantaged suffer the most, and are least equipped to cope with the impact. It is known that due to womenís proactive behavior in the protection of well-being of their households, their involvement in community activities, neighborhood and school education, and disaster preparedness programs, they are key actors in environmental management and natural disaster mitigation. However, they are still not fully involved in planning and decision-making processes in these areas.
After hurricanes George and Mitch had passed over the Caribbean and Central America, Cuba had sent a number of medical brigades to the Dominican Republic. It had canceled a debt of $50.1 million owed by Nicaragua and had offered to place medical personnel at the disposal of the Central American countries for as long as required, free of charge. There could be no reconstruction and development in Central America and the Caribbean without an integrated health plan. Cuba had therefore designed, together with the regional Governments, an integrated health plan providing for the dispatch of up to 2,000 doctors to work in the most distant and backward parts of those countries. Under the plan, 40 Cuban medical brigades were currently distributed throughout the region. The Cuban representative has indicated that the substantial advances in the implementation of the National Plan of Action was due to the countryís gradual and sustained economic recovery, particularly during the last five years.
Growing awareness of the environmental aspects of development has gradually been informing the regionís public policies and economic and social practices, and has led to the creation of institutions and the implementation of government strategies and policies for environmental protection and the diffusion of sustainable development concepts in the education system, culture, the communications media, social demands and business practices. This is the progresses that were made by many state parties in the UN. Cuba encourages all state parties who are not proceeding with this progress to do so now!
3. Understanding and eliminating the roots of terrorism in societies.
"Cuba was the first country to speak of the need for an international struggle against terrorism just a few hours after the tragedy brought on the American people on September 11. We also said that: None of the present problems of the world can be solved by force. [...] The international community should build a world conscience against terrorism. [...] Only the intelligent policy of seeking strength through consensus and the international public opinion can decidedly uproot this problem [...] this unimaginable event should serve to launch an international struggle against terrorism. ...] the world cannot be saved unless a path of international peace and cooperation is pursued." This statement was presented by President Castro to the general assembly, during the measures to eliminate international terrorism. Cuba had been the victim of various acts of terrorism which had caused significant material and other damage. The Government of Cuba was determined to negotiate and reach agreement on the definition of international terrorism.
Cuba had provided ample proof and was prepared to take joint and coordinated steps with the United States to stem actions that had been proved to have taken place in Cuba by citizens of foreign countries. The terrorist activities that Castro had referred to had been organized and financed in North America. He said that the United States authorities had a lot of information on the subject, including classified information.
The solution cannot be to pass legislation or decrees that authorize extrajudicial executions, or to let States kill foreign citizens, or to act covertly in other countries disrespecting laws and borders, or to use force within other States. That would divert the world from its purpose to eliminate terrorism, and would mean the end of collective security mechanisms. It would mean the rule of force and the beginning of the end of the proclaimed rule of law.
Mr. Felipe Perez Roque, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Cuba; has stated at the general debate of the 56th session of the general assembly of the united nations, a statement that summarizes Cubaís view on this issue: "We have to prevent a few people with complete interests from trying to label as such the right of nations to fight for their self-determination or against foreign aggression. It must be clearly established that the support, abatement, financing or concealment of terrorist actions by a State is also an act of terrorism. Cuba, while working to have its own anti-terrorism law in a short period of time, unreservedly endorses the announcement of an international conference on terrorism, under the aegis of the United Nations. This has been an old aspiration of the Non-Aligned Movement - and must enable us, as a result of open discussions, collective actions, respectful and non-discriminatory agreement; and not threat, terror and force, to find the way to fully eliminate terrorism and its causes; not only if committed against the United States, but also if undertaken against another country, even from the territory of the United States or with the leniency or complicity of its authorities, as has been Cuba's painful experience for over four decades."
4. Creating school education systems that minimize the teaching of violent ideologies.
Unfortunately, many highly educated Cubans, perhaps a million, fled the island and re-established their lives elsewhere in Spain, Europe, and especially in the United States. To reduce these difficulties, Cuba established massive education programs that also served to influence the society. According to UNESCO research, Cuba's primary school students have, "almost twice as much knowledge" as the average student in the rest of Latin America. In a 1998 study by UNESCO, Cuban third and fourth graders were better educated in basic language and mathematics skills than children in all other Latin American countries that took part in a study. Cubans are intelligent people, able to absorb modern knowledge, their doctors and surgeons are among the best in the world, and their architects are bold and imaginative. Due to Cubaís knowledge of modern methods and technology there is no reason to receive technical advice from aboard. Although, the government runs the schools all over Cuba, they tend to fall short because of the strong ideological content present in the instruction and the lack of alternatives available to the parents.
Since the government controls the schools and the curriculum taught by the teachers; Cuba has no problems in concern with violent ideologies that are being taught by teachers. Cuba strongly believes that violence outside the schools is enough. There is no reason why an educatorís teaching methods should include violence. Other than the fact that the students would not absorb the lessonís knowledge, the development of the country will also fall. Other than that, the Cuban government forbids religious and private schools in Cuba. Cuba would support and vote for all policies whose aim is to put an end to violence in teaching methods.
Abdulaziz Al Mutawa: Disarmament:
1. The connection between foreign aid and the build-up of conventional weapons in Africa:
Local possession of development is decisive to the effectiveness of donor as in other nations of the world aid. Yet, countries often feel caught between donor demands and how to achieve development results and their own national priorities. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan asked countries with extreme poverty, in this case African nations, to develop and begin to implement 10-year MDG-based poverty reduction programs by the end of 2006. Poverty reduction strategies, often strongly require donor assistance, involved with the national adoption of procedures, often new to a country and its citizens. As a result, obtaining long-term government support for creating and implementing such strategies can be complex.
Cuba is very interested by this issue due to the fact that it has a lot of things to do with countries like Cuba. Not only Cuba aided Africa in the 1970's but that gives it credibility in willingness to do something good for Africa, since we helped them in the past. Cuba, although a nation in need of help, we do like to help certain nations, and Africa is major concern of ours. Cuba agrees with the UN's secretary's idea however with some root changes, such as instead of having the MDG's programs planned for the next 10 years we can make it 5 years, which will effectively make the job easier to accomplish. Although the issue mostly deals with conventional weapons in Africa, Cuba must admit that we are facing the same problems, and we need the foreign aid, even if it was from our enemies, but desperate times call for desperate needs.
2. Reducing the availability of firearms to civilians and stopping the illegal trafficking of such:
Weapons are available literally everywhere today. Because of the major spread of firearms across the globe, it makes easy access to weapons for civilians that want attention a very common thing to do. The issue at hand is trying to reduce the availability of those firearms as soon as possible. One of the reasons behind the issue is that trafficking those illegal firearms has turned into a huge black market which has ultimately increased smuggling and other such ways of practicing illegal activities.
Cuba does really care about the issue however we strongly believe that, every civilian must have a duty to protect his/her own, land (country). In order to protect a land one must have the proper equipment if he/she is willing to sacrifice their lives to save their nations. Firearms should become a major market however with the eye of the authorities watching over it, we do not have a problem. We encourage the reducing plan however we feel it is every citizen of the world to stand up and defend his/her nation with all means possible. In order to stop illegal firearms trafficking one must follow the trade origin, the biggest trader that Cuba knows is the USA, therefore they either check the background of the buyers of their weapons or donít make them at all , sure this solution will effect major cooperationís like Korps and smith and Wesson but all in favor of protecting the world must sacrifice.
3. The formation/re-establishment of improved Anti-Ballistic Missiles (ABM) treaty involving more global support:
Defending our nations is the most important thing any citizen would think off. Some people see the ABM system as offensive weapons and some see them as defensive weapons. To improve the ABM treaty would create a whole new idea in the weapon factories perspective. Not only would the factories make millions of dollars, but also the world's most powerful nations would be fighting each other again. We as an international community could be facing another missile crisis by two of the most powerful nations in the world. Sure we need Defensive weapons and the ABMs are great but some countries see them as offensive artillery. We need to achieve a goal that consists of convincing the citizens of the globe in believing in ABMs and supporting the idea of re-establishing the ABM treaty.
Cuba is very much concerned about this issue, however we do not care that much because not today or in the near future that we will get our peaceful hands on the latest ABMs. We might get the old one that have plenty of bugs and faults, but even has a low chance of actually happening. We are just concerned about any nation wishing to use those weapons against us and disrupt our peaceful world. It would be ideal to have the rich nations share that technological weaponry in order to protect our nations from those wandering terrorists. However Cuba does not have the correct amount of resources to acquire those weapons, and we will be more than happy to trade for them with richer nations. It would be ideal to have the rich countries who own the ABMs or get rid of them as there is no need for them. Rich countries like the USA and the UK donít need such expensive weaponry if they have the danger detection systems. Why not donate them to poor nations who are facing civil wars and other internal issues, countries that are in real danger.
4. The arms build-up in the Straits of Taiwan.
Taiwan is a part of the people's republic of China, which is a widely respected nation worldwide. The internal problems within that nation that nation should remain the nation's own internal affairs. However the arms build- up issue is gradually increasing in relevancy to neighboring countries that may so turn into an international crisis for all we know it might be happening today.
That is a very big concern Cuba has to deal with today. Sure China is a very loyal alley to Cuba and we get many aids from them, however Cuba feels like as an alley we must support or friends in their wishes, if the PROC wants Taiwan to officially become a part of the Chinese territory then so be it, Taiwan sure has its independence since 1942 but as proven by international courts Taiwan is a part of China. We will propose complete new ideas on ways to solve the issue ways such as forming a convention which both nations will agree to its terms and other things such as a Demilitarized zone and start negotiations between China and Taiwan .
Mohamed Al Mailam: Human Rights Commission:
1. Towards the writing of a declaration of the rights of religious speech.
Cuba believes that religion is generally, as Carl Marx said, "the opiate of the masses," a cheat to fool the poor into accepting domination by the rich. It's meant to comfort them as they're cheating and exploited. However, recently, our great leader has expressed his belief that Communism and certain forces of the Catholic religion, if properly guided by the State, can co-exist. Our leader himself is a Catholic, as are many of our people. On the other hand, Cuba rightly recognizes many so-called "missionaries" in Cuba as basically American agents meant to undermine the State and, the people.
Cuba believes, therefore, that the rights of religious speech must be only allowed within a very limited context and under state control. Therefore, Cuba would favor a declaration that leaves the granting of such rights very much under control of the State. We believe that our stand would actually find us very much, and somewhat ironically, in the same camp as nations as diverse as Iran, Saudi Arabia, and, of course, China. Any statement of such rights would, for example, by no means make a universal declaration that all people are granted rights equivalent to those acknowledged by all Communists, i.e. the right to life, work, and freedom from exploitation.
2. The establishment of preliminary measures to combat child labor.
Child labor over the past years has been when of the UNís greatest concerns. Children in south-east Asia have been forced to work in factories, weaving and much more. For most nations child labor is illegal, because children should be in school learning and not working factories where older people should. But nations that support child labor may support it in order to pay less money for more workers.
This is absolutely disgraceful. Cuba is against child labor 100%, everyone should be treated as equal, and no one should be taken advantage of for less money. Children are the key to the future; they should be in schools in order to improve their nations and the world to love in a more improved and safer environment. If kids would work in factories who would take there place after thirty years to improve their nation. Children can carry over their limit, and thatís what the countries are doing. Cuba has never and will never vote for any resolution that supports child labor. In fact Cuba has done all it could in proposing resolution and speaking against child labor in order to bring this problem to an end. We are going to vote for the issue in stopping child labor even when child prostitution is a major source of income in Cuba. We would even want all nations to cooperate and vote with Cuba to stop; all people should be treated as equal.
3. A United Nations study on the role of the World Bank in preserving the rights of citizens in debt-ridden countries.
The poorest debt-ridden countries suffer from a more fundamental problem. They lack much of the basic social infrastructure that forms the basis for profitable economic activity. Also, such problems cause more tension between the different governments within countries, seeing as sometimes in debt-ridden countries. All debt-ridden countries have citizens who are suffering. These poor citizens canít afford to suffer anymore. They must have the right to get a decent job, with a decent salary, in able to afford and have a decent income to support their family just like the people in most of the other countries around the world. All poor nations are in fact paying those debts to the richest countries of the world that are not in need of this money as much as the poor nations. Also, some debt-ridden countries have also, unfortunately, been facing natural disasters, and in light of such disasters as the tsunami and earthquakes, and this money is the only way to end the problems.
Cuba agrees with the reformation of the structure of the World Bank, since it is itself a debt-ridden nation, it has become bankrupt aside many other nations that cannot afford to pay back any of the loans, and it cannot get any loans since it is not paying any of the debts back. Many people have been dying due to starvation and malnutrition. Cuba would like to come to a new agreement with all nations of the world especially the poor ones, to stop interests in loans, and to forgive some of the loans that have been made and given by the bank.
4. The rights of individuals detained indefinitely
Individuals that are being detained are being treated with disrespect and are being abused and dealt with before the date of their trial. And that is illegal in all countries. Many detainees interviewed by Human Rights Watch were confused, frustrated, or scared by their situation. They did not know the status of their immigration cases or when they would have a hearing, why they were being held in jails, or how to get legal assistance.
Cuba has taken this into concern since it is a communist country and everyone should be treated as equal as the other. Sadly Cuba has detainees by Castro, and would vote against all resolutions that would not be in its benefit. It would like to solve the problem in other nations, but would not want to stop it in its country.
Defining according to wikipedia.org, natural disasters as any event or force of nature that has catastrophic consequences, such as avalanches, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, forest fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, tsunamis, etc.,
Defining according to wikipedia.org, developing countries as countries with a low income average, a relatively poor infrastructure, and a poor human development index when compared to global norm,
Noting according to CNN sources, that the most recent natural disaster that occurred in Southeast Asia caused the death toll from natural disasters to triple to about a quarter of a million, the highest number in 30 years,
Congratulating UN and international organizations, such as the UNDRO and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent societies for their part in relief efforts worldwide,
Noting with regret that according to UN Secretary Koofi Anan, experience has shown aid agencies that once a disaster is no longer a subject of news coverage, promised fund from the governments of wealthy countries tend to dry up and stop give money, such an example was last year's earthquake in Bam, Iran where the Iranian government received less then $120 million out of the $1 billion promised,
Stressing that according to UN Secretary Koofi Anan, nations who give out aid or refrain from giving aid have done so for political reasons instead of humanitarian reasons, for example, the US aid for Pakistan after the earthquake is said to help the US's image,
Congratulating, according to worldwide organizations, Cuba for developing a successful program that helped reduce vulnerability for its citizens and to disasters and has been used as a worldwide successful example for disaster relief and reconstruction by the United Nations, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, as well as other agencies and authorities,
Defining, according to wikipedia.org, developed countries as countries that enjoy a relatively high standard of living through strong high technology diversified economy, also countries with a high GDP per capita (per person) are considered a developed country,
Draws the attention the need for a comprehensive disaster planning, risk reduction, and aid to protect and help developing countries,
1. Resolves that the United Nations Disaster Relief Office implement a plan/program that will help countries both financially and give their rights of getting food, shelter, and medical care, that will: A. Have members of different UN countries participating in the plan who will: i. Meet every 6-10 months to discuss improvements and environmental problems/issues, ii. Immediately meet when a disaster strikes before the 6-10 month period elapses and discuss different ways for improvement and come up with a plan for reconstruction, iii. Review reports (given by governments and aid workers) and decide how much money the country in question will need to be given as relief money, B. Develop a program that will: i. Promote education on natural disasters using media and other means, ii. Map out vulnerable areas in the country and develop an emergency plan for disaster preparation in the community and practice them as well as study neighboring countries so they could be prepared for anything, iii. Have early warning systems, iv. Consist of the most experienced professionals that will have close collaboration with international forecasting centers, v. Have an active involvement with public and private sectors, non-governmental organizations, and regional, international and community based sectors in disaster management; C. Work side-by-side with UN and international organizations which will improve response to those experiencing a crisis and provide a fast track response, in which: i. Use food provided by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) and UN World Food Program in which it'll provide food and other services that are under their capability; ii. Use experienced and well trained doctors will be provided by the Cuban Doctor's Association who will go into the country and treat people who are severely injured and give vaccinations to prevent a disease from spreading; iii. Use health care and medical services will be provided by WHO (World Health Organization), Disaster Relief International, and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, who will provide essential material resources such as medicines, supplies and equipment to the doctors; iv. Operate shelter and refugee camps that will accept refugees and will be set up by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Red societies, UNICEF, and the UN Refugee Agency under the UNCHR;
2. Accepts that if any country who doesn't want any foreign aid workers entering their country and want to use their own aid workers will be: A. Given grants to fund their own aid workers and to support them; B. Won't be obliged to accept foreign aid provided by the UNDRO or any other organization;
3. Further resolves the development of a financial system to provide incentives for disaster risk reduction as well as recovery and reconstruction, which will consist of: A. Affordable insurance to cover the damage of natural disasters in which: i. It requests that the money behind this insurance will be funded by the World Bank; ii. Each country who has a GDP per capita of $7900 or lower will receive insurance; B. An account will be opened under the UNDRO which will: i. Consist of donation grants from the people and international organizations; ii. Member countries who have a GDP per capita of $9200 or higher will place an amount that is 1.25% per of their GDP annually; C. Any country that is considered for aid will undergo a revision process that will consist of: i. A report will be written to the UNDRO stating the problem, kind of natural disaster, and all the damages it caused; ii. The report will be reviewed by the members; iii. The members will decide based on damage and reconstruction (and not political affiliation) how much money should be given to the country in question;
4. Proclaims that grants in small amounts will be given to the country before a disaster to help them with reduction and preparation processes and also after a disaster to help with recovery, reconstruction and repairing damages;
5. Urges countries to provide an open access and free data exchange regarding environmental safety as well as the need for governmental support and willingness for rehabilitation and recovery
Delegation: Cuba Issue: Enhancement of womenís status in developing countries, Commission: Social
Defining womenís rights as the socioeconomic, political, and legal rights for women equal to those of men. According to Webster Dictionary,
Further Defines that INSTRAW stands for International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, which is a current UN committee,
Taking into Consideration that education is a human right and an essential tool for achieving the goals of equality, development and peace,
Bearing in Mind that discrimination in girls' access to education present in many regions of the world, due to traditional attitudes, leads to early marriages and pregnancies,
Concerned that the unemployment rate of women is approximately 3.8 million with 380,000 of the women are the head of their house holds, while the unemployment rate of men is 1.9 million,
Believing that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights,
Keeping in mind that all countries who have adopted communism, has no problem or concern with this issue since they believe that everyone is equal,
Congratulates all organizations whose aim was the advancement of womenís status in the world,
1. Resolves the creation of a subcommittee advised by the Committee of Status of Women (CSW) which will be called Womenís Rights Organization (WRH),
2. Confirms that the WRH will retrieve evaluations made from current organizations and assign investigators which will further evaluate the status of women in countries. These investigators will: A. Be chosen by : 1. Recommendation by state parties, 2. Experience, 3. Educational achievements, 4. Accomplishments (job accomplishments), 2. These investigators will enter the counties who are deeply in need of their assistance.
3. Further resolves that the WRH will set a donor committee which will invite all nations with a GDP of X for the nations that donate. this committee will: A. Insure that the women will receive: i. Health insurance ( maternity advise and birth control) ii. Educational insurance (availability) till the age of 18 iii. Training for available jobs/activities available to women B. Provide: i. Equality ideological training of gender, ii. Jobs iii. Equally owning land and property c. Assign investigators, plan makers, medical crew, educator and all who are needed to eliminate this issue; to take actions to reach the goal at hand. All of the aids stated above will be transported by land, sea or air, prior to the countryís location.
4. The Creation of a program that will: A. Have research projects that will serve to widen the knowledge base in the field of womenís right and enhancement B. Provide activities for women in rural areas that will provide income for them, activities will range from training in textile factories to toy productions to farming, etc. C. Have training programs that aim at enhancing womenís exercise of their legal rights in daily life D. Have training activities, seminars and workshops for women in order to help them with their situation and help them get trained for jobs that are open/available to them E. Ensure the participation of professionals who are qualified and experienced to work in the fields of womenís problems F. Set goals and develop and provide human rights education in order to: i. increase womenís awareness of their human rights ii. address the feminization of poverty and its root causes G. support anti-discrimination organizations as well as womenís organization that try to promote equality among the people and bring women their rights H. Develop an education plan that will educate both the public and women about womenís rights and raise awareness by: 1. Using the media (TV, radio, newspapers) as the key tools that would send the message to the public 2. Sending out pamphlets that talk about the seriousness of this issue,
5. Urges all nations to work together to bring their women their full rights and in cooperation with international organizations whose aim is to enhance womenís rights.
Country: Cuba Delegate: Abdulaziz AL Mutawa Commission: Disarmament Issue: The arms build up in the straits of Taiwan
Recalling all nations that On June 30, 1998, while in Shanghai, President Bill Clinton of the USA said, "we don't support independence for Taiwan, or two Chinas, or one Taiwan-one China. And we don't believe that Taiwan should be a member of any international organization for which statehood is a requirement.",
Further Recalling that President Richard M. Nixon of the USA clearly said " I had never expected that the China initiative would come to fruition in the form of a Ping-Pong team. ",
Observing that according to several news cast from the East Asian seas that more than three political and military sides are involved in the internal Chinese issue,
Noting with Regret that according to various Chinese news casts that some nations such as the Philippines and the USA are bothering the people's Republic of China with verbal pledges and encouragement to the province of Taiwan aiming to a revolution that not result in anything except in the destruction of Taiwan and the Philippines and neighboring army bases,
Noting with extreme Regret that according to the Central Intelligence Agency of the USA has stated that along with the nations bothering the People's Republic of China is some African nations, which want nothing other than money the United Nations, will be more than glad to aid in the financial crisis',
Pointing out that according to Central Intelligence Agency of the USA has commended the effectiveness of the trade embargo forced on Cuba by the USA , which had shown very efficient results in not allowing any direct financial aid to enter Cuba in any ways publicly,
Emphasizing that according to various articles in the UN charter on the fact that an embargo would actually work in a situation such as the Chinese due to the fact is had worked before in several situations such as Cuba,
Showing that according to the Intelligence Agency of China (the PLA and the Xinhua) that the current status quo is not effective by clear evidence that the issue is brought up and great deals of weapons are in the straits of China's Taiwan,
Noting that according to the Central Intelligence Agency of the USA that The People's Republic of China controls over 50% of Asia's growing economy and that many nations of the world would effected if the Asian economy leader is not satisfied,
1. Encourages the voluntary act of enforcing an arms embargo on the Chinese province of Taiwan, making the situation illegal to posses weapon of any kind, and trading of weapons in the embargoed area, which will in effect contain the following: A. A set of strict rules that will be follow and obeyed by the people the apply to, B. A sub organization that will be reinforcing the embargo, C. A Punishment organization that deals with violators;
2. Resolves that the enforced embargo will have the following rules which will be followed by all citizens in the area: A. No kind of weapon is allowed in the embargo area unless inspected by law enforcement and is for official use only, B. No nation is allowed to sell any kind of weapons to any person in the embargoed area, C. China being Asia's most leading and growing economies will deal with no nation that violates the embargo rules, D. If any kind of arms deal was caught both side of the deal will face serious charges in the Chinese justice system;
3. Calls upon the formation of a temporary sub organization acting under the United Nations flag called The Chinese Arms Embargo Organization (CAEO), which will in effect be responsible of the following tasks: A. Developing and enforcing the arms embargo on the Chinese province of Taiwan, B. Maintain the effectiveness of the embargo, C. Reaching negotiations with any arms dealers in the embargoed area making it illegal to sell or import any military equipment to the Chinese province of Taiwan, D. Making sure hat everything is running smoothly in the embargo issue the CAEO will gradually close down leaving very small offices in one area open for any emergencies, E. Sending monthly reports to the United Nations, F. Staying a temporary headquarters in Cuba until the People's Republic of China agrees to have the headquarters in Beijing, i. Stationing in Cuba at the beginning of the embargo operations, ii. Cuba is the nation proposing this resolution and we do not mind having something to do with helping our alleys stationed on our soil,
4. Resolves that the CAEO will contain the following members: A. Researchers whom will maintain the effectiveness of tee program, B. Local law enforcement agencies, which will enforce the illegal arms trade in the specific area, C. Administrators whom which will be in charge of sending monthly reports to the General Assembly and the Security Council as long as the CAEO is still in action, D. China's government trade officials,
5. Proclaims that a small sub committee will be create under the CAEO which only come into effect if any violations of the embargo rules actually occur, this committee will be known as the punishment committee which will in effect be responsible for these tasks A. Evaluate the violation, B. Publish a list in the United Nations containing all the named of groups and nations that may violate the rules, C. Advise the Security Council to condemn these violations and possibly force sanctions on those nations/ groups, D. Under the authority of the United Nations if a violator was caught twice the group/ nation will be suspended from the United Nations for a certain period of time;
6. Encourages such nations such as the USA and the Philippines to simply "back off" and, to stop aggravating the Chinese territories with air talk that will lead into nowhere except the destruction of Taiwan and neighboring supporters.
Delegate: Cuba Forum: Human rights Issue: A United Nations study on the role of the World Bank in preserving the rights of citizens in debt-ridden countries.
Noting with regret that according to the World Bank there are 52 nations severely indebted and 45 nations that are less indebted;
Recognizing the fact according to the International Trade Data System (ITDS), the U.S as of August 2001, imposed sanctions and embargoes against Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (specific parties), Liberia, Sierra Leone, the Taleban in Afghanistan, the UNITA faction in Angola, and Syria;
Further recognizing that according to Jubilee USA Network the World Bank's refusal to cancel illegitimate and unpayable debts owed to it by impoverished countries means, that dozens of countries around the world must make unconscionable payments to the World Bank, while their education and health systems collapse;
Reminds nations that according to Christian Aid around US $355 billion is owed by 52 of the world's poorest countries to some of the world's richest and yearly early repayments from these countries work out at around US $23.4 billion; some of this money is owed to the IMF and World Bank which are controlled by the world's rich countries, such as the US; and it would cost ?£300 billion to cancel the debt. To put this into perspective, in the US over ?£350 billion is spent on gambling each year,
Noting with extreme regret that The G8 countries promised to cut US $110 billion of debt, but the plans for debt relief are on hold. Only US $36.3 billion has been written off so far. Anyway people in the know - such as Jubilee 2000 - estimate that at least US $300 billion must be written off because it can never be paid without taking money away from vital work like immunizing children against basic diseases and primary education,
Bearing in mind, that by the mid 1990s, a third of Bolivia's income was being used to pay interest on its debts, in 1994, Nicaragua was scheduled to make repayments of US $1.46 billion and its entire export earnings for that year were US $489 million, for example, in 1996, Mozambique spent twice as much on debt interest as on education, and four times as much on debt as it did on health,
1) Calls upon the reorganization of the structure of the World Bank to introduce a side committee that will consist of a board of directors that will supervise and examine all loans that pass through the World Bank: A. The board of directors will consist of 15 members, 3 members will be chosen from every continent: i. The members will be chosen by the governments of the countries of the continent due to experience on related fields, these people have to run through several procedures of acceptance to assure the experience in related fields and to assure the fair opinions and orders that will be made by the board, ii. The members of the board will change every three years for the better representation of the continent, B. The board will meet to discuss all loans proposed by nations, and will examine the needs of the specific nation and either approve or deny the loan, after it passes through several procedure of examination and serious care to insure that the bank its self is not going to lose a great amount of money, C. The coming of a decision will between the directors will be by running a vote;
2) Reassures all nations that the board of directors will have the right to Veto any order given by the president of the World Bank, and that the board of directorís role is mainly to supervise and review loans proposed to the bank.
3) Resolving that the board of directors will mandate a process to review all loans in the World Bank by setting a process made by the directors to review loans, and the reviewing of the loans would be for the benefit of all nations: A. Making exceptions to poor and bankrupt nations and will: i. Increase time of debt payment without increasing of interest rate, ii. Relieve debt to nations, who have a decreasing and very low income, iii. Make loans without interest rate; iv. also decrease all portfolio loans for the help of poor nations;
4) Assuring all nations that these exceptions will be made to poor and none poor nations due to the economic problems that the nation is struggling through at a specific time, and that these exception will run through a procedure where all directors will run a vote to except the exceptions or not,
5) Calls upon the formation of a donation committee under the World Bank that would help in giving money to poor and debt relief nations, and this fund-raiser: A. would be run by a new committee that would consist of another 15 members that: i. would be chosen also from the 5 different continents, and would be changed every five years, and the process of choosing them would be similar to the ones of the directors, B. this fund-raisers would be for the benefit of all poor nations, since this fund-raiser would help the world bank in accepting loans to nations that are in serious need of loans;
6) Notes that helping nations will be recognized for their help and would be awarded for their great effort in cooperation;
7) Requests the formation of a subcommittee under the board of directors which will be divided in to two sections: A. The first part would use Islamic Banking procedures for the better of all Muslim nations, and it would consist of: i. Five Muslim members that would be chosen by the board of directors , where every continent would chose one, and those members would help in the revision of Muslim nationís in loans to help in organization, and the benefit of all Muslim nations, ii. These members will change every two years for the better representation of all Muslims in all continents, B. The second part would consist and run by five members from all communist nations, these members will also run through the same procedures of choice as the Muslim members, and this part would review loans of communist nations, and would operate on the principles of no interest;
8) Further resolves that after the formation of the following committees no nation shall suffer from malnutrition, diseases, and starvation.
Hola! Comment esta?
Imagine smoking the worldís finest and most luxurious cigar on a seat in earthís paradise. Sadly this image is becoming words in history. Due to the US embargo on Cuba, this image is not continuing surviving. Economic warfare consequences exist not only due to the embargo on Cuba, but on other nations as well. Assigning Paul Wolfowitz as president of the World Bank caused bankruptcy to several nations, and an economic warfare to others.
Behind the curtains stand the so called "land of the free" and the "land of the brave", the US. But where is this freedom?
If freedom consists of poverty, death, and disease; then yes, our world is free. However, this is not the true definition. Our world is suffering because of those dominating nations who are destroying every single one of us. Let us not be slaves! Let us release ourselves from the handcuffs that tie us down. Let us flap our wings and fly to paradise, to a place where freedom doesn't mean poverty, death and disease.
Mohamed Al Mailam: Social and Ambassador
In this years KSAA event the school team was better prepared than the year before. We enjoyed a great debate against all the other schools. Our school had a resolution that was debated in the General Assembly, BBS had a great and a very big role, the school had many more resolutions that were debated in the forums and were passed. We enjoyed a very professional debate, and proved our selves and our abilities in the conference. Our delegation Cuba was very well recognized and played a very big role in sarcasm and being in character and always fighting against the US. Three from all delegations from Cuba were main-submitters; all three resolutions were passed with a great majority. Also three out of four from the Cuban delegation got recognized for their excellent work and enthusiasm. We even received a warning for not apologizing to Syria for being in character and following our countries policy. We had a great time and hope to do it again some other time.
Yasmeen Dashti: Environmental
I've been to two KSAA events. What I can say is that this year's KSAA event was a totally different experience than last years. This year, we not only spoke more, but we were more prepared and we knew what we were doing. As Cuba, we had 3 main submitters in which all three were passed, and 1 co-submitter. I was a main submitter for the first time and it was lots of work; however, the results were good. My resolution was debated in the environmental commission and passed unanimously. The debating in the environmental commission was tough and each country tried to "trash" the other country's resolution. Thus, the environmental commission debates ended with having only 2 resolutions passed, one from BBS and one from ASK. The third day was even more interesting where everyone was trying to get on the other's nerves. By the time the last resolution was debated, Cuba was hated by most of the delegates and the chairs who stopped calling on Cuba . Three delegates from Cuba were recognized for their debating and also Cuba got warnings for being "in character" and following our country's policy when we refused to apologize to Syria. All in all, the 2005 KSAA conference was a successful conference. We entered the conference with enthusiasm and readiness and came and out with many memories and knowledge on what "real" debating is.
Reem Al- Thekair: Human Rights
I was at first a main submitter but throughout my merging with other delegates I realized that this group was BAD!!! when ever i asked them why did they choose this issue they replied :" it was the easiest issue" i got extremely frustrated that i went to another group. i was co. submitter, but it was extremely hard to prove myself against 10 people. our resolution was the only resolution that only took one re-write to pass the approval panel. it was debated and was passed in my commission; however other delegates voted against our resolution because of personal issues and i did catch them and questioned their knowledge. i was awarded most talked delegate by my chair. the bomb exploded on the third day! when i was presenting a speech against a resolution, some countries took it as an offense and made me apologize. however when they did ask for a apology i did not apologize to Syria. the chair did hate Cuba; which caused the chair not to pick us! it was a great conference and i really did enjoy the conference.
Abdulaziz AL Mutawa: Disarmament
I was a part of the Cuban delegation, taking part in the disarmament commission. I stated a rite of reply in the opening ceremonies as in support to Syria of being anti- USA. I wanted to reply to the US commenting on us being a communist party, however due to the president's ignorance he did not choose Cuba, despite the fact that there was no other nation willing to talk. In the disarmament commission I was the firs delegate to state a rite of reply to the emergency situation. I was against a resolution submitted by Turkey (ASK) with strong attacks and embarrassing points of information with made other nations question the credibility of the main submitter. After the resolution failed I was informed that my resolution was going to be debated in two minutes. I took the floor as main submitter backed up by China as my main Co- submitter. My resolution passed with many good points in mind such as avoiding national sovereignty issued because all the headquarters of the proposed idea were in nations that have signed on to this resolution. We avoided being attacked by four of the permanent Security Council members and had the support of the fifth one. During the ongoing course of the event I offended the USA (in character) as much as I possibly can, with direct accusations; sadly the delegation did not even call out a point of order. I obtained on a resolution on the ABM issues submitted by France. My abstention was in full character of Cuba, because although it made sense it did not benefit Cuba. In the general assembly I asked a point of information and stated a rite of reply plus a policy statement. In the closing ceremonies I was recognized with a speaker award.