Students: Sarah Fakhral-Deen, Human Rights and Ambassador Abdulaziz Al-Marzouq, Disarmament Yvette Ohanion, Social
Political Structure (Sarah Fakhraldeen):
Formerly known as West Pakistan, it is now called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Pakistan, as its formal name suggests, is a federal republic. Pakistan got its independence from the United Kingdom on the 14th of August in 1947. The Pakistani constitution was first officially written on the 12th of April in 1973; however, it was suspended twice since. The first it was suspended was on the 5th of July in 1977, it was later reinstated with new amendments on the 30th of December in 1985. In October of 1999, General Pervez Musharraf, who at that time was Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, suspended Pakistan’s Constitution for the second time, and he also added Chief Executive to his title.
In May of 2000, the Pakistani Supreme Court unanimously authorised the October 1999 overthrow made by Musharraf and granted him executive and legislative authority for three years after the date of the overthrow. On the 20th of June in 2001, Musharraf named himself president and was officially sworn in taking the place of Mohammed Rafiq Tarar. In a vote on the 30th of April in 2002, Musharraf’s presidency was extended for another five years. The Pakistani constitution was reinstated for the second time on the 31st of December in 2002. The last time it was amended was on the 31st of December in 2003. Shaukat Aziz is the prime minister of Pakistan, and he is the person who appoints the Cabinet; however, he himself was elected by the National Assembly to serve for five years.
In Pakistan, the military remains the most important and influential political force. Nonetheless, the ulema or clergy, the landowners, the industrialists, and the small merchants are also influential. The reason the military is considered the most powerful sector is because before Musharraf was president he was a general, and after he became president his official title was and still is President General Musharraf. In other words, Musharraf is still technically in the military. Therefore, Musharraf has put every division that he was a part of and could be sure that the people in that division will support all his decisions a major power in the country. Musharraf likes to make sure that everything he says is to be done no matter what his people think, and he does not like to adhere to what his people want. In simpler words, Pakistan is a dictatorship. There are several political parties in Pakistan, the major ones are: Pakistan Muslim League (which is the largest party in the parliament), Pakistan People’s Party Parliamentarians (PPPP), Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), and Jamaat-e-Islami (which is the highly conservative Islamic Party that opposed the creation of Pakistan, but supported a united India).
Geography (Yvette Ohanian):
Pakistan displays some of Asia’s most magnificent landscapes as it stretches from the Arabian Sea, its southern border, to some of the world’s most spectacular mountain ranges in the north. Pakistan, located in Southern Asia is also bordered by India on the east, Iran and Afghanistan on the west, and China to the north. The country has a generally hot and dry climate, with desert conditions prevailing throughout much of the area. The Indus is the chief river of Pakistan and is the nation's lifeline. It flows the length of the country and is fed by the combined waters of three of the five rivers of Punjab—the Chenab, Jhelum, and Ravi. The terrain is mostly flat plains in the east and mountains in the north and northwest. Less than a one-fifth of Pakistan's land area has the potential for intensive agricultural use. Nearly all of the arable land is actively cultivated, but outputs are low by world standards. Cultivation is sparse in the northern mountains, the southern deserts, and the western plateaus, but the Indus River basin in Punjab and northern Sindh has fertile soil that enables Pakistan to feed its population under usual climatic conditions. Pakistan benefits form a great geographic position since it is in the middle of the world and it is a connection from the east to the west. Pakistan has an important trade position; it is a transit point for many traders.
Natural Resources (Zaid Al-Marzooq):
Pakistan has many natural resources. One of the most important resources includes arable land and water which make a big part of the Pakistan's natural resources. About 28% of Pakistan's total land area is under cultivation and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. Agriculture accounts for about 23% of GDP and employs about 42% of the labour force. Their agricultural products include cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs. Despite intensive farming practices, Pakistan remains a net food importer. Pakistan exports rice, fish, fruits, and vegetables and imports vegetable oil, wheat, cotton (net importer), pulses, and consumer foods. Pakistan due to disasters cant feed the whole population, the country faces many seasons of drought which lead to a famines, when this occurs the country faces a shortage of food. Despite, the poor harvest of 1993, the government introduced agriculture assistance policies, including increased support prices for many agricultural commodities and expanded availability of agricultural credit.
Pakistan's natural energy resources include some proven oil reserves that don't fit the consumption therefore are imported mostly from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, coal, hydroelectric potential and natural gas that is produced at a rate of 23.4 billion cu m, which only fits the consumption and cannot be exported to a nation including India, yet on the other hand Iran and India's pipeline passes through Pakistan. However these energy resources only produce half the energy needed. The rest of Pakistan's energy comes from nuclear power which is a great step for Pakistan to becoming a developed nation and large hydropower.
Cultural Factors (Sarah Fakhraldeen):
According to a census in July of 2005, Pakistan’s population is 162,419,946; the vast population is divided into several tribes or ethnic groups. There are five main Pakistani ethnic groups, which are: Baloch; Muhajir (who are the immigrants from India at the time of the partition and their descendants); Afghan, Pashtun, or Pathan; Punjabi; and Sindhi. The Punjabis make the larges ethnic group or tribe. Nonetheless, the Muhajirs dominate all the other tribes, seeing as most of the leaders and high ranking officers are actually Muhajirs. There are other smaller tribes among the ethnic groups who are found in the northern part of the country, which include: Brahui, Hinko, Kafiristanis, Kashmiris, Khowars, Shina, and Turwalis.
In the 1980s, Pakistan gave shelter to about three million Afghan refugees, the largest refugee population in the world. The Afghan refugees formed their own tribes, too, which included: Hazaras, Pashtuns, and Tajiks. The Afghan refugees mainly settled in the North-Western Frontier Province (NWFP). There are several conflicts in that region, seeing as it is an area where almost all of the Pakistani citizens are living under the poverty line, and the fact that there are many refugees there does not help solve these conflicts. Some of the Pakistani tribes in the NWFP still do not want to allow the Afghan refugees to settle there, causing more problems.
There are also several religious tribes or groups in Pakistan. As its official name implies, Pakistanis are mostly Muslims who make about 96.3% of the population, specifically greater than 75% are Sunnis, 20% are Shiite, and there are also other branches of Islam; and the other religions are 2.5 % are Christians, and 1.2% are Animists, Buddhists, Hindus, Jews, Sikhs, Zoroastrians, and other religions.
With such a large amount of sects and tribes one would assume that there are several spoken languages. About 48% of the population speaks Punjabi, 12% speaks Sindhi, 10% speak Siraiki (a Punjabi variant), 8% speak Pashtu, 8% speak Urdu, 3% speak Balochi, 2% speak Hindko, 1% speaks Brahui, and the last 8% speaks English, Burushaski, and other languages. English is officially spoken by the Pakistani elite and most of the government’s ministries.
There are provinces that separate different areas in Pakistan, just as there are states that separate different areas in the USA. The Punjab province is the second largest province in Pakistan, it had and still has the largest population, and it was dominated by the Punjabis who used to dominate Pakistan. Now-a-days, however, the Punjab province is almost exclusively populated by Muslims who currently dominate the country.
Most likely, with such large provinces and this many religious and ethnic tribes, there are definitely a lot of riots and conflicts in Pakistan. There are problems that arouse among the religious minorities, for example, such as the problems with the Sunni Muslims and the Ahmadiyya Muslims. Most of the problems among religious minorities arise within branches of the same religion, seeing as they have different beliefs about the same religion. Moreover there are also problems among the large provinces. For example, the Siraikis, who still dominate the south of the Punjab province, have a national movement, and most of the citizens want to see a separate region called Siraikistan.
The main conflicts, however, occur between the religious sectors, seeing as now the people of the same religion seem to be forming their own tribes and forming their own set of beliefs. In other words, those of the same religion but different branches of that religion form different tribes, which cause a lot of conflicts. Unfortunately, now-a-days, seeing as the Muslims dominate the country, composing more than 96.3% of the population, many Pakistanis are considered terrorists, especially after the terrorist attacks in September of 2001. Also, Afghanistan is Pakistan’s neighbour and Pakistan hosted the world’s largest refugee population of Afghans and ever since the war against terrorism, more Afghans have been entering Pakistan. This movement of the Afghans into Pakistan has tarnished the reputation of Pakistani citizens linking them to the terrorism going on in the world
Defence (Zaid Al-Marzooq):
Pakistan's has the world's eighth largest armed force. However budget constraints have reduced Pakistan's military training procedures. Pakistan has had a difficult time maintaining IT aging fleet of US, China, UK, and French equipment. While industrial side of Pakistan has been expanding, the military budget has been limited. Even sanctions have constrained the government's efforts to modernize its armed forces. Before 1990 the US provided Pakistan with military aid to modernize its defence capabilities against the USSR, which was one the US's main threats. Therefore to stop this threat the US aided nations surrounding it including Pakistan, yet after the USSR collapsed and Pakistan started a nuclear program the US stopped its military assistance to Pakistan.
After the Sanctions were put in place in 1990 due to the discovery of its program to develop nuclear weapons, ad that led to the US denying any further military assistance. Pakistan remains to be a non-signatory of the Nuclear non-Proliferation Treaty. After September 11 2001 events and Pakistan's agreement to support the US led to resuming of military assistance to provide spare parts and equipment to enhance Pakistan's police capacity and security. Furthermore, the USA provided Pakistan with $3 billion in economic and military aid over 5 years. Pakistan has been using almost 4.9% of the GDP. The military is separated into three branches.
Pakistan by using military power cannot take Kashmir because India has a much larger army that uses a larger budget, over 4 times that of Pakistan, Yet it could survive a frontal assault from India due to the US's help in developing Pakistan's defence arsenals.
On the other hand, Pakistan can successfully nuke India, yet after all tests have been done due to the nuclear master mind Dr. Khan who has been known for developing nuclear warfare. Unfortunately the US does not aid Pakistan with its nuclear program, for that it has dropped military sanction after it had discovered Pakistan's nuclear program later in 1990. Pakistan is able to put forward as many troops as possible to stop India's invasion over Kashmir and the Indus, especially when it can use the recent US aid package to further develop nuclear weapons, taking in mind that Pakistan's nuclear arsenal is much better than that of India's. On the other hand it must take under consideration the Afghani refugee camps in the north.
Economy (Yvette Ohanian):
Pakistan has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and an enduring conflict with neighbouring India. Pakistani trade levels became worse after the terrorist attack on the Unite States in 2001.While long-term prospects remain uncertain, given Pakistan's low level of development, medium-term prospects for job creation and poverty reduction are the best in nearly a decade. Islamabad has raised development spending from about 2% of GDP in the 1990s to 4% in 2003, a necessary step towards reversing the broad underdevelopment of its social sector. Pakistan's current GDP growth rate is 6.1% and has become less dependent on agriculture. Pakistan's economy is an industrializing economy. Pakistan's export partners are US 21.3%, UAE 9.8%, UK 7.1%, Germany 5.2%, Hong Kong 4.2%, Saudi Arabia 4.1%. Major import partners are China 10.8%, US 10.2%, UAE 9.3%, Saudi Arabia 9%, Japan 7%, Kuwait 5.3%, Germany 4.2%.
Pakistan’s industries include textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials, clothing, paper products, and shrimp. Some Pakistani agricultural products are cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs. A potential Pakistan-India nuclear arms race has been the focus of U.S. non-proliferation efforts in South Asia. This intensified following nuclear tests by both countries in May 1998; the tests triggered restrictions on U.S. aid to both countries. The remaining nuclear-related sanctions on Pakistan were waived in October 2001. Pakistan has a very large external debt, coming out at $347.3 billion. U.S. assistance has played a key role in moving Pakistan's economy from the brink of collapse to setting record high levels of foreign reserves and exports, dramatically lowering levels of solid debt. This encouraged a 6.1% GDP growth in fiscal year 2003-2004 and a reported GDP increase of over 8% in fiscal year 2004-2005.
Views on world problems (Zaid Al-Marzooq):
Pakistan views on world problems include its great concerns on nuclear weapons. Pakistan's thinks that nations are allowed to have their nuclear weapons for self defence purposes. Pakistan even stated that it did its own research to get these weapons, and as proof the Pakistan nuclear scientist was identified, Mr. Khan, who started Pakistan's nuclear program. India predicts that it has weapons because we Pakistan threaten it, yet who was the first nation to undergo a atomic experiment. India is posses these weapons not because of Pakistan but because of China.
Further more Pakistan's concern on terrorism is clear, it's an anti terrorist nation that has significantly cooperated with the US to fight terrorism both in the world and in Pakistan. This decision helped Pakistan gain the US's support against India, by the military aid it had provided in 2003, which is estimated to be $3 billion or 11.6% of the GDP.
This decision not only concerned Pakistan but India too, for this reason US might change its policy towards the dispute over Kashmir. Yet, up to day the current leading party of Pakistan has no control what so ever over what is being taught to its people. The madrasa is controlling the flow of education and the controlling party cannot control them, they fear them. The madrasa are considered terrorists to many nations yet Pakistan has not admitted that it’s their legal education system that is out of control.
In addition Pakistan is truly concerned with illegal Drug production, for many years it has tried to combat these illegal drugs produces, and it has even cooperated with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency that listed Pakistan as a major producer of illicit opium and hashish for the international drug trade. Poppy cultivation in 1999 was 3,870 acres, a 48 percent drop from 1998 because of eradication and alternative crop development. Pakistan is also a key transit area for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western markets; narcotics still move in the Afghan province of Badakshan, which is considered Pakistan's main drug production region. These drugs are considered to be influenced by Afghani refugees that are returning from Kabul, in addition the Turkmen tribes of north Afghanistan. These Afghani tribes have settled in the Northern Refugee camp of Pakistan and have made it among the leading drug producers of Asia.
Pakistan blames India for many of its problems including the dispute over Kashmir, and Water-sharing problems over the Indus River. The UN has considered this as one of its main priorities and nations such as the US have tried to stop the conflict through cease fires in the region yet the conflict still stands and it has turned into a nuclear war, in which both nations threaten each other by their nuclear weapons. In addition they are both not part of the NPT which makes it even harder for the UN to solve the conflict especially the nuclear war.
Finally Pakistan has offered assistance to the United States for the victims affected by Hurricane Katrina and said it was ready to send a team of medical doctors and paramedics to support the relief efforts. As the Pakistani Prime minister stated that there are 2,700 Pakistanis and Pakistani- Americans in the areas affected by the Hurricane and that the embassy was working with the US office of Crisis Management Support to provide help to the affected members of the Pakistani community and community organizations. This signifies that Pakistan and the US have good relations in which helped the US settle camps within Pakistan during the Afghanistan war.
Pakistan has its great relations with China as it was one of the first nations to identify the republic of China in 1950. Since then relations with China have been extremely tight. China on the other hand provided Pakistan with economic, military, and technical assistance. It has also been said that China was one of the nations that assisted Pakistan with its nuclear program, for that Pakistan shall stand with China during nay crisis. In addition Pakistan's ties with Russia have been on the edge for a while; Pakistan for a long time has stood against Russia's invasion of Afghanistan and has cooperated with the US during both the cold war and the war in Afghanistan. Yet Russia has tried to maintain better relations with Pakistan by providing some military assistance, and yet Russia's aid to India has exceeded that of Pakistan, and giving India the favour of the battle. Therefore Pakistan still considers its relations with Pakistan weak.
History (Yvette Ohanian):
Pakistan was home to the first civilization in Southern Asia, the Indus Valley Civilization from 2500 to 1700 BC. By the early 16th century the Muslim sultans of Delhi (an Afghan dynasty known as Lodi) are weakened by threats from rebel Muslim principalities and from a Hindu coalition of Rajput rulers. The decisive battle against Ibrahim, the Lodi sultan, came on the plain of Panipat in April 1526. Babur wasvily was outnumbered (with perhaps 25,000 troops in the field against 100,000 men and 1000 elephants), but his tactics won the battle. The British attempted to subdue Pakistan's anarchic northwest during the First Afghan War (1839-42) and succeeded in conquering Sind in 1843 and the Punjab in 1849. Unlike previous settlers in India, the Muslim immigrants were not absorbed Into Hindu society.
The idea of a Muslim nation, distinct from Hindu India, was introduced in 1930 by the poet Muhammad Iqbal and was passionately supported by a group of Indian Muslim students in England, who were the first to use the name Pakistan (land of the pure, from the Urdu pak, =pure and stan, =land). It gained wide support in 1940 when the Muslim League demanded the establishment of a Muslim state in the areas of India where Muslims were in the majority. Pakistan emerged on the world map on August 14, 1947 and as a dominion within the Commonwealth, with Jinnah as governor-general and Liaquat Ali Khan as prime minister. Mohammed Ali Jinnah died in September 1948, within 13 months of independence. The leaders of the new Pakistan were mainly lawyers with a strong commitment to parliamentary government. They had supported Jinnah in his struggle against the Congress not so much because they desired an Islamic state but because they had come to regard the Congress as synonymous with Hindu domination. Major General Akbar Khan fought in Kashmir on the Pakistan side in Indo-Pakistan war of 1948. He is mostly known in Pakistan as the main conspirator of the first but failed coup attempt of 1951, which came to be known as the Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case.
The separation of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan have fought wars over the disputed Kashmir territory. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but recent discussions may be a start toward lessened tensions. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998.
Recent History (Sarah Fakhraldeen):
In 1947, British India separated into Hindu India and the Muslim State of Pakistan, which was actually two sections: West Pakistan and East Pakistan. India and Pakistan have since been in war over the Kashmir territory, the first was in 1947 and lasted a few months into 1948, while the second war was in 1965. A third war in 1971, lead to the separation of East Pakistan, formerly known as East Bengal, and that formed Bangladesh. Also, in 1971 there was the Bangladesh Liberation War. In the 1990s India conducted a test of its nuclear weapons, which Pakistan responded to by conducting its own test in 1998.
During the 1990s, Pakistan was one of three countries that recognized the Taliban as being the legitimate ruler of Afghanistan, and especially Mullah Mohammed Omar. There have been allegations made against Pakistan and other countries that might have sent economic and military Aid to the Taliban against the Soviet Alliance. It is also allegedly said that some Taliban military recruits were from Pakistani schools.
Nawaz Sharif was ruling Pakistan alongside Benazir Bhutto from 1988 to 1998, and he was prime minister during that time, too. In October of 1999, when Musharraf suspended the Pakistani constitution and started to take power through his military experience and strength, Sharif attempted to assassinate Musharraf. He was on an airline scheduled to land in the Karachi airport, however, Sharif ordered the airport to prevent the airline from landing, and it kept circling over the airport taking Musharraf by surprise. The military generals surprisingly and suddenly took over, overthrew the orders made by Sharif, and allowed the airplane to land with only a few more minutes of fuel to spare. Later on that year, Musharraf arrested and expelled Prime Minister Sharif.
In May of 2000, the Supreme Court of Pakistan told Musharraf that he must hold elections by October of 2002. By April of 2002, Musharraf was officially voted president for the next five years. The general elections, however, were still held in October of 2002 where the Pakistan Muslim League won most of the seats in the parliament. Some of the opposing parties were able to paralyze the National Assembly for over a year. By December of 2003, the ‘deadlock’ ended when Musharraf and his supporters agreed to compromise. Later on, on the 1st of January in 2004, Musharraf won more than half of the votes in a vote of confidence in the Electoral College of Pakistan, and he was elected to the office of president according to an article in the Pakistani constitution.
Ever since the terrorist attacks in September of 2001, Musharraf has been threatened by the extremists who seemed to have gained a lot more strength after the attack. Also, the threats reached their peak when Musharraf agreed to allow the US to invade Afghanistan through Pakistan in 2001. Moreover, the threats also reside because of Musharraf’s views on reforming Islam to his own liberal ways. Musharraf has luckily survived several attempts of assassination believed to have been conducted by Al-Qaeda, during some of these attempts the extremists had help, where some of Musharraf’s military security would be leaking information to them.
Pakistan is still involved in the dispute over Kashmir with India. The Pakistani government also continues to accuse India of abusing human rights by using military forces in that area, which they consider their land. This issue concerns the world community because of the supposed fact that both India and Pakistan possess nuclear weapons. In addition, Pakistan is being accused of contributing to nuclear proliferation, after their leading nuclear scientist admitted to selling nuclear secrets. However, he denies that the Pakistani government had any information about his actions.
Disarmament Commission (Zaid Al-Marzooq):,
1) A United Nations study on connections between foreign aid and the build-up of conventional weapons in Africa.
Africa is considered a region with the most serious poverty conflict. Nations such as the US and many others have strived to decrease poverty in that region by providing educational, financial, and medical aid to the citizens and governments of that region. The UN has even aided the region through the creation of many organizations that were created for this purpose such as OAU and the UNDP. The UN has not only aided the African region to stop poverty and disease but to stop human right violations such as the genocide in Sudan.
Unfortunately these foreign aids have allowed the governments to build up conventional weapons rather than use it to improve the education or health of the citizens. The purpose for this build up of weapons is because they lack resources such as water and food due famines. The African nations use these weapons to occupy more resources in the region, such as Congo. In its case, Congo faced a famine due to the lack of water, so it started getting weapons from former Soviet bloc nations and those that are aided militarily by the US, to occupy these resources.
Pakistan looks as this issue as merely the reason for war in Africa. The UN should monitor the aid its send to these nations. Further more Pakistan thinks that by creating a monitoring system, that will monitor that flow of small arms within Africa and the flow of aid the conflict will be solved, yet it is a hard issue that must be solved by the parties in control in Africa. Therefore Pakistan is in search of a resolution that not only stops aid, but changes the purpose of the aid to Africa to other problems in the world such as relief conflicts like that of the recent earth quake in Pakistan, or controlling education like that of the madrasa in Pakistan or terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq. Pakistan supports any solutions proposed that deal with changing the route of African aid, because the parties in control within Africa have proven to be unworthy of this privilege and support that the world has given them.
2) Measures to eliminate the use of Child soldiers in combat.
The world faces a conflict that deals with military armed forces with children considered to be soldiers. More than 300,000 children under 18 are currently participating in conflicts around the world, more than 120,000 of them in Africa. The availability of light automatic weapons that can be carried even by young children has dramatically increased the usefulness of children in combat. Existing international law sets 15 as the minimum age for recruitment into armed forces. Children under 15 years of age are known to be serving in government or opposition forces in at least 25 conflict zones. In Burma there was an estimated 70,000 children in the government armed forces. Exiled children told of being abducted by government forces and taken to military camps where they were subject to beatings, forced labour and combat. In Sri Lanka the forced conscription of children by the armed opposition Tamil Tigers of Eelam (LTTE) continues. In addition to the Taliban terrorist group that is now using child soldiers to accomplish their devastation in the world; the US has long fought this terrorist group.
Pakistan does not encourage such violations. Children are a nation’s key to the future and survival, they are our next generation. Children should not be part of wars. For that matter Pakistan requests the UN to create an organization with the aid of its members in order to stop child soldiers in the world. Pakistan further more requests the increase of education, because education changes the place of children from the battlefield to schools. Pakistan seeks a solution in which education is controlled, so that children are not manipulated to be soldiers and combat in wars. In addition, Pakistan wishes , with the support of the UN, to increase schools and farming methods in poor nations, so that families can provide the assets needed for their children. Further more we seek nations' solutions that encourage the development of international regulations for armed forces. We Pakistan are proud to follow the UN's peace keeping regulation, as we make up a big part of the peace keeping troops.
3) The formation/re-establishment of an improved Anti-Ballistic Missiles (ABM) treaty involving more global support.
Today we face a world that has been under an armed race. This world’s strongest nations have spent large amounts of money on the production and development of weapons. Today we face an issue where nations have to understand the threat of these weapons. Many nations have developed systems for there own protection such as antiballistic missiles. These systems have proven to be a good use against ballistic missiles that threaten many countries.
During the cold war a treaty was signed, the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, between two superior nations, the USA and the USSR. The treaty was about the development of such systems so that the two nations can be equally balanced in their defensive systems. After several years the treaty was violated and many new defence systems were developed without the authority of the treaty. Therefore in recent years the treaty had no use and the US had withdrawn from the treaty, suggesting that it might be improving its ABMs. Many nations consider the ABM not only a defensive weapon but an offensive one too, because it gives one of the nations the privilege to strike first, knowing that if the other, that doesn’t have ABM, does strike first they would have no damage.
Pakistan disagrees with the use of ABM systems, due to their threat to neighbouring countries, unless regulation that exceed those of the current ABM treaty are put forward, in addition these regulations should stop the arms race. One of Pakistan's solutions is to stop ABM states from using these weapons against ABM treaty members. In addition to that Pakistan suggests ABM systems to be used to defend a nation within its national border. Further more Pakistan seeks to stop the spread of ABM technology, for security reasons. Not all nations are trust worthy. What if India possessed these weapons, it will surely use them against us. In addition Pakistan is looking for nations that will support it in improving the ABM treaty, and accompanying it with an organization that will support its missions to accomplish a better ABM treaty.
4) The arms build-up in the straights of Taiwan.
Nations have long strived for peace between Taiwan and China. Yet the increase of tension in the region is due to the lack of negotiation between the two states, taking in consideration that Taiwan is being influenced by a democratic party, while china is influenced by a communist party. The US put a lot of effort in favour of Taiwan and for that many arm deals have been established by the two nations. China for that started its continuous threat on Taiwan. More Chinese missile systems have been deployed across the straight aiming at Taiwan. For that, the USA also threatened China, and stated that if it doesn't reduce its arms on the straight then it will increase arms sale to Taiwan.
Pakistan a peace loving nation encourages China to use peaceful methods with Taiwan to solve the arms conflict on the straights. Pakistan also thinks that China has increased its arms on the straight because it feels threatened by the arms deals between US and Taiwan. Therefore, Pakistan suggests that as long as Taiwan is a part of China, neither the USA nor the UN should interfere, because this is an internal issue of a nation, and no one can violate the national sovereignty of China. Pakistan suggests that if the US wishes to help then it could propose a cease fire in the area. Pakistan seeks to resolve this issue, yet the matter lies in China's hands for Pakistan shall not violate China's national sovereignty and wishes the UN not do the same too.
Social Commission (Yvette Ohanian):
1) Addressing Terrorism.
Today, terrorism is a primary threat to world order. Pakistan believes that we must fight terrorism, in all its forms, outlaw it and eliminate it. To eliminate terrorist violence, we need to eliminate it in the minds of potential terrorists. Terrorists have no frontiers as indeed they have no respect for the lives and properties of the people. The Pakistani government is fully determined to eliminate terrorism of all kinds from the country. More than 500 al Qaeda operatives have been captured and remain in Pakistani jails or have been released for trials abroad.
Pakistan itself has been the victim of a well-orchestrated terror campaign for 15 years. Terrorist acts in Pakistan started during the Afghan war, when the international community, particularly the United States, generously provided sophisticated weapons to Islamic groups to fight the Soviet forces.
Acts of terrorism within Pakistan includes bombings and the detonation of explosive devices in crowded passenger trains which has taken a tragic toll in terms of the loss of innocent lives, severe corporal injuries to unsuspecting civilians and damage to property. The bomb blast in Islamabad, 2000 left 16 people dead and more than 80 injured. The 1995 suicide attack on the Egyptian Embassy tolled with 19 dead. Some Pakistani militants have continued attacks against Westerners and given support to al-Qaeda, particularly in the tribal area along the border with Afghanistan.
Poor education is also contributing to the popularity of fundamentalist thought and support for militant groups. With a shortage of government schools, families often have no choice when it comes to their children's schooling, and instead send them to Madrasas that teach fundamentalist ideologies.
According to the Pakistan Human Rights Commission, as many as 110 people were killed during 1998 in bomb blasts. All these terrorist acts were carried out in poor localities and only poor, voiceless people were killed.
Pakistan considers that no religion sanctions terrorism; the motives of terrorists, however misguided, are always political.
Pakistan would favour resolutions that a) encourage the development of educational systems through broad international financial assistance, and curriculum monitoring. b) would curtail the funding of organizations and institutions that are not supported by the government. c) monitor the use of financial aid so it can not be used inappropriately
2) Long term development plans for reestablishing the infrastructure of areas devastated by natural disasters.
Many countries are increasingly exposed to natural disasters that can erase decades of development, and further establish poverty and inequality. Pakistan continues to suffer from an over-abundance of natural hazards that threaten to affect the lives and livelihood of its citizens. Some of these natural disasters include floods, earthquakes, landslides, cyclones, and droughts. According to the World Disaster Report 2002, two percent of Pakistan’s population were killed or negatively affected by disasters during the 1999 to 2001 period. The recent earthquake that occurred on October 8, 2005 killed over 40,000 civilians and injured up to 100,000.
Pakistan believes that when it comes to natural disasters, getting aid workers in place and providing the millions of affected people with food, shelter, clean water and medical help are not major problems. Receiving financial aid in order to restore infrastructure and help victims, is a greater concern.
Pakistan would support resolutions that would provide aid for: a) Disaster risk reduction and adequate preparedness. b) Establishing-disaster management institutions at the Federal and Provincial levels. c) the betterment of building constructions in order to provide higher quality, more secure shelter.
3. Establishment of methods to enhance the status of women in developing countries.
Pakistan actively supports the equal and positive role of women in society through the existence of organizations within Pakistan. There are currently 12 flourishing organizations devoted towards this issue. For example:
ROZAN (Islamabad, Pakistan): Rozan was created by both men and women in 1998 to address issues related to emotional health, gender, and violence against women and children. Their mission is "to enhance the self-esteem of all people, especially women and children, in order to work towards a society which is aware, confident and accepting of itself and others." Rozan works for women of all socio-economic classes facing mental and emotional health problems with a special focus on victims of violence.
SACH – Struggle for Change (Islamabad, Pakistan): Is an organization that works toward the rehabilitation and reintegration for survivors of organized violence and torture. They focus on human rights issues with a special focus on women and children, due to the fact that they are often the most oppressed. Sach works specifically with victims who are in prison and refugees who have fled from their native lands due to war. The organization's goals are to raise consciousness against torture, violence and cruel inhumane treatments and punishments.
Women Citizen Community Board (Kasur, Pakistan) Women Citizen Community Board was founded in 2001 by a group of women to work for women’s welfare and empowerment. Their mission is to educate women about their basic rights and enable them to successfully participate in social development and political activities.
Pakistan would approve of a resolution that would enhance the status of women by providing them with equal education, political rights, and job opportunities within the structure of a country's religion and social conventions.
Human Rights Commission (Sarah Fakhraldeen):
1) Towards the writing of a declaration of the rights of religious speech.
In Pakistan, there are many ethnic and religious minorities. Where 96.3% are Muslims, greater than 75% are Sunnis, 20% are Shiite, and a few more branches also exist. The religious minorities: 2.5% are Christians, 1.2% are Animists, Buddhists, Hindus, Jews, Sikhs, and Zoroastrians. There have been problems in the past years not only for the Christians, Animists, Buddhists…etc, but also for the minorities among the Muslim branches. For example, the Ahmadiyya who live in the Punjab Province and consider themselves Muslims, are a minority in Pakistan. Other Muslims, however, refuse to regard the Ahmadiyya religious group as actual Muslims. Not long ago, three men from the Ahmadiyya minority were arrested for charges of using offensive language against the Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him - PBUH). In 1995, they were charged with blasphemy against the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH), and in December of 1997, they were sentenced to life imprisonment. Furthermore, the Ahmadis have repeatedly been charged with religious offences because they are defying the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). That is because by practicing their freedom of speech they have broken the laws of their country, and they have offended other Muslims by offending their prophet and denied other Muslims the right to their own beliefs. As said in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), one has the freedom to follow and teach any religion they wish to. Nonetheless, while practicing their freedom, they must not break the laws of their country or obstruct another’s path of freedom. On the other hand, none of the other minorities seem to be charged with such offences. It’s not only religious minorities that have been in conflict, but even in general religions with different belief systems have also been in conflict. Just as the Ahmadis have been in conflict with other Muslims, the Protestants and Catholics have also repeatedly been in conflict, and there are also other countries where the differences in religious beliefs are frowned upon and not accepted. Mostly, these conflicts are among the different branches of the same religion.
Defying the UDHR is not right, and it is not why the UN wrote the UDHR; they wrote it so that people abide by what it says. Moreover, one must be responsible with their freedom, and they must be accounted for if they abuse their freedom. The UDHR is being abused and taken advantage of, seeing as people are only following the parts they want to follow of it (i.e. the fact that everyone has a right to freedom of speech, people are taking their right of freedom of speech way too far and abusing it).
An amendment to article 18 of the UDHR would be a great way to solve this issue, by mentioning that countries do have a right to take action if people violate or abuse their rights. Also, by strictly enforcing the UDHR, we can ensure that no one abuses their rights of freedom of speech at all. Seeing as, the UDHR states that one does not have the right to practice their freedoms if their freedoms break the laws of their country, and if their freedom hinders the way of others of practicing their own freedom.
2) The establishment of preliminary measures to combat child labour.
Child labour is defined as the full time employment of children who are under a minimum legal age. According to the Employment of Children Act of 1991, no children under the age of 14 are permitted to work or be an employee in any government establishment. Out of 3.6 million children, 1.1 million of them are working children in Pakistan’s North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Not only does that violate the Employment of Children Act of 1991, but it also violates the Pakistani constitution, articles 11, 35, and 37, which consider child labour illegal. In the NWFP, the drop out rate after primary school is almost 50%, which implies that there is an abnormally high number of working children. This is most commonly found in extremely poor areas.
In the capital of NWFP, Peshawar, there are children as young as 10 years old who are considered the main source of income for their entire family, consisting of an average of 4 or 5 people per family. Sometimes, these children are also the only source of income for their family, despite the fact that they only provide an average of $4 US dollars a month for 10 hours of daily work. Mainly, these children are working in auto workshops, brick kilns, carpet-weaving centres, furniture factories, shoe factories, and tyre-repair centres. Not only are these children working against the law, but most of them are vulnerable to sexual abuse either by their employers, by older children, or by customers. In addition, some children are forced to work by their drug-addicted parents to help provide drugs for them.
There definitely is a solution to this problem. These children are working to provide necessities for their family, without the money that these children get their families would not be able to live. Parents definitely dislike and want nothing less than the best for their children, and they definitely want to educate their children, but how can they? Countries with child labour are trying their best to lessen the number of working children, but how can they when they are drowning in external debts. All the rich countries around the world have families where only one person is barely working, and yet they are diving into their heaps of money, while those poor children are killing themselves and working only to get an average of $3 to $5 a month. Also, in these poor countries, children are sometimes sent abroad to perform child labour in order to provide the necessities for their families.
Let us not forget, that there are many products in developed countries that are actually made by children, therefore, the developed countries consume what poor children from poor nations make, which means they are in an indirect way supporting child labour, can we really have that when it actually is a violation of human rights?
Of course not, that is why the developed countries in the world can and should definitely help these poor families, and help get children a decent education in order for them to be able to provide for their future families, rather than just disregard those poor children. Parents in developed countries are able to go out and buy a new toy for their children everyday, when parents in those poor undeveloped countries are forced to send their children off to work everyday, where their children are very susceptible to abuse. These rich countries can take a stand and help put those children into schools. These rich countries look at these poor children and they are afraid of them. They are afraid of these poor children because they think that these poor children will end up being terrorists, and making them – the rich countries – the victims. However, that is not the case; if there are any victims in this case it is the children who are the victims. Therefore, if these rich countries are so worried that these children will end up being terrorists, then they should start aiding us – the poor countries in need – by donating (NOT loaning) money, which we can use to send our children to decent schools. By doing that these countries can relieve their fears, and be sure that our children will turn out just like there’s.
Despite the fact that there are already organisations and offices of the UN that are aimed at eliminating child labour, they aren’t working efficiently, unfortunately (ex. OHCHR, ILO, UNICEF…etc). Therefore, the solution here must be to make such organisations much more effective, or to make an entirely new organisation, which would be aimed at collecting donations for the undeveloped nations from any donators, this organisation will be comprised of UN appointed personnel who are well educated about the economy, and how to preserve money and spend it in the right way. This organisation could not only collect such donations, but it would also be in charge of helping undeveloped countries, if asked for and highly needed, to organise and spend their money in a reasonable and preserving manner.
3) A United Nations study on the role of the World Bank in preserving the rights of citizens in debt-ridden countries.
Pakistan has a very large external debt, coming out at $33.97 billion. This is without the public debt, which makes about 41.7% of its GDP (coming at $347.3 billion). Pakistan’s current account balance is only $1.4 billion, which is a very small account balance for a country the size of Pakistan and with such a large population. In other words, Pakistan is certainly considered a debt-ridden country, and its citizens are definitely paying for it. In Pakistan, 32% of the entire population is under the poverty line, almost 50% of the children are forced to work, parents lead horrible lives and have no choice but to get addicted to drugs, children are being ‘exported’ overseas to work because their parents can’t afford to raise them, and there are many other human rights violations occurring. This is not only happening in Pakistan, it is also happening in many other debt-ridden countries. Also, such problems cause more tension between the different governments within the country, seeing as sometimes in debt-ridden countries, one would find that some of the debts date back to before the current president was elected.
The World Bank must preserve the rights of the Pakistani citizens, and they must help relieve Pakistan and all the other countries that are drowning in debts. All debt-ridden countries have citizens who are suffering. These poor citizens can’t afford to suffer anymore. They must have the right to get a decent job, with a decent salary, in able to afford and have a decent income to support their family just like the people in most of the other countries around the world. Pakistan and other poor debt-ridden countries are indebt to whom? They aren’t indebt to other poor countries, no of course not, they are indebt to the rich and developed countries around the world. These heartless governments of these rich countries, not only ask for interest from poor debt-ridden countries, but they also set a specific date for these poor countries to pay all the money. Why do they think we took these loans?! It was because we wanted to help the citizens in our poor country. But instead of helping our poor citizens, instead of helping send our poor citizens’ children to school, and instead of strengthening ourselves as countries, we are repaying our debts to those rich countries who do not need the money. The citizens in those rich countries have endless opportunities, they are taking them for granted, and they do not know an ounce about what is going on in our countries. Pakistan and all debt-ridden countries need to get loans immediately to solve their problems. We need to be able to send our children to school, get them a decent education, to get them a decent job, so they can support their future families. Also, some debt-ridden countries have also, unfortunately, been facing natural disasters, and in light of such disasters as the tsunami and earthquakes, we need to be able to get up on our feet again.
Not only that, but, unfortunately, there’s also the fact that there are debts that are stocked up from earlier governments within the country, which really affects the progress of current government. It’s really not helping the current government use their money to help the nation, seeing as they have to repay all the debts from past governments.
We need to be able to save our people, to help them return to their lives again. We can only do that with loans that do not require us to pay a huge percent of interest over the course of a few years. Therefore, the WB along with any and all rich countries must feel obliged to help. Simply, the WB must provide loans with no interest for the poor debt-ridden countries, and they must allow these countries to repay whenever they can without pushing them. In other words, the debt-ridden countries must be forgiven of their debts by the WB. Also, the WB must suspend interests for any loans taken by such poor countries. By doing so, the WB will be taking the first small steps towards working efficiently on the road to helping the growth of the undeveloped nations.
4) The rights of individuals detained indefinitely.
"The absence of judicial enforceability and constitutional protections enables the Pakistani state to arrest and detain citizens indefinitely." Some people are arrested for the charges such as corruption and/or terrorism, and they are denied bail, and sometimes the people are even denied a trial. In Pakistan, the law enforcing agencies are widely known for allegedly torturing their prisoners, and sometimes allegedly killing them. In 2002 in Pakistan, the Society for Human Rights and Prisoners Aid (SHARP) had found out that 38 prisoners were allegedly tortured to death. Also, Amnesty International (AI) reports that an average of 100 people (be them prisoners or not) are allegedly killed because of police torture every year. In other words, many organizations and societies are accusing Pakistan of allegedly killing their prisoners.
Nonetheless, those who commit absolutely hideous crimes or plot for hideous crimes are a danger to society. No one has thought of it this way, that the Pakistan police have no benefit in killing those people, so why would they kill them? The answer is that they want to ensure the safety of their president who is in danger because of these murderers. Unfortunately, there are people who plot to kill there own presidents, that in political terms is called treason. Anyone who commits treason does not deserve to be given a fair trial. After all, earlier in history those who were caught committing treason were killed, so why can’t we imprison them for life, and teach them a lesson? The answer here is why not, seeing as those who commit such crimes or plot for them deserve to be taught their lesson and sent to prison indefinitely.
People who are sentenced to jail indefinitely are sent there for a reason. They must have committed a hideous crime, they aren’t just arbitrarily sent there. One who commits murder, who rapes, or commits any other hideous crimes is a threat to society and must be taught a lesson. In order to be fair to the victim, the judicial system must sentence people who commit such gruesome crimes must be sentenced to life imprisonment. Once they are in prison, they must not be treated equally with those who are free. In other words, one who is sentenced to life imprisonment does not deserve the equal rights of the innocent who haven’t committed such ghastly crimes. They are in jail in order to be taught a lesson, and if they are given equal rights to those who are free, then it is as if they were never sent to prison. All this is because of what they have brought upon themselves, seeing as no one forced them to commit such crimes. They acted upon their own free will, and they must be punished for causing another person or people such harm. Therefore, those who are imprisoned for life must not be given equal rights with the general population.
The solution here could also be involved in amending the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), in order to give a country freedom of action towards its prisoners. A country must have the right to take any necessary action to punish those citizens who have committed such hideous crimes without having to worry about violating those people’s human rights; after all, these people have violated at least one article of the UDHR by committing their crimes. The UDHR must be amended, and it must say that a country is free to punish their prisoners according to their judicial system as they wish.
Defining the ABM treaty as a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ,which was signed at Moscow May 26, 1972 ,on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons,
Applauds ,by the prospect magazine "nuclear green" issue, the IAEA for the successfulness of its nuclear freeze, that limited nuclear technology and protected non-nuclear states,
Noting according to "US department CIA" The Agency has been a success by assisting Member States in obtaining much needed detection and other equipment for use in monitoring national borders, and insuring international security initiative,
Noting with regret ,according to MIIS, Monterey Institute of International Studies, "White Elephant to Weapons Systems" issue, that in 1998 the Israeli military conducted a successful test of their Arrow ABM, developed in Israel with American assistance,
Noting by Foreign Policy Research Institute , titled A Catalyst for Ideas stated "The advent of counterforce capabilities made it possible that a significant offensive advantage could be used to mount a disabling and disarming first strike",
Fully alarmed that according to "Ministry of Defense, U.S.A., Feb. 26, 1999" Taiwan is also engaged in the development of an anti-ballistic missile system,
Keeping in Mind that ,according to "CRS issue Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, on September 26, 1997", the United States, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine re-signed the ABM treaty making them the only members of the ABM treaty,
Further Defining according to the "AFR" that BMDO is an American Department of Defense agency formed in 1994 under the Reagan administration to develop an antiballistic missile defense,
Sadly Notes by the "AFR" that BMDO is responsible for the continuing research and development of follow-on technologies of the US that are relevant for long-term ballistic missile defense,
Bearing in mind according to Sojourners Magazine "Missile defense: the wrong path to security" issue, the failure of the current ABM treaty to control ABM technology development, the ABM treaty not only increases ABM development but increase offensive weapons,
Sadly noting by "PBS , NUCLEAR WEAPON DEBATE" issue, that US offers to share missile defense technology or in other words ABM technology with European allies,
Fully alarmed by "FPIF ,World Policy Institute, volume 5" that the US threatened to use its ABM systems against China's missiles that might strike Taiwan, thus violating ABM treaty by using ABM systems outside its national border;
1. Declares that the current ABM treaty is considered a failure due to: A. Countries developing ABMs; B. The spreading of ABM technology to non ABM states; C. The use of ABM systems outside a nation's border; D. The lack of incentives to member states;
2. Resolves that a new revised ABM treaty will be written to incorporate the following: A. Freezing the developments on ABM systems for ABM states on the most advanced ABM system which will be selected by the inspection group as stated below in clause 3-d-ii: i. ABM member states cannot increase the development of the system above the limitations, ii. They can not deploy them outside their national territory, iii. If ABM states exceed the limitation they shall be referred to the SC, B. Banning the creation of ABM systems from non-ABM states: i. The inspections committee as stated below shall create a list in which will state nations that already have the systems and those that don’t, ii. Non ABM states that possess or develop these weapons shall be referred to the SC, C. Members states will agree that: i. Current ABM states shall not use ABM systems against other members of the treaty, ii. Non ABM states shall not develop nor possess any ABM systems, D. Banning any actions of ABM proliferation by seeking to cooperate with Interpol to stop such illegal spread of ABM technology through: i. Securing internet, telephone and any other sources of communication, ii. Securing transport methods of any kind, iii. using satellites to secure borders, E. Creating an organization that shall contribute to the assistance of the treaty called the International Defense System Agency (IDSA);
3. Further Resolves that the IDCA, shall enforce the revised treaty as a main sub organ of this organization and the organization shall: A. Have its main headquarters located in New York, United States, and other quarters shall be located in Moscow, Russia; Beijing, China; Geneva, Switzerland; Pretoria, South Africa; Wellington, New Zealand, B. Have a president that will be elected by the members, C. Have a meeting every six months in one of the quarters, D. Consist of an inspection committee that: i. Will consist of 10 IDCA superior inspectors and negotiators, ii. Will inspect existing ABM systems, the most advanced system will be specified to the treaty, iii. Will inspect all member states at an annual bases, and in response to inspections that might occur at in reaction to intelligence reports, iv. Will be provided with latest inspection technology from the IDSA, v. Will be financially supported by member nations on a formula of 5% of UN dues;
4. Urges the UN to take the following steps to encourage membership: A. Have an increase of loans from the World Bank, B. Have an increase in aid, if needed, C. Be given new methods of income, i. Intensive cultivation, ii. Biotechnology, D. Decrease any foreign dept by up to 10%.
Delegation: Pakistan Commission: Social (Yvette Ohanian) Issue: The question of creating school education systems that minimize the teaching of violent ideologies.
Recognizing UN Resolution 1373 (2001), which condemns the terrorist attacks which took place in New York, Washington, D.C. and Pennsylvania on 11 September 2001, and expresses its determination to prevent all such acts,
Further Noting Resolution 1373 also established the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC), made up of all 15 members of the Security Council. The CTC monitors the implementation of resolution 1373 by all States and tries to increase the capability of States to fight terrorism,
Draws Attention to the fact that Christian Terrorist groups do also exist, according to MIPT Terrorsim Knowledge Base,
Notes that the "Lord's Resistance Army", Based in Northern Uganda and Sudan, is a radical Christian group which has violently terrorized the citizens of Northern Uganda and seeks to overthrow the government (MIPT),
Further Noting that according to MIPT, Islamic terrorist groups, the Tamil Tigers (Sri Lanka), the IRA (England), and the Basque ( ETA, Spain) have caused great damage and destruction in the world,
Emphasizes that "Islam does not sanction terrorism, which involves the murder of innocent people whose killing is forbidden by Allah" M. Amir Ali, Ph.D. Institute of Islamic Information and Education (IIIE) of Chicago,
Congratulating Pakistan's determination to eliminate terrorism, as noted by foxnews.com, by capturing more than 500 al Qaeda operatives within Pakistan,
Noting that according to dictionary.com, a Madrasa is defined as a building or group of buildings used for teaching Islamic theology and religious law, typically including a mosque,
Deeply Concerned that according to cnn.com, Madrasas have been used as Taleban recruiting grounds,
Alarmed by the fact that at least two of the July 7 London bombers attended such Madrasas (FrontPageMagazine.com),
Deeply Concerned that more than 7,000 Madrasas exist in Southern Asia, Public Affairs magazine,
Further Noting that according to the Pakistani Embassy in Washington, that with a shortage of government schools, families often have no choice when it comes to their children's schooling, and instead send them to Madrasas that teach fundamentalist ideologies,
Viewing with Appreciation the fact that authorities in Pakistan arrested 56 imams on charges of making "provocative speeches" during their Friday sermons; ten others were arrested for selling audiotapes of those sermons (Frontpagemagazine.com),
Recognizing that the tragic London bombings were planned by individuals who plotted their scheme through mosque systems (Juan Cole, an expert on the strain of Muslim radicalism, University of Michigan),
Recognizing that there are currently 12 international treaties and conventions addressing terrorism and related activities,
Alarmed by the striking fact that all seven of the state sponsors of terrorism identified by the United States Department of State are signatories or state parties to one or more of these 12 treaties or conventions,
Deeply Concerned that even as new anti-terrorist treaties have multiplied throughout the past 40 years, the incidence of terrorism has escalated;
1. Declares the formation of a sub-committee of the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC), which will be named the Counter-Terrorism Through Education sub-committee (CTTE); which will be composed of: A.15 expert chairs representing all major religions; which will operate on a 3 year rotating basis; 2. Affirms that the CTTE will be responsible for drawing up and implementing an action plan which will address the issue of eliminating violent ideologies through education by sending experts provided by the CTTE who will: A. send aid and to nations whos government request for it, B. monitor the content of religious education and establish formal education in Madrasas by: i. Opening the lines of communication with the Ulama, who run the Madrasas, to impart formal education in addition to religious education for the spreading of true Islamic values, at national and international levels, ii. To improve and update knowledge of teachers in formal subjects through workshops, C. also reinforcing the above actions in educational establishments of other religions, D. monitoring the content of religious education within mosques by: i. drawing up a comprehensive curriculum that would emphasize the true non-violent Islamic values, ii. Visiting mosques and meeting with preachers in an advisory capacity, E. regularly meet with government representatives on a national and local level, in order to ascertain the effectiveness of the program;
3. Notes that the monitor of the content of religious education within mosques will not only apply to Islamic nations, but also apply to nations with significant Muslim minorities; (i.e. US, UK, France, Germany, China etc.);
4. Declares that countries whose governments are unable to fully fund their religious educational systems will be eligible for financial aid, on an application basis, according to the following criteria: A. a country's eligibility for application to the CTTE for financial aid does not depend on its religious status, B. only countries that are suffering from some form of religious-based terrorism are eligible to apply for aid, C. the CTTE will assess each applying country's financial status, in order to determine the necessity for aid, D. countries applying for aid in order to improve their educational systems, must pass an accreditation system, E. countries receiving aid will be asked to sign an agreement which states that all funds received would be appropriately used, and that they be subject to regular monitoring;
5. Calls upon the establishment of an educational accreditation system which will evaluate the depth and quality of formal education curriculae; this system will visit and assess the formal education systems in applicant countries, where by they display that their curriculum: A. is planned, broad, and balanced, B. encompasses every major subject area, C. teaches towards an external examinational system.
Delegation: Pakistan Commission: Human Rights (Sarah Fakhraldeen) Issue: Towards the writing of a declaration of the rights of religious speech.
Noting that according to WordWeb a religious minority is a group of people who differ religiously from a larger group of which it is a part of,
Keeping in Mind that, according to the CIA World Factbooks, almost every country has a religious minority in its population (i.e. France: Protestants 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslims 5%-10%, unaffiliated 4%),
Observing that the differences in opinion and conflicts between religious minorities is mostly common among different branches of the same religion, as is seen between the Muslims Shiites and Sunnis and the Christian Catholics and Protestants,
Referring to Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which states: Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance,
Taking note that in article 29 of the UDHR it also states that "in the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order, and the general welfare in a democratic society,
Fully alarmed that those people who are violating and abusing their freedom of religious speech are against preaching within their religions and using blasphemous language against other religions or preaching the murder of high ranking officials in their country rather than preaching moral and ethical lessons,
Congratulating Pakistan who, according to the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, arrested three members of the Ahmadiyya Islamic minority in charges of using blasphemy against the Sunni Muslims (the government’s religion) in 1997 and sentenced to life imprisonment,
Further congratulating Indonesia who, according to Jihad Watch, imprisoned Muslim cleric Abu Baker Bashir for two-and-a-half years in May of 2005, he was preaching the plotting of killing hundreds of innocent people in Bali, rather than preaching moral lessons to the followers of that religion,
Extending congratulations to British Home Secretary, Charles Clarke, seeing as according to Islam Online and Al-Jazeerah, in the light of the attacks in July, Clarke has drawn up a list of 50 "preachers of hate" who are considered a threat to national security, they preach plots to attack innocent people, and so they are being punished,
Deeply disturbed that the UDHR is not being fully and strictly implemented not even the current organisations have been strict about this, seeing as there are human rights violations almost every day and everywhere, however, the human rights violations are more common in the undeveloped countries (i.e. most of the African nations, and parts of south east Asia);
1) Resolves the amending of Article 18 of the UDHR: A. The amendment is the addition of the following to the article: One does not have the right to hinder another’s path of practicing their own religion, neither does one have the right to insult another’s religious beliefs or religion, nor does one have the right to violate the laws of her/his country and use their religion as a scapegoat, B. The amendment will also include the following as a sub clause of the article: If one does not abide by these rules, then that person will have committed a crime, and that person’s country retains the right to take any necessary course of action with this person;
2) Confirms that all nations who have signed on to the UDHR have automatically agreed consented to this amendment, seeing as it assures that one’s freedom isn’t limitless once it comes to certain points as mentioned above, and it helps ensure more coexistence among the citizens of each country, and less conflicts;
3) Calls upon the formation of the Human Rights PROPER Implementation Organisation (HRPIO), which will be a sub branch of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), which will be: A. Consisting of: i. Volunteers from the UN as well as from countries that support the issue at hand, countries may also send representatives if they wish to, ii. They will be picked based on their knowledge of the UDHR, their knowledge of human rights violations worldwide, and their knowledge of religions (i.e. they must have an extensive background in theology), B. locating it in: i. Geneva (headquarters), ii. Other branches in each continent (note: more than one branch per continent depending on the rate of human rights violations in that continent according to statistics collected by the OHCHR), whose locations will be decided upon after the resolution has been passed, C. In charge of performing the following: i. Keeping track of all major human rights violations in the aspect of freedom of religious practice or speech, these violations would be reported by the countries, ii. Making sure that countries grant all people the right of freedom of speech, opinion, and belief, iii. Making sure that while the people are practicing their freedom of practice, speech, opinion, and belief that they do not break any laws of their country, and that they do not invade or impede anyone else’s way of practicing their own freedom, D. they will be doing so by: i. Assigning each branch to be in charge of a certain number of countries depending on the rate of human rights violations in each country in order to be able to keep track of everything, ii. Receiving a report from governments if they see there is a problem that there are human rights violations going on, hence, these reports will be including any acts that the government has witnessed the preaching and use of blasphemous language against another religion or has witnessed a "preacher" preaching the plotting of the murder of another person, iii. Writing a publication and/or report that includes the names and information about all human rights violaters based on the report sent by the governments (mentioned in the previous clause) in order to make sure that these people do not migrate or travel to other countries without being prosecuted;
4) Has resolved that the HRIO’s motto and theme will be: "With freedom comes responsibility and accountability."
Honourable secretary general/chair,
And most distinguished guests,
Our notable president, General Pervez Musharraf, has recently said: "I know that whenever our nation is confronted with a danger or a tragedy of such scale, we emerge as a united force and I am fully confident that the people will extend their fullest support in both finances and kind to mitigate the sufferings of the affected people,"
Ladies and Gentlemen, KASHMIR, the land known as heaven on earth now lies in complete ruins. In Kashmir, we see children caught under the walls of their schools, families trapped under the walls of their homes, thousands of lifeless bodies lying around the ruins, and millions of displaced people.
Honourable teachers and fellow peers, the entire human race is obliged to help the victims in Pakistan. Hence, the delegation of Pakistan is honoured to welcome the Pakistani ambassador who will be collecting any donations you have to offer for the victims.
This is beyond a tragedy, ladies and gentlemen, and Pakistan needs as much support, aid, and help as possible!!!
At this point, Pakistan would like to ask for a moment in silence to honour the victims.
Sarah Fakhraldeen: Human Rights
As the ambassador of Pakistan for the KSAA 2005 event in AIS, I was representing Pakistan in the Human Rights Commission. It was a very productive event, and all the issues were of much concern to Pakistan; however, the issue regarding the writing of a declaration of freedom of religious speech was of the most concern. In an attempt to resolve this problem, Pakistan proposed the amending of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Pakistan proposed that in order to limit the rights of religious speech so that people do not preach, in their holy sites, about plans to kill innocent people and cause terrorism. Pakistan also proposed the formation of the Human Rights Proper Implementation Organisation (HRPIO), which had the job of making sure that the amended UDHR is enforced properly. Hence, the resolution that I main-sumitted was very much self-enforcing and does not go after countries, in contrast, it gives countries rights to persecute those who cause terror and threaten their national security. The resolution passed in the Human Rights Commission; unfortunately, however, it failed in the General Assembly.
Yvette Ohanion: Social
In KSAA 2005, I represented Pakistan in the Social Commission. I main-submitted a resolution that resolved one of the issues, which referred to the elimination of violent ideologies through formal education. Unfortunately, my resolution was not debated for "unknown" reasons. There was a good resolution that Pakistan fully supported, which resolved the issue about natural disasters. At the time, Pakistan had been recently affected with the major earthquake we all heard about. In the GA, Pakistan worked alongside our ally, Malaysia, on the topic of eliminating the roots of terrorism. Regrettably, it didn’t pass for "unknown" reasons.
Zaid al-Marzooq: Disarmament
In 2005 the KSAA event took place in AIS. I was the disarmament representative of Pakistan. On the first day we had lobbying and merging. It was hard, i wrote on the topic of ABM systems, which unfortunetly i had to compete with the US, Japan, ad France on the topic. Finally i managed to persuade those delegates in accepting my resolution and making me a main submitted. After finishing with lobbying and merging we had opening speeches, y ambassador was great, she introduced the issue on the earthquakes of Pakistan and brought forward the real ambassador of Pakistan, which gave us a rather long and informative speech. the next day we debated some resolution, but in my point of view weren't at high standards, the best one debated was Cuba's which passed. Unfortunetly time passed fast, and we didn't have time to debate my resolution. Finally on the last day we were in the GA it was hard. the chairs were a bit rash and nations voted as blocks. We also debated one of my fellow Pakistani representative's , the ambassador, resolutions which sadly failed. The end emerged with a funny moment in which the chairs read out the funny notes the the delegates wrote.