Country: Vietnam


Event: KITMUN 2005

Students:
Mariam Dashti
Yousef Khalaf
Bader Al- Fulaij
Hamad Al- Mufarrej

 


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The Vietnamese National Anthem



Viet Nam (March to the Front)

Original French Words:

Soldats vietnamiens, nous allons de l'avant,
Mus par une même volonté sauver la patrie.
Nos pas redoublés sonnent sur la route longue et rude.
Notre drapeau, rouge du sang de la victoire,
porte l'âme de la nation.

Le lointain grondement des canons rythme
les accents de notre marche.
Le chemin de la gloire
se pave de cadavres ennemis.

Triomphant des difficultés, ensemble,
nous édifions nos bases de résistance.
Jurons de lutter sans rêpit
pour la cause du peuple.
Courons vers le champ de bataille!

En avant! Tous ensemble, en avant!
Notre patrie vietnamienne est solide et durable.

Soldats vietnamiens, l'etoile d'or au vent
Conduisant notre peuple et notre patrie
hors de la misère et des souffrances.
Unissons nos efforts dans la lutte
pour l'édification de la vie nouvelle.
Debout! d'un même élan, rompons nos fers!

Depuis si longtemps,
nous avons contenu notre haine!
Soyons prêts à tous les sacrifices
et notre vie sera radieuse.
Jurons de lutter sans rêpit
pour la cause du peuple.
Courons vers le champ de bataille!

En avant! Tous ensemble, en avant!
Notre patrie vietnamienne est solide et durable.


English*:

Soldiers of Vietnam, we go forward,
With the one will to save our Fatherland,
Our hurried steps are sounding
on the long and arduous road.

Our flag, red with the blood of victory,
bears the spirit of our country.
The distant rumbling of the guns
mingles with our marching song.
The path to glory passes
over the bodies of our foes.

Overcoming all hardships,
together we build our resistance bases.
Ceaselessly for the people's cause
let us struggle,
Let us hasten to the battlefield!
Forward! All together advancing!

Our Vietnam is strong, eternal.
Soldiers of Vietnam, we go forward!

The gold star of our flag in the wind
Leading our people, our native land,
out of misery and suffering.

Let us join our efforts in the fight
for the building of a new life.
Let us stand up and break our chains.
For too long have we swallowed our hatred.

Let us keep ready for all sacrifices
and our life will be radiant.
Ceaselessly for the people's cause
let us struggle,
Let us hasten to the battlefield!
Forward! All together advancing!
Our Vietnam is strong, eternal.

*Refer back to this particularly martial anthem a couple of times as you review these web pages.



Vietnam





Country Profile

Political Parties: (Bader)

Vietnam has certain countries that it turns to, and certain countries that it turns away from, one of the countries that Vietnam has good relations with is the UK. Vietnam and the UK established diplomatic relations in 1973, and from that moment on, the two countries developed a good relationship in which they were sharing growing trade and investment links, cooperation against terrorism, and strengthening cultural and educational links. However, one of the countries that Vietnam turns away from is the United States. The relationship between Vietnam and the US is a vital one that started a long time ago. Even thought there have been many problems between the two countries, they are now working together to build a new healthy and economic relationship.

Vietnam is known to be a poor country, and it is mainly focusing on reducing the large amount of poverty in their country. To help solve this problem Vietnam is taking certain steps. These steps include promoting the efficient use of financial resources, strengthening the government's efforts to reduce poverty, supporting the economic and social change in Vietnam, and finally improving the effectiveness of the aid effort.

Vietnam has one of the most difficult challenges, which is to reduce poverty. That is why in order to overcome this problem and reach their goal, they must have the commitment to take certain steps to solve this problem, and get as many donations as possible from other countries. By, doing this, Vietnam will surely reduce poverty by a huge amount, allowing them to become a much stronger and independent country in the near future.

 

B. Statistical Information

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, alongside China, Laos, and Cambodia
Area: total: 329,560 sq km land: 325,360 sq. km ; water: 4,200 sq. km
Population: 83,535,576
Age Structure:
0-14 years: 27.9% (male 12,065,777/female 11,212,299)
15-64 years: 66.4% (male 27,406,456/female 28,024,250)
65 years and over: 5.8% (male 1,889,585/female 2,937,209)
Population Growth Rate: 1.04%
Birth Rate: 17.07 births/1,000 population
Death Rate: 6.2 deaths/1,000 population
Net Migration: -0.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population
Sex Ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female
Infant Mortality: total: 25.95 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.35 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 25.52 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy at Birth: total population: 70.61 years
male: 67.82 years
female: 73.6 years
Ethnic Groups: Kinh (Viet) 86.2%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.7%, Muong 1.5%, Khome 1.4%, Hoa 1.1%, Nun 1.1%, Hmong 1%, others 4.1%
Religions: Buddhist 9.3%, Catholic 6.7%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Protestant 0.5%, Muslim 0.1%, none 80.8%
Literacy Rate: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.3%
male: 93.9%
female: 86.9%
Languages: Vietnamese (official), English (second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer

The Vietnamese population consists of almost equal amounts of both genders. The population is steadily growing because it has more births than deaths. There are a few deaths at birth and most babies are expected to live to 70. There are 9 ethnic groups in Vietnam and 6 religions. The majority of the population are Vietnamese and do not have a religion. 90% of the population can read and write. The Vietnamese population has many languages, Vietnamese (official), English (second language), French, Chinese, and Khmer. The net migration is –0.43, which means that more are immigrating and not a lot are emigrating to Vietnam.

 

Economics: (Mariam)

Purchasing power parity: $203.7 billion (2003 est.)
Real growth rate: 7.2% (2003 est.)
Per capita: purchasing power parity- $2,500 (2003 est.)
Composition by sector:
Agriculture: 21.8%
Industry: 39.7%
Services: 38.5 % (2003 est.)
Natural Resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil, and gas deposits, forests, hydropower.
Land use:
arable land: 19.97%
permanent crops: 5.95%
other: 74.08% (2001)
Exports: $23.72 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Export commodities: crude oil, marine products, rice, coffee, rubber, tea, garments, shoes
Export Partners: Japan, Germany, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, France, South Korea, US., People's Republic of China.
Imports: $26.31 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Import Commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum products, fertilizer, steel products, raw cotton, grain, cement, motorcycles
Import Partners: China 13.6%, Japan 11.5%, Singapore 11.5%, Taiwan 10.2%, South Korea 9.8%, Thailand 6.7%, Hong Kong 4.4%, US 4.1%, Malaysia 4.1% (2004)
External debt: $16.55 billion (2004 est.)
Aid donor/recipient: $2.8 billion in credits and grants pledged by international donors for 2000 (2004)
Population below poverty line: 28.9% (2002 est.)
Inflation: 9.5% (2004 est.)
Unemployment: 1.9% (2004 est.)

Vietnam is a thickly populated, developing country that has been recovering for 30 years from the ravages of war, the loss of financial support for the old Soviet Bloc, and the inflexibility of a centrally planned economy. Considerable amount of progress was achieved from 1986 to 1997 in moving forward from a low level of development and a reducing poverty. The growth is estimated to be around 9% per year from 1993-1997. The 1997 Asian financial crisis emphasized the problems in the Vietnamese economy. GDP of 8.5% in 1997 fell to 6% in 1998 and 5% in 1999. then the growth rose to 7% in 2000-04 even though it was the time of the global depression. This makes it the world's second-fastest growing economy. At the same time, investments grew three-folds and domestic savings grew five times.

Since 2001, Vietnamese authorities repeated their commitments to economic freedom and international incorporation. They have moved to apply the structural improvements needed to modernize the economy. The reason to produce more competitive, export- driven industries. For the second consecutive year, Vietnam had a balance-of-payments surplus in 1999. The country's balance-of-payments surplus has been due not only to robust trade performance but also to official development assistance and remittances from overseas Vietnamese. Vietnam's total external debt, accounting for 37.1% of GDP in 1999, is $10.6 billion.

On the other hand, urban unemployment has been rising progressively in recent years due to the high numbers of migration from the countryside to the cities. The unemployment is estimated to be up to 35% during nonharvest periods. Discharges in the state sector and foreign-invested projects combined with the lasting effects of a previous military discharges has a role in the unemployment situation. The country is attempting to become a member of the WTO. The WTO wants to let Vietnam in but is concerned about a lot of matter and aspects of Vietnam: agriculture, sanitary / phytosanitary measures, important restrictions, quotas and bans, trade-related investment measures, and intellectual property. In the meetings for the decision the question of Vietnam's economic situations is always raised. Members also raised concerns about Vietnam's use of specific import duties or the combinations of specific ad valorem rates and the apparent lack of progress on Vietnam's own schedule for applying the intellectual property (TRIPS) agreement. Vietnam is still a poor country with GDP of US$ 227.2 billion. This interrupts to be US $2700 per capita. Inflation rate is estimated at 14% p.a. in 2004. This figure has been scaled down by the Government to 9.5% per annum to avoid the "double digit" classification.

Rich people have been spending very noticeably. That is why there is high property prices. In Hanoi, the capital, property prices can be as high as those in Tokyo or New York. Corruption, bribery committed by government officials has pushed property prices even higher, as real estate, investment is a popular form of money laundering. The poor people in Vietnam are not affording houses so they don't have houses to live in. That makes fighting poverty, which is Vietnam's main goal, have more challenges.

 

Recent History: (Yousef)

Vietnam was controlled by France from 1884 until the end of World War 2. Since Vietnam was controlled by France it was involved in WWII, but under the name of France. In 1945, communist forces lead by Ho Chi Minh defeated the French. However, it split up into two sections, the North Communists and the South Non-Communists. In 1964, the us started a war with North Vietnam because of its non-communist ways. Nine years later, a cease-fire agreement was made and the US withdrew its forces. In 1975, North Vietnamese forces spread to the south and took over. Since then, Vietnam has witnessed significant economical growth.

Vietnam is slowly recovering from the effects of the previous leadership ways. It is slowly beginning to improve the relations between other countries. In 2001, Vietnamese authorities have to improve and modernize the economy. They have also encouraged the start of competitive, exporting industries. Vietnam has moved a step closer to entering the World Trade Organization (WTO) because of its improvement and work parties. Vietnam has made new supports of taxes, free trade areas, and special economic zones at the recent multilateral organization.

 

 

Policy Statements:



Commission: Human Rights (Mariam)

 

1. The rights of individuals to detained indefinitely

Detained indefinitely means to hold a person in custody for an unspecified length of time. This issue is concerning the people who are detained indefinitely. They must have the rights, because they need to know why they are detained. It is just another way to torture people. We have to make rights for the people with detained indefinitely because it is not humane. It directly violates Article 11 of the UNDHR

"(1) Everyone charged with a penal offense has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defense.

(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offense on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offense, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offense was committed."

All around the world there are people who are held captive in a detention cell and detained indefinitely. We, the whole world, have to come together to solve the issue that not only concerns Vietnam but the whole world. In history and until now, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is the most famous prison who have people that are detained indefinitely there without trail. For example, A US. federal appeals court ruled Friday that Jose Padilla, held for more than three years after federal officials said he planned to set off radiological devices known as "dirty bombs," can be detained indefinitely without trial, on September 10, 2005. Another prison is in Iraq, the Camp Bucca internment camp in southern Iraq. A second Iraqi journalist working for Reuters has been ordered detained indefinitely by a secret tribunal and the news agency demanded on Monday that he be released or given a chance to defend himself in open court. These are two current examples in the world of the individuals that are held captive in detained indefinitely.

The right of individuals to detain indefinitely is not a new issue that is facing us today. It has been through the General Assembly many times too. Resolution 2003/68 concerns detained indefinitely. Even treaties were put like the Convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment that was discussed in New York, December 10, 1984. Even the Optional Protocol to the convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment that was discussed in New York, December 18, 2002. These treaties are part of the issue since to detain indefinitely is torture and cruel and the treaties are against the whole concept of torture and cruelty.

Vietnam is a country that is always concerned about its people. We think that every person counts. This issue affects us by that there was two men from Vietnam that were in detained indefinitely and then we got them out. Therefore, with that, we want to make sure that the people there have rights and that they won't have to be detained indefinitely without trail. We also care about the people in the prisons that are held there for years without even having trial to see if that person is guilty or innocent. Vietnam was in history accused of detaining people indefinitely but now we are not, and if people in our country are trying to do that we are trying to prevent it today by just standing here and talking about this issue it is an action that is positive toward the issue.

We, Vietnam, think that the country must put laws saying that any decision to place an illegal immigrant, asylum-seeker, or any other person who brakes the law must be reviewed by a court to ensure that it is necessary and in agreement with the rules of the international law. Countries can also enforce laws about certain procedures before letting a prisoner go to jail and sentencing the person. A committee can be made in every country and every month the personnel there go through the files and reports.

 

2. The establishment of preliminary measures to combat child labor

Child labor is the term used for the employment of children. The term can even mean the exploitation of children from their labor with little compensation or consideration for their personal development, safety, health, and future. In some countries, it is considered inappropriate or exploitative if a child below a certain age works, except doing chores and schoolwork. The use of children as laborers is now considered by wealthy countries as a human rights violation, and outlawed, while poorer countries may allow it because some families rely on their children for their income.

Many children under the age of 15 are working in precarious jobs under hazardous conditions live in undeveloped countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Their living conditions are basic and their chances for education are minimal. The meager income they bring in, is necessary for the survival of their families. Frequently, their families lack the necessities of life.

The International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) is a program that the International Labor Organization has run since 1992. IPEC's aim is to work toward the elimination of child labor in the world. The International Labor Organization (ILO) founded in 1919 and now a special agency of the United Nations is the most important efforts to eliminate child labor abuses throughout the world. Another committee is the convention on the Rights of the Child that was adopted by the General Assembly in resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989, and entered into force on 2 September 1990. Many resolutions were adopted and passed such as resolution 54/263 of May 25, 2000 that was talking about the issue child labor, and the involvement of children in armed conflict. Even the treaty that titles Optional protocol to the convention on the rights of the child on the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography on May 25, 2000 is relevant to the issue since they are kind of child labor.

This issue concerns Vietnam deeply because there is child labor in Vietnam and we are trying to stop it. With the whole nation's involvement, child labor will be eliminate. If the children work from a small age then the next generation will be corrupted and undeveloped. 1.4 million youth join the work force annually. Viet Nam has ratified 15 Conventions, including four core Conventions (100, 111, 138 and 182). Conventions 29 and 105 on forced labor are currently being considered for ratification and an Inter-Ministerial Task Force has been established to oversee the process. Nike violates Vietnamese laws in regards to minimum wage and forced overtime. In addition, we found that Nike has violated the training wage provision of Vietnamese labor law. So Vietnam will raise awareness to the country and other country's small companies of how Nike and other companies will manipulate them so the small companies won't fall in their scheme. The awareness will teach the companies to look over the deal and agreement very carefully to see if the big company is using them.

We have to let the children know about this and teach it to them in their education. The countries must also put stricter penalties on the people that violated this right of the children. The world must run more searches and checks in the companies in order to find the people behind all this child labor rights violation. Countries must enforce laws that state that every child must have mandatory schooling until the child has studied until age 15. For example, Nike is characterized by making its equipment in countries which are in the developing phase, having very cheap labor, authoritarian government and lack of human rights appeal and union movement. Large companies must be stopped and the owners must not avoid or get away from their penalty.

 

3. A United Nations study on the role of the World Bank in preserving the rights of citizens in debt-ridden countries

The World Bank group is a group of five international organizations responsible for providing finance to countries for purposes of development and poverty reduction, and for encouraging and safeguarding international investment. The group is headquartered in Washington, DC.. The Bank was formally known on December 27,1945. The World Band Group's missions is to fight poverty and improve the living standards of people in the developing world. It gives long-term loans to help developing countries to help with their poverty reduction strategies. In addition to financing, the World Bank Group provides advice and assistance to developing countries regarding almost every part of economic development.

Since 1996, the World Bank Report 'Helping countries combat corruption' the World Bank Group has been focused on combating corruption in the countries that it works with. In recent years, the World Bank Group has been moving from economic growth, to aiming specifically at poverty reduction. It has come with the idea that clean water, education, and economic development without pollution are essential to economic growth and has begun investing in such projects. The World Group have adopted a wide range of environmental and social safeguard policies, to ensure that their projects are not harmful for any living thing. Even with these policies, the projects are frequently critiqued by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) for alleged environmental and social damage, and for not achieving their intended goal of poverty reduction.

Jubilee 2000, which is an anti-debt campaign, has been calling for 100 percent reduction, mentioning a promise last year by the Group of Seven (G7) countries. The countries are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK, and the US. The promise says that eventually the World Bank will forgive all debts owed to them by qualifying Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC). The World Bank will only cancel the currently under HIPC about 32 and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) 37 percent. The anti-debt coalition also says it wants another 11 countries added to the current list of eligible HIPCs, including Equatorial Guinea, Morocco, Nigeria and Zimbabwe added to the current list of eligible HIPCs, including Equatorial Guinea, Morocco, Nigeria and Zimbabwe.

Vietnam agrees with the G8 partners who have committed to forgiving 100% of all debt and eligible commercial claims from qualifying HIPC countries. Vietnam has linked to this issue because Vietnam is even in debt $16.55 billion and knows what the countries go through just because of the debts. We also know that debts slow down the rising of the economy. Vietnam is also hoping for all the countries in the world to be developing and doesn't be behind only because it has debts on its shoulders. If the debts were gone then the funds that were previously devoted to servicing foreign debt are going to be re-directed into domestic health, education and poverty reduction programs. This will make the countries all happy and the citizens will be healthy and knowledgeable.

Vietnam thinks that first the World Bank must forgive 100% of all debt off the HIPCs. Vietnam thinks that a committee or a group must be made in order to help the countries that are in debt learn how to spend and to develop faster and in a more effective way. This committee every year will write a report about each country's economic status and a poverty profile so if the members of the committee think that the country can rely on itself then the country will not need the help of the committee anymore. Then the country will get out of it, and in the future it can come back to the committee for advice. A rule must be made and enforced that limits the amount of loan a HIPC country can take from the World Bank. Another committee will be established in order to study the loan cases in order to see if the loan is necessary or not. Another committee will also be made as a sub-committee of the World Bank that will study the loans that are applied, and make the decision of accepting or declining the loan applied. The committee will consist of members from all nations that have agreed upon the agreement and the representatives must have some kind of experience in banking fields and loans. The committee will also look at the people's right and if it is violated. The committee will also go to some countries that are debt-ridden and look at if the people's rights are violated because the country is in debt. Reports will be made and posted to draw awareness and let the country deal with it without directly telling them because it can disturb it's national sovereignty. If the country doesn't deal with it after another report was taken, the country will be face in a meeting just to question the country and the reason it didn't deal with the problem. After all the pressure, eventually the country will solve the problem.

 

4. Towards the writing of a declaration of the rights of religious speech

Freedom of religion is on the UDHR . It comes from freedom of belief of the individual or freedom of worship for individuals and groups. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) defines freedom of religion as the following :

"Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in a community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance."

Countries around the world have freedom of religion in their constitution, but the exact consequences of this right are different for historical and cultural reasons.

Some countries have accepted some form of freedom of worship, though in real life that freedom was limited through punitive taxation, strict social boundary, and political boundaries. For example, the population of Nigeria is 5o percent Muslim and 40 percent Christian, the remaining 10 percent are members of other religion communities or belief, or persons practicing no religion. The people have a lack of respect for "traditional indigenous religions" that may result in a rejection of their participation in national policies.

Different resolutions were passed regarding this issue. The Declaration of the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief was made known by general Assemble resolution 36/55 of November 25 1981. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights also decided in resolution 1986/20 to appoint a special rapporteur, a person that represents the Commission to be constantly engaged on an issue of concern throughout the year, on religious intolerance. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights announced a General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) that was enforced on March 23, 1978.

Vietnam is concerned about this issue since Vietnam has a number of people with no religion and we are respecting that but over the years these people will begin to develop religions and Vietnam wants to ensure them a fair place for them to practice the religion.

Vietnam suggests that the people engaged in teaching in schools and add campaigns and religious schools build respect for all religions and beliefs to promote understanding and tolerance for the children. We also urge countries to continue to strengthen dialogue among religions or beliefs to make greater tolerance, respect and joint understanding. Religious speech must be limited so that a person would not use their religion as a scapegoat, and a person who violates the laws of his/her country must not use their religion as an easy way out. An amendment would be put on Article 18 of the UDHR that would say that the people can't use their religion as a scapegoat. A committee must be formed and have branches in each continent at least three in each continent in order to look after the progress and issues that affects the national security of the country. The branches will do regular visits to inspect countries within their jurisdiction and make sure no human rights violations have been made to citizens according the UNDHR. A report will be made every time they visit of the status of the people's freedom and whether or not they violated the UNDHR. The visits won't affect or violate the country's national sovereignty and the committee's main task is to look at the freedom of people. The committee will also keep track of human right violations and that all people have their right of freedom of speech, and belief.

 

 

 

Disarmament: Yousef

1. Measures to eliminate the use of child soldiers in combat:

Over 300,000 children world wide are being used in combat. The place with the most child soldiers is Central Africa. Over 120,000 children in Central Africa are being used in combat. They are often used as human shields, spies, messengers, and to move over mines to detonate them. They are abducted from their families or from the street and are forced to battle. This will result in a major decrease in the economy. Rwanda, Burundi, Republic of Congo, and Democratic Republic of the Congo have all stopped using child soldiers. Some of the countries that use child soldiers are Colombia, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Angola, Sudan, and Liberia.

In 2001, the International Labor Organization (ILO) in the ILO convention launched the Regional Prevention of the Use of Children in Combats in Central Africa. Four countries of the region are participating and they are Rwanda, Burundi, Republic of Congo, and Democratic Republic of Congo. UNICEF has set up a program focusing on the child soldiers and Vietnam stands by this program.

This issue affects Vietnam because Vietnam supports children’s rights and believes that if the children are abused then the countries future will be at risk too. When the child grows up, he or she will be part of the society and serve in it. However, if the child is brought up in an unpleasant manner and is exposed to violence then he will be violent and will not be able to serve the society in the future.

Vietnam believes that the methods that are already being used to stop child soldiers should be supported and conducted on all the countries that use child soldiers. The use of children for combats should be stopped and Vietnam will try to support it. Vietnam effective measures taken to stop child soldiers are to support the families and help them have a greater income. Creating safe heavens for children so they cannot be abducted will help to solve the problem. Approaching street children and making them aware of the dangers of joining the army and that will also prevent the participation of children in the army. Vietnam is willing to send aid to anybody who will accept it to stop child soldiers. Also, Vietnam wants to see the children being educated and being protected from the rebel forces.

 

2. The arms build-up in the Straits of Taiwan:

Taiwan has been functioning without China for decades. However, the dispute over Taiwan’s independence is still going on. Recently, China has passed an anti-secession law that stated that China can use force against Taiwan. Now, Taiwan fears an invasion, so it is bringing in weapons to defend itself. Taiwan fears that China might try to stop the import of weapons by blocking the sea with ships. The US has provided Taiwan with weapons and is with Taiwan. The US has been providing Taiwan with twelve P-3 Orion submarine-hunting planes, eight diesel submarines, submarine and surface launched harpoon anti-ship missiles, MK-48 torpedoes, and mine sweeping helicopters. China, however, doesn’t want Taiwan to build up its arms and has proposed an agreement that has a political solution.

No recent agreements have been made except the one that allows Taiwan to purchase weapons from the US. China has tried to make an agreement with Taiwan with a political solution to the weapon build up; however, Taiwan has declined it. They knew that China would invade within the decade, so they have to get weapons to defend. The reason that China must invade during the decade is because by the year 2010, the US would have sent troops to Taiwan to help with the defense of the Chinese invasion.

Vietnam believes that Taiwan should not be getting weapons because that will indicate a start of a war. Vietnam believes that Taiwan is a part of china and that it shouldn’t separate. Vietnam wants to see China and Taiwan have a formal negotiation so that they can come to a decision without the use of force. An agreement must be sign by both Taiwan and China to ensure that no combat will start. Since Taiwan is still a part of China, it can be attacked and can be considered as a rebel army. Vietnam believes that Taiwan can be a state and function on its own and still be a part of China.

 

3. The formation/re-establishment of an improved Anti-Ballistic Missiles (ABM) treaty involving more global support:-

Anti-ballistic missiles are missiles that are launched to destroy other missiles that carry nuclear war heads in mid-air. The Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) treaty was signed at Moscow on May 26, 1972. The treaty was first between the US and the Soviet Union. The US ratified the treaty on August 3rd, 1972. The treaty stated that the ABM deployment areas must be reduced from two to one The Soviet Union had its deployment area around Moscow and the US decided not to deploy an ABM system. In 1976 the US activated its site in North Dakota.

The treaty has gone through many changes since its proposal of it. In 1969, the US created a safeguard system that defended their land-based forces from missiles. In 1972, the Soviet Union and the US make an agreement that would limit offensive and defensive weapons. In 1974, the US signed an agreement stating that it would reduce the number of ABM deployment areas from two to one and that will reduce the number of launches and interceptions from 200 to 100 launches. The US safeguard system was reduced to one safeguard in 1975. In 1987, the Soviet foreign minister met with the US foreign minister to make a new proposal that the US and the Soviet Union would not withdraw from the treaty until 1994, and after 1994 either side could deploy defensive systems of its choosing. In 1994, both countries have agreed to continue the treaty. Also, they have decided that the speed of the missiles should be 3 kilometers/second. In 2001, the US wants to amend the treat into allowing testing. However, no agreement was made. The US withdraw from the treaty so that it can develop anti-ballistic missiles.

The latest agreement was made on June 4, 2001 which stated that the US and Russia need to maintain a strategic nuclear stability. The threat of the production of weapons of mass destruction in growing, they need to try to use new machines to stop them.

Vietnam believes that the treaty has a good cause but is not doing anything. Vietnam thinks that with slight improvement the treaty will be better and will be signed by a lot more countries. The current members of the treaty are not abiding by the rules of the treaty and that is one of the main reasons why it is failing. Vietnam believes with the reduction of anti-ballistic missiles, the country can have money to spend on things other than weapons that may never be used. Also, the reduction of weapons shows that the country trusts other countries and that will make peace between them. Vietnam supports the cause of the treaty, but believes that it should be edited and then re-established.

 

4. A United Nations study on connections between foreign aid and the build-up of conventional weapons in Africa.

A lot of African countries are in desperate need of aid. They are way in debt and cannot support themselves. Many rich countries have sent aid to the needy countries and they still need more. Conventional weapons are being passed across boarders in countries of Africa. These light weapons can cause a problem if a lot accumulate and are used. The UN study shows that the foreign aid percentage that countries are donating seem to be getting lower. Also, that the country is using the donations in an incorrect way, resulting in the build up of weapons. The UN wants to increase the donation rate to 0.7% of the GPD. These requirements are not being followed and as a result more light weapons are being brought into countries.

The most recent agreement made on this issue is on this issue is in the Security Council. Resolution A/RES/52/871 states that peace in Africa should be maintained and disarmament of the weapons should be accomplished.

Vietnam thinks that the light weapons in countries of Africa should be disarmed. These weapons can be disarmed with help from the UN and other countries that are willing to help. The countries should be selling the weapons in a correct way and to people with experience only. Also, the person must not be a criminal or have any problems with the law before. The increase in donation rate should be stopped because that will cause more weapons to appear in Africa. Until the money can be tracked and is seen being used in proper ways then the increase in donation rate shouldn’t happen. The weapons that are being sold must only be small weapons and used only for self defense. The weapons are causing civil wars and problems in the country. Peace should be made in the countries in order to try to raise the economical status; however, the weapons are only delaying that goal.

 

 

 

Resolutions

Question of A United Nations study on the role of the World Bank in preserving the rights of citizens in debt-ridden countries
Commission: Human Rights
Delegate of Vietnam: Mariam F. Dashti

Keeping in mind since 1996 the World Bank Report 'Helping countries combat corruption' the World Bank Group has been focused on combating corruption in the countries that it woks with,

Taking note that the World Bank will only cancel the currently under HIPC about 32 and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) 37%,

Recalling the anti-debt coalition also says it wants another 11 countries added to the current list of eligible HIPCs,

Taking in account that the World Bank gives loans to make an investment and earn more money,

Noting with deep concern poverty effects are mostly from debts that the country has,

1. Urges the World Bank to look over the situation on forgiving the HIPCs 100% of all debt not only 32% and for the IMF 37%,

2. Calls upon the World Bank to forgive 100% of all debt of the HIPCs, but will demand the country to:
A. join in a organization called, Debt Forgiving Countries Organization (DFCO) that consists of:
i. President: that will be voted on every 2 years,
ii. Vice President: that will be voted on every 2 years,
iii. Secretary: that will be voted on every 4 years,
iv. Representatives from member countries that:
a. have experience with economic studies,
B. can make minor and plans decisions,
C. has direct contact with government officials,
v. Economic professor,
vi. Microeconomic professor,
vii. Macroeconomic professor,
viii. Economist;

3. Affirms that the DFCO will meet every month in Geneva and discuss the issues and will try to achieve its goals,

4. Confirms that the goals of the DFCO is to:
A. help the countries spend the money in an successful way,
B. help the country make a plan to develop faster and a more effective method,
C. help the country look at the future and try to solve problems that will come in the future that the country predict,
D. help the country with any problems facing them economically,
E. try to prevent any past problems to happen again economically,
F. try to look for alternatives besides applying for loans,

5. Emphasizes that every year a report will be made about each country's economic status, and a poverty profile so if the members of the DFCO think that the country can rely on itself then the country will get out of the organization by looking at:
A. The rate at which the poverty rates are increasing or decreasing,
B. If the economic status is rising or dropping,

6. Takes note of that the World Bank will only forgive the debts of the HIPCs before 2005 not after ,

7. Draws the attention that a law will be made and enforced on 2006 that limits the amount of money a country can take from the World Bank as a loan that states:
A. No country in the HIPC can take a loan if it is in debt above 1 billion dollars until the country pays it back, then it can take apply for another loan;

8. Reminds that the law if enforced will limit the debt the country can have that results for less countries that in debt that would probably lead to:
A. decreasing on poverty rates,
B. no nation shall suffer from malnutrition, diseases, and starvation,

9. Proclaims that another committee would be mad as a sub-committee of the World Bank :
A. that consists of:
i. President,
ii. Vice president,
iii. Representatives from all nations that are joined that has experience in banking fields and loans,
B. that will :
i. study the loans that are applied,
ii. make the decision of accepting and passing it or declining it;

10. Urges all countries to give their support in order to achieve one of the MDG's that is to raise living standards of the poor in a more quicker and effective way.

 

 

Topic: Measures to eliminate the use of child soldiers in combat.
Commission: Disarmament (Yousef)

Deeply disturbed by the fact that over 300,000 children under the age of 18 are being used in combat,

Aware of the fact that most child soldiers are used in Africa,

Noting with deep concern that the children are being used as spies, messengers, human shields, and human mine detonators,

Realizing that children enter the military to escape poverty,

Alarmed by the fact that children as young as 7 years old are being abducted and forced to join the army or die,

Bearing in mind that most children that are joining the army are ones that are living in the streets or poor children that the army can abduct easily,

Noting with approval that in 2001, the International Labor Committee launched the Regional Prevention of the Use of Children in Combats in Central Africa,

Noting with regret that not all African countries with child soldiers have signed the Regional Prevention of the Use of Children in Combats, and by the fact that not a lot of action has been taken to stop child soldiers in other parts of the world,

Welcoming any help that is provided by any country to stop the use of child soldiers,

1. Resolves the creation of the Organization for Stopping the Use of Child Soldiers in Combat (OSUCSC) that will:
A. Meet every 10 months to discuss the issues at hand and to determine the amount of help each country needs,
B. Send help to the countries with child soldiers to try and stop it with the country’s approval:
i. Financial aid that will be tracked by the OSUCSC so it will not be used in ways that it shouldn’t and will be collected from,
1. Countries of the organization,
2. Donations from countries not in the organization,
ii. Man power to track down the rebel forces that force children to join the army:
1. Set up watch towers to keep a watch out,
2. Have the latest detection equipment,
3. Send small groups to search each area,
iii. Set up camps and safe havens for the children:
1. Around areas with the most homeless children,
2. Provide clothing, food, and shelters for the children,
C. Provide psychologists to help the children that have been affected by the violence mentally, to help them recover
D. Improve the educational system of the country so the children won’t resort to joining the army;

2. Calls Upon all countries that have child soldiers to take appropriate measures to eliminate them like:
A. Being aware children that the military is not a solution to their problems,
B. Setting up safe havens for children that live on streets so the military can’t take them,
C. Talking to the families about the child’s education;

3. Accepts that if a country doesn’t want foreign aid the OSUCSC will provide aid so the country will act on its own with the organization’s supervision;

4. Creates the OSUCSC Bank that will:
A. Collect and store the money that was gathered for the child soldiers,
B. Decide if the amount that the OSUCSC provided for a certain country is appropriate,
C. Be in charge of all the money that is contributed to the OSUCSC,
D. Divide the amount of money that is designated to a certain countries into how will it be used like:
i. Shelter,
ii. Food,
iii. Education,
iv. Equipment;

5. Encourages all countries to join the OSUCSC to help stop the use of child soldiers by:
A. Realizing the country that using the child soldiers will hurt its economy and future,
B. Show the benefits of having stable children for the future;

6. Requests the Creation of laws that prohibit the recruitment of children under the age of 18 by:
A. Bringing up the idea in each of the OSUCSC meetings,
B. Explain it to the countries with child soldiers that making this law will benefit them by:
i. Their children won’t be mentally disturbed because of the war memories
ii. The country will have a future because its children are well educated and stable

7. Requests the creation of documentaries and other ways that show the status of child soldiers, and should be sent to all developed countries so they can raise the awareness of the issue;

8. Further requests the support of the country that is being helped so the OSUCSC can complete its job and solve the problem faster;

9. Congratulates Rwanda, Burundi, Republic of Congo, and Democratic Republic of the Congo for stopping the use of child soldiers and signing the Regional Prevention of the Use of Children in Combats.

 

 

 

Opening Speech


Imagine a world without issues to solve. Imagine a world where everything was peaceful. Imagine a world with no wars, battles, or fights. Imagine a world without all this chaos, accusations, judgment and racket. Honorable chair, fellow delegates, Vietnam gives you a warm welcome to this conference.

Today we came here to accomplish this in this conference even though we know that this is impossible but we came here today to get a step closer to our dream. Vietnam believes by solving the issues that face us, our children, the future leaders of the countries, would have a better Mother Earth to live in.

Vietnam cam here to solve the problem that's facing us directly, and facing other countries. Vietnam's main priority in this conference is to combat poverty. Other issues also concern us. Here a countries problem is the world's problem, and the world's problem is your problem.