Event: LEMUN 2005
Mariam Dashti-Social-Ambassador Munira Al-Jouan-Disarmament Dana Khoder Social Abdullah Al-Saleh-Environment
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2005-2006 Team page
A. Statistical Information: (Mariam) Location: South-east of Europe. Bordering countries: Greece-South east, Serbia- North east, Montenegro- East, Adriatic Sea- West, Ionian Sea-South west Area: 28,748 sq km land area: 27,398 sq. km water area: 1,350 sq. km Population: 3,563,112 (July 2005 est.) Age Structure: 0-14 years: (25.6%) Male: 476,989, Female: 434,298, 15-64 years: (65.8%), Male: 1,199,964, Female: 1,144,886; 65 years up: (8.6%) Male: 141,559; Female: 165,416 Population growth rate: 0.52% Birth rate: 15.08 births/1000 population Death rate: 5.12 deaths/1000 population Net migration: -4.8 migrants/1000 population Sex ratio: Birth: 1.1 males/female; Under 15 years: 1.1 males/ female; 15-64 years: 1.05 males/female; 65 and over: 0.86 male/ female; Total population: 1.04 males/female Infant mortality: Total population: 21.52 deaths/ 1000 births Males: 21.96 deaths/ 1000 births; Females: 21.03 deaths/ 1000 births Life Expectancy at birth:Total population: 77.24 years; Male: 74.6 year; Female: 80.15 years Ethnic groups: Albanians- 95%; Greeks- 3%; Others (Serb, Macedonians or Bulgarians, etc. ) 2% Religions: Muslims- 70%; Albanian Orthodox- 20%; Roman Catholic- 10% Literacy rates: Age 9 and up can read and write, Total population: 86.5% Males: 93.3%, Females: 79.5% Languages: Official- Albanian, Others- Greek, Vlach, Romanian, Slavic dialects
One of Europe's poorest countries, Albania is a blend of religions, cultures and landscapes. The average life expectancy at birth is 77 years old. There are three religions in Albania, which are Islam, Albanian Orthodox, and Roman Catholic. The Albanian population is not a well-educated population since about 87% of the population age 9 and up can read and write. The official language is Albanian and the other languages are Greek, Vlach, Romanian, and Slavic dialects. The net migration is -4.8, that means that more people are immigrating rather than emigrating.Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albania http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/1004234.stm http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107268.html http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+al0007) http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/al.html
B. Politics and Ideology: (Dana)
Albania has two political systems. One of them is a presidential parliamentary democracy. The Parliament of Albania consists of an assembly known as the "People's Assembly" or "Kuvendi Popular". The assembly holds 140 seats. 100 are elected by direct popular votes and 40 by proportional votes for a four year terms. Recently, Albania has turned into a Democratic Party social party since July 1991 while it used to be a communist party. Albania doesn't have any discrepancies within their political system. They are democratic and they have elections intermittently. Albania doesnt have any discrepancies between what they say and what they believe because they say they are democratic and they do have elections as stated in the above. President Sali Berisha was forced over the weekend to promise new national elections by June. He also agreed to set up a coalition government until then comprising all of Albania's political parties
The political stability of Albania will also assist in its transition to a democratic system. President Dr. Sali Berisha, the Democratic Party candidate, was elected in March 1993 in the first free elections Albania had held. In the same election, 60% of the seats in the Parliament went to Democrats. In a US. Department of Defense report issued February 1, 1995, Assistant Secretary of Defense Joseph Nye called Albania the most stable country in the Balkans. This followed successful joint military exercises between Albania and the US. in January 1995, marking the first time that the US. has participated militarily with a former Communist country in their own territory. Current US. policy sees Albania as the American partner in the war-torn Balkans. *(Countries occupying the Balkan Peninsula: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, independent Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Turkey)
In 1991 the freely elected communist government reduced the basic two year term of service to eighteen months. This shorter term of service for new members and the small size of the People's Army would force Albania to rely on large scale mobilization to make a credible defense of the country. Given the small population and economy of Albania, full mobilization would seriously disorder the civilian production that will support military operations. There were just fewer than 500,000 males between the ages of fifteen and fifty. Of this total number, approximately 75 percent, or nearly 375,000, were physically suited to carry out military duties. Women were also trained in the military and available for mobilization.
The communist held power of the Military in Albania. Meanwhile when Czechoslovakia invaded and increased the military training, which demonstrated weakness in Albanians plans to meet an attack by a large well-trained force. Communist controlled, but Albanian sources referred to serious problems with the attitudes of young people who were forced into the People's Army. The system of social training that enforced military service under communist rule had completely disappeared by January 1992. Poor food, changing living and working conditions, and low pay led to increasing abandon of duty, and desertion. More than 500 soldiers were among the thousands of Albanians who ran away to Italy and Greece in 1991. Because of all the events Albania's military has became unstable by that the country's defense is very weak which affects the country in every way especially if there is no defense and the country gets invaded then there wont be any way to get that country back again. As mentioned in the above Albania recently changed from a communist party into a social democratic party on July 1991.
Albania was once a part of the Ottoman Empire, Albania was briefly an independent kingdom before World War II. Then after the war under the Communist dictatorship of Enver Hoxha, Albania became the most geographically and politically isolated country in Western Europe. For nearly 30 years under Hoxha, Albania remained a poor backwater where political opposition of any kind was severely forced. But the Communists finally gave way in 1991, and President Berisha, who was elected democratically, took power with the approval of the European Union and the United States.
Berisha maintained the support by carrying out a series of free market economic reforms while keeping Albania out of the civil war in neighboring Yugoslavia. But enthusiasm in the West for Berisha diminished as he became more authoritarian. The breaking point came last year after parliamentary elections roundly criticized by outsider observer groups as irregular and unfair. Meanwhile, much of Berisha's remaining support at home collapsed early this year after an economic scandal that turned into an economic disaster.
C. Economics: (Munira)
GDP: $17.46 billion. Natural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromate, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber. Land Use: Total: 28, 748 sq. km, Water: 1, 350 sq. km, Land: 27, 398 sq. km. Export: $552.4 million. Export Commodities: textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, and tobacco. Export Partners: Italy, 74.9%; Greece, 12.8%; Germany, 3.4%. Imports: $2.076 billion. Import Commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles and chemicals. Import Partners: Italy, 33.6%; Greece, 20.1%; Turkey, 6.6%; Germany, 5.7%. External Debt: $1.41 billion. Aid Donor/ Recipient: $315 million (top donors are Italy, the EU, and Germany). Population below Poverty line: 25% Inflation: 3.2% Unemployment: 14.8% officially, but it may be as high as 30%.
Albania is one of the poorest countries in Europe by every economic measure. Because of the August 1991 law on economic activity, its Stalinist economy collapsed in the early 1990s. This law offered protection of private property and foreign investments and offered to authorize private employment of workers, and to sell state property. The Stalinist economic system formed because Hoxha and his followers enforced this kind of system and had the support of Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union, and China. The Stalinist economic system, which was created by Joseph Stalin, claims to "apply ideas, such as the interpretation of ideas, in ways fit to the changing needs of the society."
The countries poor standards, underdevelopment, and its isolation caused it to have a low level of development. However, it is a developing country. Albania has been restoring its infrastructure, and has an educated and cheap labor. It also has an entrepreneurial public and features closeness to profitable western European markets. Furthermore, Albania imports more stuff than it exports; it imports over $2.076 billion worth of stuff, and exports $552.4 million worth of stuff. Albania has a trade deficit. Trade deficit means the difference between a nation's imports and its exports when the imports exceed the exports.
One of the major economic challenges that Albania faces is emigration, it has lost many of the countrys educated people because of it. Albanians immigrate to other countries mostly because they are unemployed, they cant find jobs in their country. They immigrate to other developed countries to find jobs, such as Italy and Greece. Albanias regional and global economic significance should profit from the renewal of normal growth in European economies. Albanias main export partners are Italy and Greece, whose are economies are doing rather good. Albania has also signed bilateral agreements with Macedonia, Greece, Italy, and Serbia and Montenegro, this shows that its interested in regional economic integration. Albanias relationships with Greece and Italy are good. There were some conflicts between Italy and Albania, but they have been resolved and they are improving the relations between them. It is expected that Albanias economy is to stay at the same pace in the coming years, but it may get better, because it is underdeveloped and has poor standards.Sources: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/al.html http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+al0071) http://biz.yahoo.com/ifc/al.html http://www.world-digest.com/Guides/al/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stalinist#Related_articles http://web.ask.com/fr?u=http%3A%2F%2Fworkmall.com%2Fwfb2001%2Falbania%2Falbania_history_introduction.html&s=a&bu=http%3A%2F%2Fweb.ask.com%2Fweb%3Fq%3DWhat%2Bis%2Bthe%2BStalinist%2BEconomic%2BSystem%253F%26o%3D0%26page%3D2&q=What+is+the+Stalinist+Economic+System%3F&o=0&qt=0&ma=After%20World%20War%20II%2C%20Hoxha%20and%20his%20proteges%20imposed%20a%20Stalinist%20economic%20system%2C%20and%20turned%20alternately%20to%20Yugoslavia%2C%20the%20Soviet%20Union%2C%20and...&mt=Albania%20Introduction%20-%20Flags%2C%20Maps%2C%20Economy%2C%20Geography%2C%20Climate%2C...&mb http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/trade%2520deficit.html
D. Recent History: (Mariam)
Albania gained its independence in December 1912, in a conference of ambassadors Britain, Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, France, and Italy held in London. This conference was held after the defeat of Turkey by Albania's Balkan allies in the Balkan war because Albania was under the control of Turkey. However, Albania did not gain international recognition as a sovereign nation except after getting accepted to the League of Nations in 1920, with the help of Britain.
Albania did not take part in World War I, instead it decided to keep neutral and non of the countries worked to have Albania on their side. In April 7, 1939, Italy invaded Albania and controlled it. Italy used Albania to get into the Balkans and expand the Italian military. Italy forced Albania into World War II, it started by invading Greece but Italy was immediately thrown back into Albania. The regions of Cameria and Kosov were joined back to Albania since they were formally part of the country but were separated from it when Albania gained independence.
In 1941 the Albanian Communist Party was formed, which fought and resisted the Italian powers. After the withdrawal of Germany, the Albanian Communist Party took control over the country in 1944. The country became officially known as the People's Republic of Albania in 1946 then, in 1976, as the People's Socialist Republic of Albania. The communists rule in Eastern Europe collapsed in 1989, so Ramiz Alia, the communist leader changed to an economic system.
The next year independent political parties were formed. The next year independent political parties were formed. In 1991, the first elections, were made but the communist parties won, then in 1992, the democratic party won the election so that is when the communist lost their power. Albania then tried to have a free market economy like the US. Albania even joined the NATO partnership on 1994 and was accepted into the European Council in 1995.
Albania and Yugoslavia re-established diplomatic relations in January 2001. These were broken during the Kosovo crisis in 1999. In April that year, the UN stated that thousands of Albanians are being poisoned by fatal toxins in their environment and urged international community help. July of that year the Socialist Party, which was the party currently ruling, won the elections which secured his position for another term. Prime Minister Meta says that the European integration and the end to energy shortages is his priorities. Meta had put a new alliance government on September.
In January 2002, Meta resigned as a prime minister after he failed to resolve the party dispute. The rival political leaders Nano, and Berisha reached a compromise that eased of the tensions that month. Then in January 2003, Albania and EU began Stabilisation and Association Agreement talks. It was the first step that Albania had to take to get in the EU. On February that year, protests against the government's failure to improve living standards were made and an angry demonstration in Tirana was made to demanding Mr. Nano's resignation.
September 2005, after two months of political power struggle, former president Sali Berisha emerged as the winner of July's general elections. Today a Social Democratic Party controls Albania. On October 11, 2005, The European Investment Bank gave Albania a Euro 19 million ($23 million) loan to rebuild a main road in the country's south. On October 11,2005, the bad relations between Albania and Italy have been improving because Albania and Italy are together in businesses and new economic projects. The two countries call it "a new beginning' between the two. Today, Albania is focusing on entering the EU in a critical way.Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Participants_of_World_War_II#Albania http://www.albanian.com/main/history/ http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/balkans/xalbania.htm http://www.agi.it/english/news.pl?doc=200510111433-1113-RT1-CRO-0-NF11&page=0&id=agionline-eng.oggitalia http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/crossing_continents/4309454.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1004984.stm
E. Current Political Priorities: (Abdullah)
Albania is one of the few Muslim countries in Europe. Thats why we face some problems concerning this issue. Countries that we can turn to (our friends) are: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Pakistan, Greece, Germany, and USA. Shared interests that unite us with those countries are economic interests. We supply them with wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes, meat, dairy products, and in return we receive machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals. We have certain conflicts with Italy that have occurred but now we are trying to solve that issue, and its has improved a lot because earlier this month the Italian Prime Minister visited Albania. He stated that the relationship between the two of us has improved and now they are working on future co-operation in the area of education, particularly as regards university and post-graduate qualifications, and discussed projects and initiatives related to education and professional qualification. The Black Sea Economic Cooperation, World Customs Organization (WCO), Central European Initiative, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), World Tourism Organization (WTO) and many others.
One of Albanias main priorities now is to join the EU and the NATO. With our membership we could benefit with many things from the EU that could help us grow economically. We could have economical privileges such as trade agreements with the EU members. We would have a joint currency which is the Euro and our nation would benefit a lot. Also we will benefit from their resolutions towards issues and their formed organizations inside the EU countries to solve issues such as the poaching issue. In all around the would the only place were poaching has been taken seriously is in Europe. They have made laws to prevent this issue from increasing. However, we face one problem in joining the EU. Our proposal is being rejected because of one vote that disagrees. That vote turned out to be Italys vote. Italy does not want us in the EU because of our past rivalries. However, we are now working on improving our relation with Italy in the form of a project. That project will help be friends politically and economically. Then after our project succeeds we will hopefully be in the EU.
Another priority for Albania is to join the NATO. The NATO stands for The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organization for defense collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4 1949. Its headquarters are located in Brussels Belgium. Its other official name is the French equivalent, l'Organisation du Trait de l'Atlantique du Nord (OTAN). It is basically a huge coalition force between all of the countries who are in it. Also one of main reasons for joining is Article V of the NATO treaty which states that if any country part of the NATO shall be attacked by an outside force that means that all of the NATO countries have been attacked and they will treated as one huge army. This matter helps Albania because Albania has problems with Kosovo and that matters may lead us into violance, but if we have the NATO in our hands they may not even stand a chance of attacking. Prime Minister Sali Berisha has stated that in his 6 years campaign as president he will do what ever is necessary for Albania to enter the EU and the NATO and he is a man of his word. Because Albanias membership to the EU and NATO is being considered today and there is an extremely high chance of us entering. If we enter Albanias future will change 180 degrees. However we still have to in a form of way kiss up to Italy because she may vote against our joining to the EU and the NATO and if that happens well we could say that we would have to get back to the drawing board and come up with a new project with Italy
1. Question of Review of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).Friends are: nuclear producing counties like the USA, the UK, China, France, and Russia. Other countries like Germany, Canada, South Korea, Japan, Italy, and non-nuclear producing countries. Enemies are: Iran, North Korea, India, and Israel. Goals: recommends that they add to the Treaty that all countries, even the five nuclear weapons producing countries, be banned from producing and having nuclear weapons, or nuclear explosive devices, or nuclear technology. But Albania is in no position to make such demands.
The Republic of Albania defines the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) as "an international treaty, whose purpose is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, and to encourage co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the objective of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament." The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was opened in 1968, but the Treaty fully entered into force in 1970. Overall, 187 countries joined, including the five nuclear weapons state (the United States of America, the United Kingdom, the Russian Federation, France, and China). Article II of the Treaty forces the five nuclear weapons states not to transfer nuclear weapons, other nuclear explosive devices, or the countrys nuclear technology to any non- nuclear weapon country. It also says that the non-nuclear weapon countries are obligated not to produce nuclear weapons or nuclear devices. Article VIII, statement number three states that every five years, the parties have to meet in Geneva, Switzerland to meet to review the operation of the Treaty to assure that the purposes of the Preamble and provisions of the treaty are being recognized and understood. Furthermore, countries such as North Korea produces Nuclear Weapons and Iran is under suspicion from the United States of having violated the Treaty by producing Nuclear weapons; both countries have signed on the Treaty. The NPT Review conference was last held in May 2005 and it failed to reach agreements on what to do to North Korea and Iran. The NPT is under review because the state parties meet to examine the Treatys provisions since the last conference and to take in account the decisions they adopted in the last conference they held.
The Republic of Albania is growing increasingly alarmed at the nuclear weapons in the world and approves and supports the efforts of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Albania believes that Reviewing the Treaty every five years is a useful idea and helps the parties come up with more beneficial ideas to add to the treaty, it also helps the parties deal with the nuclear weapons problems today. The Republic of Albania recommends that they add to the Treaty that all countries, even the five nuclear weapons producing countries, be banned from producing and having nuclear weapons, or nuclear explosive devices, or nuclear technology. The Republic of Albania wants to eliminate nuclear weapons from the world.
2. Question of The Situation in Regions of South America, Including the Role of Drugs, Paramilitaries and Organized Crime.
Friends are: Italy, Greece, the USA, Germany, Canada, and the UK. Enemies are: No countries. Goals: suggests that the Latin American countries add more police controls around their counties, around the border, and in places of transportation (such as the Airport, Train Stations, and Underground Stations). Adding police control and undercover police around the country.
The Republic of Albania considers drugs, paramilitaries, and organized crime three major transgressions. Drugs are thought to be one of the worlds most major problems and drug trafficking has increased tremendously in the past years. Also, drugs are illegal and most are addictive.
However, paramilitaries are when someone uses military techniques, weapons, and tactics to fight inside a country against its government. Furthermore, The Paramilitaries in Columbia began a campaign of massacres and assassinations to force out the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC) guerrillas, who have dominated the country for decades. The FARC guerrillas, who are known as one of the worlds deadliest terrorist organizations, are also involved in the export of cocaine. The FARC guerrillas provided the Mexican drug cartel with cocaine in exchange for cash and weapons.
On the other hand, organized crime is a powerful, ruthless, and cruel large-scale network of professional criminals. Organized crime can destabilize a country in ways such as organizing terrorists attacks. This also a very alarming situation because the paramilitaries and terrorists get money from the drug traffickers, and in return, the drug traffickers look for the paramilitaries and terrorists for protection. An example of an organized crime organization is the Mafia. The Mafia are powerful and the most known organized crime organizations in the world.
The Republic of Albania is deeply concerned about the situation in South America because they are very grave and serious issues, and they add more violence to the world. A resolution concerning this issue is the resolution on United Nations Regional Center for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (resolution no. A/RES/59/99). Which is a UN regional center calling for peace, disarmament, and development in Latin American and the Caribbean. The Republic of Albania suggests adding a sub-committee called the committee on drugs, paramilitaries, and organized crime in South America (CDPOCSA). Another resolution concerning this issue is the resolution on international cooperation in the fight against transnational organized crime: assistance to States in capacity-building with a view to facilitating the implementation of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols thereto (resolution no. A/RES/59/157). These resolutions do not entirely focus on this issue, but have something to do with organized crime and disarmament in South America.
The Republic of Albania is also deeply alarmed about this issue because drugs (such as Cocaine) are brought to Albania from South America. Therefore, Albania wants the situation in South America to stop. Albania suggests that the Latin American countries add more police controls around their counties, around the border, and in places of transportation (such as the Airport, Train Stations, and Underground Stations). They should add police controls around the border and places of transportation to prevent drug trafficking and the trafficking of weapons. They should add police control and undercover police around their countries so that they can catch the drug traffickers, members of paramilitaries, and to prevent organized crime. In addition, the countries can use undercover police to find out the identities of the leaders and people that organize the Paramilitaries, Crime, and Drugs. The Republic of Albania wants the Drugs, Paramilitaries, and the Organized Crime to stop because not only does it affect the neighboring countries, but also countries all over the world.
3. Question of Reducing Military Budgets in Order to Provide Peace and Security.Friends are: Italy, Greece, Turkey, Enemies are: Countries who have large military budgets such as the USA and the UK. Goals are: a new organization formed under the disarmament commission on reducing military budgets.
The Republic of Albania defines this issue as "decreasing the amount of money that a nation has spent for its national defense, therefore offering peace and security." In Article 26 of the UN Charter its written that "to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security with the least diversion for armaments of the worlds human and economic resources." This means in order to maintain international peace and security we should reduce the budgets and the amount of resources spent on military arms. The global military budget has increased a lot over the years, reaching $950 billion a year. This is higher budget than the one during the highest point of the Cold War. The United States military budget is almost as much as the rest of the world and is six times larger than the budget of Russia, the second largest spender. Its budget is more than thirty times larger than the total spending of the seven rogue states: Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Sudan, North Korea, and Syria, who only spend $13 billion combined. In 2004, the USAs military spending was 47% of the all the top 55 countries in terms of spending. The second was Russia (7%), then China (6%) but the US doubts their figures, and the UK (5%). The determination of a military budget is connected to a countrys national sovereignty because a countrys military budget verifies a countrys power to protect itself. Many countries choose to enhance their military spending. If a countrys military offset is similar to its neighbors, then if the country increases the budget, then it will improve its position of military power. However, if a country has less military resources than other countries that it believes are threats, then it will increase the countrys resources so it can achieve equivalence. Furthermore, high military budgets are concerning because the costs, if not directed towards the military, could be going to domestic economic development. This problem is often referred to as overarmament and underdevelopment. Other than economic problems linked to increasing military budgets, growing militaries can also cause political tension between countries. If we reduce military budgets, there will be peace between countries because they will not feel threatened by other countries militaries because their budget will be about the same. At the same time, there will be security within the nation because they will feel safe that there are no tensions between them and other nations.
Many Latin American countries may argue that they need high budgets to fight drugs, paramilitaries, and organized crimes. But if the budget the country has is not enough to fight them, then the UN will help them or other countries that may volunteer their military to help the Latin American countries. If nobody helps, then, if the UN army is formed, the UNs army will help them fight drugs, paramilitaries, and organized crime. However, the Republic of Albania recommends that if the UN army is not formed, then the Latin American countries should combine their military so they can help each other fight drug, paramilitaries, and organized crime together.
The Republic of Albania is concerned about this issue because it believes that a countrys military budget should not be very high because sometimes the country could use the money to improve economic and social development. This issue involves the whole world, since as military budgets increase that means there are more wars going on. Therefore, we should decrease military budgets, so we can have a more peaceful world. A Resolution concerning this issue is the resolution on the Reduction of Military Budget (resolution no. A/RES/44/114). The resolution was adopted in the 36th General Assembly meeting, and was also discussed at the 37th, 38th, 39th, 40th, 41st, 42nd, 43rd, 44th, and the 48th General Assembly meetings. This resolution is discussed often because it is a very important issue to the UN and because during the 38th to the 44th General Assembly meeting, their was a Cold War (which started 1945 and ended 1990). The Republic of Albania wishes to see a new organization formed under the disarmament commission on military budgets. This organization will make rules on how much the military budget should be and will see that the each country maintain those military budget and not go over the military budget. It will have inspectors, experts, and every country will have a representative (who will be appointed by the countrys government), and a president, vice-president, and other staff members. Albania wishes to see a peaceful world, and reducing military budgets will be a step further to establishing it.
4. Question of the Creation of a United Nations Army which Will Remain Independent of Member Control.Friends are: countries supporting the formation of a UN Army. Enemies are: countries who dont support the creation of a UN Army. Goals: the formation of a UN army free of the control of the UN members.
The Republic of Albania defines this issue as "the formation of a United Nations Army which will stay free and self-governing of the control of the members of the United Nations." The 2005 World Summit Outcomes resolution states "We endorse the creation of an initial operating capability for a standing police capacity to provide coherent, effective and responsible start-up capability for the policing component of the United Nations peacekeeping missions and to assist existing missions through the provision of advice and expertise." The United Nations police forces would be at first indicted to keeping order in regions where UN forces have already been positioned. The United Nations army would likely be almost similar to the United States National Guard system, where the states keep soldiers but can be called by the national government. The American government has been helping to build the UN Army and Police force, and enhancing the possibility that the United States will subordinate its army to the United Nations power. The United Nations army will be free of the control of the UNs members; the UN members will have no control over the army. The Republic of Albania suggests that the UN armys leader by elected and chosen in the General Assembly by all countries.
The Republic of Albania believes that creating a UN army is a successful way to achieve peace and to help in a UN peacekeeping mission. A resolution concerning this issue is the resolution on the 2005 World Summit Outcome (resolution no. A/RES/60/1). This resolution states the creation of police capacity to provide effective help for the policing part of the UN peacekeeping missions. Other countries dont have to interfere to help them, they would get help from the UN army. The Republic of Albania wishes to see a UN army so we think this is a great idea. However, if the UN army will be under the control of another country, Albania doesnt want an army. Albania thinks that the UN army should be under the control of the United Nations, and UN countries can volunteer their forces as long as it wont determine that a country controls the UN army. The Republic of Albania fully supports the formation of a UN army free of the control of the United Nations members.
5. Combating Illegal Trade in Small Arms in South Asia.Friends are: countries who dont illegally trade small arms such as Italy, Greece, Canada, Turkey, and Germany. Enemies are: countries that support the illegal trade in small arms. Goals: creating a sub-organization under the Program of Action to Prevent, Combat, and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons; increasing border controls to stop trafficking.
The Republic of Albania defines this issue as "battling and fighting illicit trade in small weapons and armaments in South Asia." Small arms are weapons such as hand guns, pistols, sub-machine guns, light missiles, and mortars. They are commonly available, are cheap and reusable. There are around 639 million small arms and light weapons are currently in exchange around the world. Today, an estimated 300 companies in seventy countries produce small arms regularly. These companies work with less supervision than those who issue the production license in North America and Europe. In Bangladesh, 240,000 illegal arms are being used by terrorists and 30,000 licensed guns are in illegal use. In the 1990s, 47 major conflicts out of 49 were using small arms. Small arms are responsible for about half a million deaths per year. In India, the illegal production, theft of the countrys weapons, cross-border trafficking, and political violence, are all linked to the proliferation of small arms. Pakistan has a high degree of proliferation of small arms in South Asia because of the invasion of Afghanistan and the US arming of Mujahedeen. This has made the availability of millions of small arms and light weapons into the region. Sri Lanka is though to be the main cause of small arms proliferation because of the Civil War it was in. In West Africa, there is an uncontrolled proliferation of small arms. Many lives were taken because of the use of small arms. The availability of small arms in Africa makes peace harder to accomplish. In 1998, the Economic Community of West African States promised to not import, export, or manufacture these weapons. Sadly, this was not accomplished. West African countries still continue to trade and use small arms and many deaths were caused because of it. The use of small arms and light weapons destabilize countries, extend conflicts, get in the way of relief programs, weaken peace plans, intensify human rights violations, slow down development, and encourage a culture of violence.
The Republic of Albania is deeply alarmed about this issue because it decreases peace and increase terror in the world. It also causes many attacks and people in South Asia have lots of access to small arms. A resolution concerning this issue is the resolution on general and complete disarmament (resolution no. A/RES/50/70B). Furthermore, the UN started a conference called the United Nations Conference on Illicit Traffic in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. In the 9 - 20 July 2001 Conference, the participating countries adopted a program called the Program of Action to Prevent, Combat, and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons, in All Its Aspects. The Republic of Albania would recommend the nations to increase border controls around the country to stop the trafficking of weapons. It also recommends that a sub-organization be created under the Program designed only to combat the illegal trade in Small Arms in South Asia. Albania believes that the illegal trade in small arms in South Asia involves the whole world, not just the countries of South Asia, because it increases the terrorism around the world and decreases security.
4th Committee: Political & Decolonization: Mariam F. Dashti
A UN resolution is a formal statement of a decision or expression of opinion put before or adopted by the United Nation. Every resolution has its own purpose and cause that affects the countries in the world. Not all resolutions are implemented unless they are passed. The Assembly passes resolutions by simple majority, except on important questions, such as recommendations on peace and security and other important matters.
The UN resolutions at the beginning of the United Nations were a very important matter that was taken more seriously than the present times. Even though the United Nations are taken critically until now but the implementation of the resolution are not the same as the past. Not only did the implementation of the resolutions is awful but the effectiveness of the resolutions are not taken as a serious matter too. For example, the issue concerning Israel and Palestine passed more than 100 resolutions until this day but the issue has still not progressed that much from the year it started. These are not counting the number of anti-Israel resolutions in the General Assembly. That shows us that UN resolutions are not very effective or maybe they are not implemented to the last detail.
Not many countries look at this issue as a very important issue. Until this day, they didn't make an official decision or concern towards this issue. The UN had looked at this issue but never formally made decisions towards it. Kofi Annan , the Secretary-General, in January 17, 1997 said, "Reform must be rooted in a new consensus among governments on ..what[the United Nations] can do best, what is should do with others, and what it should leave to others do." That statement was the beginning of the thought on the effectiveness and implementation of the UN in general and the statement shows that even in the past change was in thought. This year, 2005, Kofi Annan still had the thought of change when he stated, "From overhauling basic management practices and building a more transparent, efficient and effective United Nations system to revamping out major intergovernmental institutions so that they reflect today's world and advance the priorities set forth in the present report, we must reshape the Organization in ways not previously imagined and with a boldness and speed not previously shown." This statement shows the importance of the issue and how even the Secretary General knows and feels that the UN has to be re-organized.
Albania is concerned about this issue deeply since it is part of the United Nations. If a resolution, regarding our country is made and then it was not implemented correctly or it was not very effective then we, Albania, will be affected by it. This issue is not only significant to Albania, but it is globally significant because resolutions are passed regarding any country, if the resolution is not affective or not implemented well so what is the point of passing or even writing a resolution. If a resolution doesn't affect the country or is not implemented correctly, then the UN's importance will go down and will not have the same respect.
We, Albania, think an organization under the UN's supervision must be put that supervises the implementation of the resolutions. The same organization will evaluate the effectiveness of the resolutions. Before all that, the organization must observe how the resolutions are implemented so that they would know how to help how they are implemented. This organization will be under the supervision of the UN. Reports will be made and be posted on a site and will show how the implementation of the resolutions are effecting the countries more or if the effectiveness decreased.
Question of: Stability in and Sovereignty of LebanonFriends: USA, UK Enemies: China Goals: (1) If it doesn't work, organization in the UN made and try to decrease the level of danger by: research the case (present to past), recommend actions, and try to solve the situation step by step, slowly but effectively.
The stability and sovereignty of Lebanon is in great danger. The country of Lebanon doesn't have a steady powerful government to provide all that. The issue here is trying to solve and bring stability in Lebanon and give the sovereignty to the hands of the leader of Lebanon.
In the early 1970s, tension along the Israel-Lebanon border increased, especially after the transfer of Palestinian equipped armies from Jordan to Lebanon. Israeli forces invaded Lebanon on the night of 14/15 March, and in a few days occupied the entire southern part of the country except for the city of Tyre and its surrounding area. The first UNIFIL troops arrived in the area on 23 March 1978. The mission was established to confirm the withdrawal of Israeli forces from southern Lebanon, to restore international peace and security and to assist the Government of Lebanon in ensuring the return of its effective authority in the area. In June 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon again. For three years, UNIFIL remained behind the Israeli lines, with its role limited to providing protection and humanitarian assistance to the local population to the extent possible. In 1985, Israel made a partial withdrawal, but it kept control of an area in southern Lebanon operated by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and by Lebanese de facto forces (DFF), the so-called "South Lebanon Army". The Lebanon issue is also affected by Syria since they also caused chaos in the country. Syria also didn't follow resolution 1595(2005) and didn't match to resolution 1636 (2005). These actions of Syria caused a lot of damage to the country. Even the death of Rafiq Hariri affected the sovereignty and stability in Lebanon since a lot of Lebanese considered him as a symbol of freedom to the county. Lebanese citizens are blaming Syria for the attack until now.
The 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict was the beginning of this issue. More than 110,000 Palestinian refugees ran away from Israel come to Lebanon. Even more Palestinian refuges arrived in Lebanon after the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, and Black September, and by 1975, 300,000 were in Lebanon led by Yassir Arafat's Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). In the 1970s, difficulties were disclosed over the presence of Palestinian refuges, and a civil war began in April 1975, leaving Lebanon no effective central government. On February 14, 2005, after 10 years of political stability, Lebanon was shaken by the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. Accusations were directed at Syria because of its extensive military presence in Lebanon, as well as the public fight between Hariri and Damascus over the extension of President Lahoud's term. The FitzGerald Report issued on March 24,2005 contains the testimony of Lebanon and Syria. The report has called for a further international inquiry. This has been seconded by the UN Secretary General and agreed to by the Lebanese government but with reservations about respect for Lebanese sovereignty and the participation of Lebanese agencies.
This issue is an important issue internationally and many steps have been made in order to solve it. Several resolutions were made and put up to debate but only resolution 1559 was approved and passed. Responsible organizations that have something to do with the issue are United Nations Interim Force In Lebanon (UNIFIL) and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Lebanon even asked for help from the Security Council because of foreign interference, therefore the UN Security Council drafted a resolution that calls from free and fair presidential elections with no interference.
The sovereignty and stability of Lebanon affects Albania because its globally significant. It has significance because Lebanon is at the heart of the Middle East conflict regarding the creation of Israel, which jeopardizes the stability and security of Lebanon and the region. It holds a threat to international peace and security because the PLO, accused by many countries of being an organization of terrorists, was supposed to be removed from Lebanese grounds by the UNIFL but the UNIFL hasn't been able to achieve that. Albania fears that the PLO will start growing if it stays in Lebanon, which makes the removal of the forces more difficult and endangers the peace process.
Albania thinks that an organization must be made under the UN in order to solve the problem. This organization will be set in number of places near the Palestinian camps where there the organize will let the people well their weapons to the organization itself not to the people in order to get money and a chance for a new beginning. After a year, the weapons specifically like unlicensed guns would be illegal. If after a year one of the many illegal weapons are held by a person then that person will be prosecuted by the Lebanese government. This organization will also help the government of Lebanese on deciding whether of not the Palestinian refugees will get a Lebanese identity or not. The organization will first ask the permission of the government and if declined the organization will follow up with the government on updates. This organization will also rebuild the destroyed cities, stop child labor to give them an opportunity to receive education, and start academic programs to improve the education of the poor in Lebanon. This will help the economic situation since the country is not able to take the measures needed without help.
Improving the Cooperation between Governments in order to Take Active Measures against Criminal Actions of Pirates in the Indian OceanFriends: Somalia, India Enemies: Kenya Goals: Create a Sub-Organization under the UN that will: put more security and safeguards around the most places where pirates attack, try to track down the pirates by, making traps for them and catching them and send out spies that will be bait and those spies will have tracking devices sot that the governments can detect the pirates and headquarters, and if the pirates are found, they would be send to their official country of citizenship and be prosecuted.
Piracy is defined as robbery committed at sea. This kind of robbery is increasing in the world, especially between Sumatra and Malaysia, and the Indian Ocean and Japan, which are one of the busiest routes in the world. Organized gangs, with automatic weapons and high-speed motorboats are stealing the products that are shipped by sea and costing a lot of companies loss. Pirates have certain techniques for the robbery. Sometimes the robberies are fast, but if the pirates find nothing, crew members are often kidnapped for ransom to be released later.
International Maritime Bureau (IMB) warns that acts of piracy are on the rise in Somali waters. Since March 2005, there have been at least five attempted hijackings, two of which escalated into acts of life-threatening piracy. This rise in threatening activity comes after a period of relative calm. Only two incidents of piracy were recorded in the whole of 2004. The attacks are noted for the pirates' use of flames as a means of attracting their victim. Once the target ship approaches, the heavily armed hijackers usually attack using a number of speedboats. Most of the recent targets were attacked while on the move, and several captains were forced to take vague and uncertain action to get rid of their attackers. The latest incident was on 6 June, three pirates with automatic weapons attacked the bulk carrier MV Tigris by a speedboat in the coast of Mogadishu. In an incident on 5 May, pirates boarded a general cargo vessel off Somalias eastern coast. The 21 crew members were beaten and locked in a room and the attackers demanded a ransom to release them and the ship. IMB is awaiting further news about this incident. The report identifies other areas where piracy appears to be rising includes Nigeria and Iraq. Since 24 May 2005, four incidents have taken place in Nigerias Bonny River. In recent years, piracy in Iraq has been virtually non-existent; however, despite the close proximity of coalition naval ships, four serious incidents were reported in the waters off the Basra oil terminal since 22 April 2005.
International Maritime Bureau (IMB) is concerned about piracy, and is reporting it to countries so they would give attention to this issue. The UN is taking this matter seriously by taking the piracy issue to the International Criminal Court. The UN news also took an interest after on October 4,2005 the UN food aid ship that was seized by pirates off Somali coast was released after 3 months. Somalia even appealed for international help to combat pirates. The Sub-Committee on Human Rights Promotion and Protection is also concerned about this issue because in the 11th Session, May 30-June 3, 2005, the issue of piracy was raised focusing on the Philippines. The United Nations Open-ended informal consultative process on oceans and the law of the sea (UNICPOLOS) is concerned with the issue highlighting the fact that on May 30, 2000 a meeting was held discussing this issue. Even a General Assembly meeting discussed the piracy issue on 2005.
The issue affects Albania since the imports and Exports are being stolen if it is shipped by sea, and Albania ships its imports by sea and if piracy has spread in the Indian Ocean, that means that it can spread all around the world causing lots of damages, and losses to countries. It also affects Albania because in the future, if this problem is not stopped it can spread throughout the world and it can cause Albania to loose money. It also affects world peace since some people are being killed and held for ransom during the process of robbery and that is dangerous and unmerciful.
In Albania point of view, an organization under the UN should be made that will provide, more security to the ocean around the places were pirates attack rates are very high. This organization will also try to track down the pirates by making traps to catch them. Another way is to send out spies as bait and when the either pirates attack the spies ,which are special trained agents assigned in the organization, can play along to locate the headquarters. If the pirates are found they will be sent back to their country of citizenship and the country can prosecute them. The organization will have a board of directors, which supervise over everything and decide on decisions by running a vote. The board will also choose if a portion of the products is replaced with money. Under the board, there will be a research committee that will look at the roots of piracy and the main locations of pirate attacks happen, an action branch will use the information that is submitted to catch the pirates with missions, and a donating committee which gathers money in order to replace a portion of the products stolen with the authority of the board.
The Situation in NepalFriends: Nepal Enemies: Maoist Goals: Politely try to make an agreement with Maoist. If refused an sub-organization of the UN will be made that will be called, Nepal Peace Organization (NPO), which will: try to find out ways to solve the problems by looking at both point of views, research the situation from every aspect and perspective, and try to raise money to give for the people that are poor and in need of food since they are stuck in the middle of this situation.
Maoist rebels have been waging a campaign against the constitutional kingdom in a conflict that has killed more than 11,000 people dead since it started in 1996. The UN says that the rebellion has moved more than 100,000 people away from the country. The refugees from Bhutan of Nepalese descent created violence in Nepal in the early 1990's which is when the problem began.
Nepal has been known as a country that's ruling system is a heredity monarchy. In 1994 the political instability began. A general strike called by Maoist rebels in April 2001 continued until July 2001 when the Prime Minister Deuba announced peace with the rebels, but then in November 2001 Maoists said peace talks had failed and a truce was no longer justified. Coordinated attacks were made on army and police posts. In November, a state of emergency was declared after more than 100 people were killed in four days from violence. The King ordered the army to crush the Maoist rebels. In May 2002 there were intense fights between the military and the rebels in the west then the rebels declared one-month cease-fire that was rejected by the government. In August 2003, the rebels pull out of the peace talks with the government and end the seven-month truce. In late 2003, there were fights between students and police. The Maoist rebels stage a week-long blockade of Katmandu, stopping supplies from reaching the city. In February 1,2005 another state of emergency was declared and assumes direct power after refereeing for the need to defeat Maoist rebels and the state of emergency was lifted in April 30,2005. In September, 2005 the rebels announced a three moth unilateral cease-fire, the first truce since peace talks broke down in 2003.
The EU is very concerned about this issue because the EU and Nepal established diplomatic relations in 1975 and an EU-Kingdom of Nepal Cooperation Agreement was signed in June 1998 and it is also making business with Nepal even though the EU has exceeded its balance. The Relief web also has a concern in the Nepal issue. The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) has an interest in this issue and gives humanitarian aid to Nepal. A meeting was held between LWF and the partner organizations- Faminist Dalit Organization (FEDO), Center for Environment AND Agricultural Policy Research Extension AND Development (CEAPRED), ILO/STEP Regional Coordination for Asia, and Development Project Service Center (DEPROSC) to build coordination among the partners in order to help the people in Nepal. The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of Nepal is also part of the situation. The Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) plays an essential role in the national development of Nepal.
Albania is concerned about the issue since its a threat to International peace. The rebels are trying to take over the country of Nepal and that is a disturbance of peace. Albania is interested and directly related to this issue since Albania wants peace and wants to stop any actions that disturbs that. Even thought, Albania is not part of this issue but wants to stop these actions taking place to accomplish world peace. This issue directly threats peace.
First we must approach the Maoists with peace, and try to make an agreement with them, and in the meeting both sides will be present and other government officials can be too. In that meeting, if nothing is accomplished then a sub-organization containing the country representative, for the countries who wish to join, that will try to solve the problems by researching, looking at both point of view, and looking at the main parts of the problem. With that research, the organization personals will look over the issue and try to make suggestions of which how the problem can be solved by using the research information as proof how the plan can work. Meanwhile, while the organization is doing all the research and other stuff, a fund-raiser will be made in order to raise money and give it to the poor that are stuck in the middle of this situation. The reason is that most people there can't afford the essentials for life, and they are poor with nothing to eat. This is what Albania think must be done.
Event: LEMUN Forum: Human Rights 1) Issue: The Provision of Protection to Asylum-seekers in Destination Countries Delegate: Dana Khader- Albania Enemies: Some of the European Union is trying to reduce the heavy asylum requests. Friends: China, Italy, Germany, Colombia, Turkey, United Kingdom, India, Spain, and France, Australia, Canada, USA. Goals: To find or amend a policy and make it a better policy for all refugees and asylum seekers. One way is to create a sub organization under the UNHCR that will as for representatives from each country which will report all the current events for the issue asylum seekers. They will meet and discuss all sorts of ways to protect asylum seekers and refugees then take action.
The definition of an asylum-seeker is: "a person having a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country." This definition is stated in the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees the UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioners for Refugees). The difference between a refugee and an asylum seeker is that the term refugee is widely used to describe displaced people all over the world. Most of the 39 countries included in the UNHCR are those with developed asylum systems. The UNHCR's main goal is to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum in another State. These seekers should also be able to return home voluntarily or even resettle in a third country. The main destination countries are developed countries mostly. Most asylum seekers go to these countries for a secure and stable life. Across Europe, governments are working to expel thousands of asylum-seekers. The main responsible organizations are the UNHCR and NASS (National Asylum Support Service). These two organizations provide education, finance, work, and medical health for all asylum seekers. UNHCR has headquarters in Switzerland and branch offices in 115 countries. UNHCR has two aims: to protect refugees and to seek ways to help them restart their lives. Asylum seekers and refugees have been arrested and detained. The security of asylum seekers and refugees is not adequately safeguarded. Governments and intergovernmental agencies fail to protect them from abuse.
Asylum seekers and refugees should not be subject to discrimination and should be treated equally. Human Rights Watch has documented situations in which police have harassed specific ethnic groups or nationalities of asylum seekers and refugees even when these individuals have permission to remain in a particular country.
A resolution adopted by the general assembly on February 9th 1996, the fiftieth session on the protection of asylum seekers and refugees. Past conventions and action programs on the topic of the provision of the protection of asylum-seekers in destination countries are The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. Cairo Program of Action in the area of refugees, asylum-seekers and displaced persons (UNHCR).The 1969 OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of the Refugee Problem in Africa
Albania's laws provide for the settlement of refugees and asylum seekers. Albania has agreed to the 1951 Geneva Convention that talks about the Status of Refugees. It has also signed re-admission agreements with Italy and Greece. At the end of 2003, there were around 300 refugees in the Albania. They were mainly Albanians from Kosovo and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iraq and Turkish Kurds.
A solution that Albania would like to implement is to create a sub organization under the UNHCR which will first ask for countries to send representatives that will be responsible to keep an eye on asylum seekers and if they are decreasing or increasing and also make sure that asylum seekers are being detained or arrested. This organization will meet every 3 months and discuss ways to reduce asylum seekers or to make a better policy for them to feel safer, and then take action. This sub organization will accept any donations from the UN or any funds that will help them provide houses and schooling for all asylum seekers.
2)Issue: The Protection of Folklore and Traditional Knowledge Enemies: Australia, Malaysia, France, Micronesia, and Papua New Guinea Friends: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Mauritania, Oman, Palestinian Authority, Sudan, Tunisia and Yemen Goals: To find a lasting solution that will defiantly protect folklore and traditional knowledge and create a sub organization under WIPO that will support it and have 3 or 4 branches per continent and have representatives specific for every country that will be in charge of every country willing to join.
Traditional knowledge is ways in which indigenous cultures are expressed. Traditional knowledge and cultural expressions are any knowledge or any expressions created. Majority of Pacific countries (Australia, Malaysia, France, Micronesia, and Papua New Guinea) do not have appropriate legal tools to protect the expressions of indigenous cultures. Traditional cultural expression is mainly called folklore.
The full definition proposed by UNESCO and the Internal Council of Science (ICS) states the following: "Traditional knowledge is a cumulative body of knowledge, know-how practices and representations maintained and developed by peoples with extended histories of interaction with natural environment. These sophisticated sets of understandings, interpretations and meanings are part and parcel of a cultural complex that encompasses language, naming and classification systems, resource use practices, ritual, spirituality and world views"
This knowledge and these expressions include and are not limited to: spiritual knowledge, ethics and moral values, social institutions, dances, ceremonies, games, sports, music, language, names, stories, traditions, and songs.
The Regional Consultation on the Protection of Expressions of Folklore in the Arab States, organized by WIPO (world intellectual property organization) and UNESCO in cooperation with the Government of Tunisia, Ministry of Culture, took place in Tunis from 25 to 27 May 1999. It was the third regional consultation following those for Africa and for Asia and the Pacific. The meeting was attended by representatives of the following 12 countries: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Mauritania, Oman, Palestinian Authority, Sudan, Tunisia and Yemen. They acknowledged the need for Arab States to make national laws specifically designed to protect folklore and traditional knowledge. Since then these Arab countries have made national laws to protect folklore and traditional knowledge.
The countries of Asia and the Pacific region are very rich in their cultural heritage, including folk-literature, folk arts and crafts, music, visual arts, ceremonies, folk-beliefs, folk-architecture as well as forms of traditional knowledge related to folk-medicines and folk-medical practices. Most developing countries considered folklore as an important component of their cultural heritage. They realized the effort that was made by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to find out a lasting solution for protection of folklore.
Albania is one of the countries that participated in the WIPO and UNESCO which means it does protect traditional knowledge and folklore. Albania wants to find the perfect solution that will defiantly protect traditional knowledge. One ways is to create a sub organization under UNESCO which will have 4 or 5 branches in each continent and will be responsible for the fliers that remind people of their culture and how they are supposed to stick to it. To try to organize national days that will hold the countries games, songs, traditional clothes etc. There will be representatives for each branch from each country. The country will choose its own representatives. Theses representatives have to have a lot of knowledge about the country that they are responsible for. Other ways of protecting the country's folklore is to hold cultural activities like the sports the country is known for. Another way is to have the national song be played in school for all kids. Create a museum that holds all the cultural clothes and cultural songs etc. The sub organization could help provide ways for the citizens to practice their cultural beliefs. All sorts of ways will be discussed when this sub organization will be created and will meet every 3 months to discuss the improvements and other ways to protect the folklore.
3) Issue: The Oppression of ethnic and religious minorities.Enemies: Sudan, Russia, Siberia, Kosovo, china Friends: Bosnia, India, Indonesia, middle east, northern Ireland, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Philippines Goals: to create a program that will consist of investigators and representatives that are going to discuss ways on abolishing the oppression on minorities. First by investigating the condition of minorities then deciding the consequences or action that will be taken.
A minority is part of a population that differs from other groups in some characteristics and is often given unfair treatment .A minority group can also mean a numerical group with a separate identity and their own political goals. A Minority Group can also refer to a recognizable group which is the subject of prejudice. Minority groups are commonly made up of a religious or ethnic population. Almost all States have one minority group within their national territories. To oppress is to rule or control in a harsh and cruel way which is what's happening with ethnic and religious minorities. Article 1 in the resolution 47/135 on 18 December 1992 states that:" States shall protect the existence and the national or ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic identity of minorities within their respective territories and shall encourage conditions for the promotion of that identity."
We gather here today to find a treatment for the oppression of religious and ethnic minorities. In this world people that have authority or power are taking away freedom and rights of powerless minorities, especially in non democratic .They are also oppressing these minorities, torturing them, or even murdering them. The government does not consider their beliefs and treats them poorly by starvation and other kinds of oppression. The Muslim Sudan government has massive oppression against Christians in south of their country. Russia is also ruling Chechnya and is not giving them the right of freedom. Another example is a conflict that occurred in Rwanda where two ethnic groups the Hutus and the Tutsis had a conflict even though they followed the same religion. Conflicts may have more then one cause which makes it difficult to determine the main cause of the conflict.
The most adopted legitimate provision on minorities is article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which states: "In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practice their own religion, or to use their own language"
International non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play an important role in protecting the rights of minorities. They are able to draw attention when the rights of minorities are neglected or violated. NGOs can also fight the oppression of religious and ethnical minorities by providing accurate information about minorities and ways in which minority protection can be strengthened. Some Involved NGO's are: Human Rights Watch (HRW), International Association for Religious Freedom, Minority Rights Group, and World Conference of Religions for Peace.
Albania is also facing the problem of minorities not getting their rights and being oppressed by authorities. The new prime minister of Albania, Sali Berisha, is working on solving this problem and giving the minority of Albania (Christians) their human rights. In the face of growing attacks and oppression of religious and ethnic minorities in Islamic lands Albania implements a solution which is to create a Program that will be made up of representatives that will meet every 3 months to discuss current events or any new problems or new oppression with minorities. Every representative will be chosen by its country, but should know a lot about minorities. This program will help also higher special investigators that will check on minorities of course after the permission of the country and will answer the following questions: A) what is the status of the minorities? B) Do the laws in these nations discriminate against religious minorities? C) Do members of these groups have the same rights to assemble, speak, publish, and associate as those in the majority? D) Can members be elected to governmental and representative bodies? E) Does the government allow or encourage anti-minority organizations to abuse, threaten or otherwise oppress minority populations? F) Do the members of minorities have rights to practice their beliefs?
Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities. This resolution was adopted by General Assembly resolution 47/135 of 18 December 1992. Another resolution in the year 1992 was adopted by the General Assembly. The Declaration on the Rights of Ethnic and Religious Minorities, which is the only United Nations instrument that addresses the special rights of minorities in a separate United Nations document. The establishment, in 1995, of the United Nations Working Group on Minorities, is another important achievement. In the 58th session in the GA on 3/17/2004 the resolution of ethnic and religious minorities issue was discussed.
4) Issue: The improvement of relations between the Islamic and western world.Enemies: Siberia, China, England Friends: Greece, Italy, Siberia, Sudan, Egypt. Goals: To create an organization that hopefully will find the perfect way to improve relations between the western and Islamic world.
To improve the relations between the Islamic and the Western world we have to know the main cause of the tension between them. The Islamic world has great difficulties with form of cultural expressions in western world like television shows and fashion. The Western world has critical judgment on the separation between religion and state in the Islamic world. Some points that causes tension between western and Islamic world from the point of view of western world is: The dress code of Islamic people, intolerance, the distribution of oil in the present and future, etc. Some points that cause tension between both worlds in the point of view of Islam are: believing that the interests of the individual are of the greatest importance, the belief that democracy is the only proper government, the freedom of speech, etc. These tensions are what cause thee relations between the Islamic and the Western world to be complex. Both worlds contradict each other.
In Albania, the majority is Muslims and the minority is Christians. There is no corrupting or serious conflicts between them but these two religions' relations can be improved. First, Albania calls for the creation of an organization that will meet every 3-5 months, but in case of emergencies they will meet immediately. This organization will be made of representatives that will be chosen by the countries willing to join this organization. A president will be chosen by the UN's SG based on how much knowledge they have of Islamic and western world. The representatives will be replaced every 3 years. There will be as many branches in each continent as needed. They will meet in Geneva (headquarters). They will meet to discuss new ways to improve the relations between both worlds, and take action that will help solve this problem. One way is to publish books about different religions in all countries for kids in school to read which should be part of the education. TV shows or commercials talking about different religions that should be respected and treated equally and also talks about their beliefs. Of course, more applicable actions will be taken when this organization is formed.
FORUM: Political and Decolonization
QUESTION OF: Improving the Cooperation between Governments in order to Take Active Measures against Criminal Actions of Pirates in the Indian Ocean.
SUBMITTED BY: Albania (Mariam F. Dashti)
Noting with deep regret that according to IMB reports, the United States and NATO have warships in the region to protect vessels in the deeper waters farther from shore, but they are not permitted to operate in Somalia's territorial waters,
Recognizing Somalia for appealing for international help to combat pirates, who use speed boats, automatic weapons and satellite phones to target UN.-chartered ships and other vessels,
Further recognizing pirates have launched 23 attacks against ships off Somalia since March 15, the London-based International Maritime Bureau, which tracks piracy around the world, said on its web site,
Deeply disturbed that ICCs International Maritime Bureau (IMB) warns that acts of piracy are on the rise in Somali waters because since March 2005, there have been at least five attempted hijackings, two of which escalated into full blown acts of life-threatening piracy,
Noting with concern that the pirate attacks are becoming more dangerous since it's now including violence like murder, and hostages,
1. Calls for a committee by the name of Piracy Elimination Organization (PEO), which will have headquarters in Geneva, that will consist of a board of directors that will supervise and examine all actions that pass through PEO in the meeting that will be held every 3 months and in case of an emergency situation an emergency meeting will be announced: A. The board of directors will consist of 24 members, 4 members will be chosen from each continent not including Antarctica: 1. the members will be chosen by the continents' member nations, based on their experience on related field, several procedures must be taken to assure the experience of the member applying, 2. the members of the board will change every 3 years to allow other representation opinion, and ideas, B. The board will meet to discuss the issue and problems mentioned in the report by the action branch, and look at any improvement by the committee, and will look at the proper actions towards the issue, C. The board will decide whether or not the people under the attack of the pirates will receive replacements of the items that have been stolen, D. The decision that will be made between the directors will be decided by a vote;
2. Calls upon the formation of a sub-branch under the PEO that will consist of experts in the field of combating piracy that will: A. Create a research branch that will: 1. conduct research on the history of piracy and past actions that have taken place, 2. research and decide on what the issues' roots are, 3. recommend proper actions that can take place in order to eliminate piracy with its roots, B. Create action branches in each continent whose locations will be decided upon after the resolution has passed using the information the research team has come up with that will: 1. keep track of reported or unreported piracy operations, 2. make sure that all the people that have been in the middle of the piracy attack return safely, 3. keep tack of all updated news concerning all piracy attacks (i.e. if a pirate attack involved hostages and demand ransom, that branch will report it to the board of directors, and keep up with all the updated news) 4. catch any pirates that have been involved in pirates attacks and send the person to his/her country and the country will have the authorization of prosecuting the person, C. be able to do so by: 1. each branch will be assigned a certain number of countries depending of the rate of piracy attacks in every country, 2. the branch shall make a report every 6 months, that will include the increase or decrease of the rate of piracy, 3. trying to trap the pirates by missions and safeguard polices in the ocean that will be carried out after the approval of the board of directors;
3. Assuring that after the formation of the following committees all nations will be part of the issue and the governments will be working together in order to eliminate the issue;
4. Requests the formation of a donating committee under the PEO that would replace the items that have been stolen by the pirates with the authorization of the board of directors and this donating committee: A. Would be run by a new committee that would consist of 18 members that would be chosen from the 6 different continents, and would be changed every five years, and the process of choosing them would be similar to the ones of the directors, B. Would use the money, with the authorization of the director after voting on it, to replace a portion of the stolen merchandise in the piracy attacks, C. Will perform fund-raisers and will accept donations from all countries;
5. Notes all nations that help will be recognized for their help and their great effort in cooperation,
6. Urges all UN members to donate battle ships to countries in need for it but can't afford it.
Delegate: The Republic of Albania (Muneera Al Jouan) Commission: Disarmament & International Security Question of: Combating Illegal Trade in Small Arms in South Asia
Defining this issue as "battling illicit trade in small weapons and armaments in South Asia,
Recognizing small arms as weapons such as hand guns, pistols, sub-machine guns, light missiles, and mortars,
Noting With Deep Concern that there are around 600 million small arms in exchange today around the world according to the UN,
Keeping In Mind that people use small arms because they are commonly available, are cheap and reusable,
Noting With Regret that the availability of small arms makes peace harder to accomplish,
Deeply Disturbed that in Bangladesh alone, 240,000 illegal arms are being used by terrorists and 30,000 licensed guns are in illegal use,
Approving the UNs efforts and for starting the United Nations Conference on Illicit Traffic in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects, and for adopting a program called the Program of Action to Prevent, Combat, and Eradicate the Illicit trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons, in All Its Aspects,
Deeply Concerned that according to the UN, 47 out of 49 major conflicts in the 1990s, were using small arms as their weapons of choice,
Noting With Regret that according to the UN small arms are responsible for about half a million deaths per year, 300,000 in armed conflict and 200,000 from homicides and suicides,
Emphasizing that the use of small arms and light weapons destabilize countries, extend conflicts, get in the way of relief programs, weaken peace plans, intensify human rights violations, slow down development, and encourage a culture of violence,
1. Resolves the creation of a committee called the Committee on Combating the Illegal Trade in Small Arms in South Asia (CCITSASA) under the Program of Action to Prevent, Combat, and Eradicate the Illicit trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons, in All Its Aspects, which will: A. Be composed of: 1. A representative from each South Asian country , 2. The representatives will be picked by the country itself based on their knowledge on the illegal trade in small arms, and disarmament, 3. A president and vice-president, which will be elected by the members, B. Be headquartered in: 1. In New Delhi, India, 2. Will meet every year or whenever there is an emergency involving the illegal trade in small arms and light weapons, 3. Have a branch in every South Asian country, 4. Each branch will have a head and as much staff members as needed depending on the country, 5. The head will be chosen by the United Nations based on their knowledge on the trade of small arms in the country they will be a head of branch in and their knowledge on the trade in small arms in South Asia,
2. Further Resolves that the committee will appoint, with the permission of the country, inspectors in each country, who will: A. Look where small arms and light weapons are being used and traded, B. Be chosen by either the committee or the country, C. Submit reports on their inspection to the committee,
3. Further Recommends that the countries who join the CCITSASA to oblige serious rules, which will be the following: A. Once joining the CCITSASA, the country cannot withdraw, B. Recommends that the countries should send undercover police to where the inspectors found small arms being used, so they can catch illegal small arms traders, C. The country should make a law that any illegal small arms or light weapon traders will have severe punishments depending on what or how much they traded, which will be the following punishments: 1. Jail time, time depends on how much and what kind of weapon the person traded, 2. Will have to pay a fine, amount depends on how much and what kind of weapon the person traded,
4. Urges the countries to increase police controls around the country to prevent and to catch illegal trading in small arms, in the following places: A. In the places where the inspectors found the small arms being traded, B. In the border, since many small arms are trafficked and then traded,
5. Further Resolves that the public should be informed about the illegal trading of small arms, so they can report to the police if they see illegal small arms traders, they should be informed in ways, such as: A. Campaigns, B. Seminars explaining why illegal trading of small arms is dangerous, the dangers of small arms, and how people are using small arms, C. Pamphlets explaining the dangers of small arms, why the illegal trading of it is dangerous and how people are using small arms,
6. Expresses Its Hope that all countries join the CCITSASA so we can be a step closer to preventing and ending the illegal trade of small arms and light weapons, and a step closer to having a peaceful world.
FORUM: Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural QUESTION OF: Oppression of Ethnic and Religious Minorities SUBMITTED BY: Albania (Dana)
Having studied almost all nations has one or more minority groups within their territories,
Recalling that a minority group generally refers to either a sub group that does not form the majority of the total population which is disadvantaged and has less power politically or economically,
Expressing with appreciation that there are many NGO's involved in this issue i.e. Amnesty International, Human Rights Congress for Bangladesh Minorities, Human Rights Watch, International Association for Religious Freedom, Minority Rights Group, etc.,
Realizing that in previous years in Rwanda where the Hutus and the Tutsis faced a problem even though they followed the same religion. It is difficult to determine the main cause of the conflict because there are many causes i.e. racial ethnical, religious, etc.,
Having considered that there is a higher risk of conflicts when multiple minority groups live together in one country. Lots of conflicts that occurred because of multiple minorities are Bosnia, China, India, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Indonesia, Middle East, Northern Ireland, Sudan, and Tibet,
Reaffirming that one of the basic aims of the United Nations is to encourage respect for human rights and freedoms for all, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion,
Bearing in mind the work that the United Nations system has accomplished so far like the Commission on Human Rights, the Sub commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities especially the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities,
Fully aware of article 1 from the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities which states: States shall protect the existence and the national or ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic identity of minorities within their respective territories and shall encourage conditions for the promotion of that identity,
Taking into account the important work which is done by intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in protecting minorities and in promoting and protecting the rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities,
Recognizing the need to ensure even more effective implementation of international human rights instruments with regard to the rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities,
Deeply concerned, in particular, about the recent increase in the number of cases in which conflicts involving the protection and the right of participation of minorities have been deliberately provoked and have escalated into violence,
1. Calls for the creation of an agency The protection of Minority's Human Rights( PMHR) which will: A. Make sure that minorities are protected as individuals and get their human rights through the rule of law in democracy by: 1. Choosing representatives by HRW and will have a president chosen by the UN, have to be experts on writing reports; 2. Staying in the country assigned for them and send reports that contain the conditions of the following for the minority: a. health; b. house/ shelter ; c. enough food is provided for them; d. equality for persons belonging to minorities with regard to access to education at all levels; 4. there will be as many representatives as needed; 5. these representatives and all the other members of the organization will meet every 3-5 months, they will meet in: a. Geneva (headquarters.), b. There will be as many branches needed in each continent, B. Provide incentives for the governments, which is linked to WHO, and these incentives are: 1. health care centers/ medical care; 2. education; 3. food and shelter; C. Ensure that governments are fully aware of the consequences of their actions by: 1. sending them warning and awakening them on the consequences they might get from oppressing minorities; 2. the second warning would refer the oppressing nation to the SC for consequences; D. Make sure that minorities and their representatives: 1. seek peaceful solutions to their problems but still refrain from using violence in securing their rights; 2. hold meetings held every 2 months to determine relevant issues;
2. Encourages increasing the budget of the agency through: A. donations by nations, individuals or other charitable organizations which will be used to : 1. institute education centers so that people are better informed on the issue; 2. provide health centers, education, shelter, food, etc.;
3. Carry out further necessary actions to protect minorities;
4. Urges nations to join the PMHR and to attend every meeting and come up with new ideas to help protect and eliminate oppression of ethnic and religious minorities.