Event: LEMUN 2005
Students: Mays Abdul-Aziz, Ambassador and Disarmament Abdullah Al-Ibraheem, Vice-Ambassador and Human Rights Abulaziz Al-Qatami, EnvironmentLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2005-2006 Team page
Italian Brothers, Italy has awakened, She has wreathed her head With the helmet of Scipio. Where is Victory? She bows her head to you, You, whom God created As the slave of Rome. Let us band together, We are ready to die, (repeat) Italy has called us. (repeat previous four lines) (repeat entire song)
Political Structure (Nezar Al-Essa):
The Italian republic, which was in the past a Kingdom, has been a democratic state since June 2, 1946. Italy is made up of 16 regions and 4 autonomous regions of which the capital is Rome. Italy was independent on March 17, 1861 but it was proclaimed during 1870 and then it was finally unified. Italy’s constitution was passed on December 11, 1947, but it was effective on January 1, 1948 after it has been amended many times. Italy’s chief of state is President Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI since 13 May 1999 for a seven-year term and is going to be changed on May 2006. Italy’s head of government is Prime Minister or the President of the Council of Ministers, Silvio BERLUSCONI since June 10, 2001. The Prime minister chooses the Council of Ministers and they have to be approved by the President. The Prime Minister has to be appointed by the President and confirmed by Parliament. The government has the strongest power. The Italian government is an American system. A four-party government coalition includes Forza Italia, National Alliance, Northern League, and Union of Christian Democrats and Center Democrats. Forza Italia is the strongest party of all. Forza Italia thinks that society is a small part of becoming a better country but the strongest way is to have strong individuals. Forza Italia’s politics is personality driven and relies on populism. It is considered to be a conservative party. Since its birth, Forza Italia has been unconventional means for Italian politics. It is heavily dependent on Berlusconi’s image, the party anthem, and TV advertisements owned by Berlusconi himself.
Geography (Abdulaziz AL-Qatami):
Italy, the most beautiful country in the world has lots of geographical features. Italy, a republic country located in southern Europe borders with the following countries and seas: Switzerland, Austria, Solvenia, Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Ligurian Sea, and France. Italy’s geographic coordinates are: 42 50 N, 12 50 E. Italy is really famous to its different kinds of islands, some are: Elba, Sardinia, and Sicily. Sicily and Sardinia both create a lot of bodies of water; they are Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Ligurian Sea. Although Italy has an area of 301,323 sq. km, more than half of Italy’s size consists of peninsula. Because Italy has a large area, its climate is cool in Alpine and hot and dry in the south. Italy’s shape is best described as a boat, in which the peninsula extends generally southeast into the Mediterranean Sea.
The highest point in Italy, Monte Blanc, also called Monte Rosa, has a height of 4810 meters. But the Mediterranean Sea is considered the lowest point. Italy also has many rivers: the Po River, Adige, Arno and the Tiber.
One- third of land surface in Italy is made of plains, and the most famous one is called the Plain of Lombardy. Nearly 75% of Italy’s land is consisted of mountains and hills; however, the remaining 20% are covered with forests. Italians divide their country into four main parts and are generally recognized as the following: northern Italy, central Italy, southern Italy, and the islands. In the north, good soils and climate is favorable for farming and agriculture. Central Italy plays an important role in farming and in some branches of industry. Southern Italy has few lowlands in the area and has an importance in farming. The land in Italy is broken down into three categories: arable, crops, and other. The arable land is consisted of 27.79%, crops are consisted of 9.53%, and the other part is 62.68%.
Italy is divided culturally into two parts: the north and the south. People in the north describe the southern people as lazy people and worthless farmers, not only they are worthless, and they are less advanced and simpler. Southern Italy is drier and hotter than Northern Italy. However, the northern people are known as hard workers, are more advanced, and have more technology than the south as stated in the regional chronologies (site:http://www.hostkingdom.net/noritaly.html). 30% of Italy’s GDP comes from the North, and only 2% comes from the south. Milan, one of Italy’s cities, is considered the industrialized center of Italy.
Natural Resources (Sarah Fakhraldeen):
There are several natural resources in Italy, which are: coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulphur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, and arable land. Italy produces 79,460 barrels/day (bbl/day) of oil, there are 586.6 million bbl of proved oil reserves, and it exports 456,600 bbl/day of oil. Since it produces less oil than it exports daily, Italy needs to import oil in order to maintain some sort of balance; hence, it imports 2.158 million bbl/day of oil. Italy produces 15.49 billion cubic meters (cu m) of natural gas and there are 209.7 billion cu m of proven natural gas reserves in Italy. It exports 61 million cu m, and imports 54.78 billion cu m of natural gas.
In certain areas in Italy, there is a somewhat large dependence on agriculture. In Italy, 5% of the labour force has occupations in the agricultural sector. The agricultural products that are produced in Italy are: beef, dairy products, fish, fruits, grain, grapes, olives, potatoes, soybeans, sugar beets, and vegetables. The weather conditions and the fertile soil help the agricultural parts of Italy and the farmers with growing their rich crops.
Cultural Factors (Nezar Al-Essa):
Italy’s population is about 58,103,003 according to July 2005. Their population growth rate has changed throughout the years and stands now at 0.07%. Italy’s birth rate is 8.89-births/1,000 population. On the other hand their death rate is 10.3-deaths/1,000 population. Italy has many ethnic groups and they are, Italian, but they are divided into more specific groups like small groups of German, Slovene, and French- Italians in the north. As for the south there are Greek- Italians and Albanian- Italians. There are several religions in Italy of which are Protestant, Jewish, a growing Muslim religion, and the most famous is Roman Catholic. Languages in Italy are Italian, German in parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region, French in Valle d’Aosta region and Solvene in Trieste-Gorizia area. The Catholic Church is the world's largest religious body. In Italy 97.20% of the population are Catholics or 55,599,000 people. Italians find workers for an industrial economy from the Albanians who migrate to Italy for work.
There are huge numbers of Albanian illegal immigrants in Italy, which Italians complain about. Violence and lawlessness, which had long since been the trademark of the dark mixed race south of the country, (the Mafia) is spreading its tentacles ever further into central and northern Italy as the racial balance shifts - this is a process which is visible to any contemporary observer.
The two economic divisions that exist within Italy are between rich north and poor south. Today Italy is a bi-racial nation - most of the White population is concentrated in the north, while in the south and in Sicily, most of the population are of mixed race. The north/south division in Italy is an active point of political debate in that country, particularly on the economic level. Northern Italy is mostly urban and considerably wealthier than southern Italy, with its businesses accounting for two-thirds of the entire country's Gross National Product (GNP).
The Roman Catholic Church is such a powerful institution in Italy. While government governs the political side of Italy, the Roman Catholic Church governs the spiritual side. In this sense, Berlusconi could not afford to anger the Roman Catholic Church.
Defense (Mays Abdulaziz):
Italy annually spends 24 billion euros on its military power, which is around 1.8% of Italy’s GDP. This reveals the fact that Italy’s spending is low. In 1997, Italy was advised to raise its military expenditure by 1.6%. However, Italy military expenditure in 2004 was lower than in 1998. So, Italy still hasn’t made a major increase in its military expenditures. However, Italy’s military spending remains the sixth largest in the world. Compared to third world nations Italy is a major military spender.
Italy’s military structure is divided into the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Corps.) The army consists of 153,000 personnel. The air force consists of 59,600 personnel while the navy consists of 38,000 personal. All members of the military are ages 18-49 years. The army is 70% male, 30% female. Due to a recent decision, starting January 1, 2005, the Italian Army has become a fully-volunteer profession, open both to men and women. Seven commands are responsible for each component of the Italian Navy, including a submarine command, two warship divisions, a mine hunting command, and a Special Forces command. The Italian Navy is equipped with about 195 vessels and 118 aircraft.
Even though Italy played a great role in the Second World War, the Italian Army was comparatively weak and was stressed because of Albania. The lack of a stronger automotive industry made it difficult for Italy to mechanize its military. The Italian tanks were of poor quality. Italian radios were virtually non-existent. During World War II, the Italian weapons were of World War I-era quality.
After World War II, Italy signed a peace treaty which prevented it country from possessing fixed-wing vessel-based aircraft for twenty-five years following the end of the war. This treaty expired in 1970, and Italy was then able to develop its military sturcuture. The Italian army was the first European army to field an attack helicopter, the Mongoose.After devoloping its military powers, Italy was able to take part of the Iraqi war effectively. However, Italy wouldn’t have successfully invaded Iraq on its own. Italy’s military capabilities only allows out it to be a contributer. Their primary Main Battle Tank, the Leopard 1A5 has been replaced by the Italian developed Ariete. Wheeled Tank Destroyers are popular in the Italian defense system.The Italians are equipped with NATO-standard issue kit and weapons. Compared to 1st world nations, Italy isn’t higly equipped and would only be able to make a small contribution to the Eurodefense force. Italy’s army is just not big enough. It is also not suffeciently ewuipped in comparison with 1st world nations. Defense cuts for 2006 envisaged by the government would make Italy the smallest spender by far of the major European nations, as measured in euros or percentage of GDP, even as it maintains more than 10,000 troops abroad.
Today Italy is the home American military bases. Italy is home to approximately 3100 military and 800 civilian personnel who are permenantly assigned to the American Aviono Air Base in Italy. There are several protests regarding shutting down American military bases in Italy.
Regarding nuclear weapons, Italy received nuclear weapons from the US after 1954. But later, Italy signed and ratified the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, which suggests that it got rid of those weapons. In July 1998, the Italian parliament urged the government to step up its action in favor of non-proliferation and disarmament.
Economy (Sarah Fakhraldeen):
Italy’s currency is the euro (EUR), which is almost equivalent to the US Dollar. Italy has a budget of 768.9 billion USD for its revenues; its expenditures are 820.1 billion USD. Italy has an external debt of about 913.9 billion USD. Its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is 1.609 trillion USD. Italy’s exports are worth 336.4 billion USD, with the following merchandise: engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals, food, beverages, tobacco, and minerals and non-ferrous metals. Its export partners are: Germany 13.7%, France 12.1%, USA 8%, Spain 7.3%, UK 6.9%, and Switzerland 4.1%. As for its imports, they are worth 329.3 billion USD, with the following merchandise: engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and non-ferrous metals, textiles and clothing, food, beverages, and tobacco. Italy’s import partners are: Germany 18.1%, France 10.7%, Netherlands 5.8%, Spain 4.7%, Belgium 4.4%, UK 4.3%, and China 4.1%. Hence, Italy mostly exports to the European Union (EU) more than it does to the USA, and it generally doesn't import from the USA, but it imports a lot from the EU. The major industries in Italy are tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, and ceramics. In certain areas of Italy the economy depends highly on agriculture, despite the fact that in the agricultural sector is only 2.3% of the GDP.
With all that said, if we were to compare Italy's economy with France's than we would see a substantial difference, seeing as France has a higher GDP, a higher budget, and a smaller public debt. Another country with a substantially stronger economy is the United Kingdom, they're GDP is much higher, their budget is somewhat higher, and their public debt is less than half of Italy's. Nonetheless, even if Italy was to pay off its public debts then their economy will not be that much stronger. Moreover, it isn't accurate to say that Italy is or is not an industrial power, seeing as it has an industrial production growth rate of 0.7%, but their debt is, again, very high. In other words, Italy's public debt is causing the economy to decline considerably. Hence, Italy is struggling on keeping the shortage of their budget down; however, that is not easy with the low growth rate and the rising inflation levels. With Italy's economy declining, the pension is decreasing and unfortunately the pension for the current and future generations is decreasing significantly. With all the plans that are being suggested to reform pensions and decrease public spending, there are a lot of public protests in Italy.
Italy is a member of the official development assistance (ODA) at the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) as an economic aid/donor. The ODA helps the less developed countries (LDCs) to develop themselves economically.
Views on World Problems (Abdulla Al-Ibraheem):
Italy was an active founding member of what is now called the European Union (EU). It was called the European Community. Actively participating in all the activities agreed on by the EU. In addition, Italy was a very strong devotee to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization (GATT/WTO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the Group of 7 (currently G-8) with 6 others of the world's leading industrialized nations, the Western European Union (WEU), the Organization for Security and the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). As evidence to its very active and supporting involvement, Italy chaired the CSCE and the G-7 in 1994 and the EU in 1996.
Italy was formally recognized to the United Nations in 1955, soon after the organization was founded. Italy strongly supports all United Nations actions and efforts in all areas. In addition, Italy also stands firmly with all peacekeeping activities held by organizations and nations. Italy has always actively participated in peacekeeping activities and set out troops to support the UN with its tiresome mission. Italy has sent troops to Albania, Kosovo, Somalia, Bosnia, Mozambique, Cambodia. All these countries have been ruled by Italy. In addition, Italy also sent troops to Iraq to help free, and reconstruct. In addition, Italy has been committed to help Afghanistan culturally in cooperation with the UNESCO, and financially fund it. Italy stands clear by showing its point of view against terror. Italy strongly condemns all terror activities on any nations, and stands with the USA against the terror networks. Especially that Italy has a very fine relation with the US. Burlesconi, the President, transformed the economy to be more close to the United States economy. Italy also supports nuclear non-proliferation. Italy is proudly a European nation, and declares its alliance with its fellow European nations like France, Germany, and UK, in addition to the US.
History (Abdulaziz AL-Qatami):
Two thousand years ago, when the Roman Empire was expanding its power around the shores of the Mediterranean, the people of Italy felt they were at the center of the world. By the 15Th. Century, people were becoming more interested in the works of art and the remains of ancient Rome. Italy was the inspiration for European thinkers, artists, and scientists. Italy remained small countries for another 300 years
However, in 1860, Garibaldi, a skillful politician finally managed to liberate the Italians and created them into a single country. During 1901 and 1914, Giovanni Giolitti, the Italian prime minister made Italy rate of Industrial growth to be increased about 87%. During his time lots of improvement happened in Italy, such as when the Roman Catholics were tensed into Italy’s political life, relations were greatly improved with France, the right for hard workers to strike for a higher salary, and much more.
After signing the Treaty of London with the Allied powers secretly, Italy declared its neutrality in August 1914, but declared war on Austria and the Ottoman Empire. During the years of 1919-1922, Italy suffered lots of economical problems, won the war, and eventually lost peace. On October 28, 1923, Benito Mussolini formed a new coalition government that consisted of Liberals, Nationalist, Catholics, and the Fascist and established dictatorship after killing the socialist party deputy in 1924. Italy’s alliance with the Nazi (Germany) resulted its defeat in World War II. He introduced a new and complicated system of government called corporatism in which the representation was according to occupation. This made Italy to be known at that time as a corporatist state.
The fall of dictator Mussolini in 1943 made peace across Italy. Mussolini and his friends were all captured by the Italian partisans and were all executed on April 28, 1945. On June 2ND 1946, an election was made and washed away the monarchy system and Italy declared that it became a republic country.
In 1947, Italy faced lots of problems, such as economical problems and had to reconstruct itself. Gladly the United States of America provided lots of aid through a plan called a Marshall Plan. The secretary of State, George C. Marshall, first developed the plan that aimed to help the European countries that were devastated. Therefore, the USA offered $20 Billion to Europe. Italy became a member of the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) in April 4, 1949.
In 1974, Italy experienced an increase of crimes, unemployment, and political violence. The Leftists won the elections.
Italy’s situation improved greatly during the 1980s. The economy took off after the introduction of a number of free-enterprise reforms. By 1994, Italy ranked eighth among all industrialized nations and fourth among the countries of the European Economic Community. Its economy, however, remained troubled by a huge national debt. Marked social divisions existed between Italy, industrialized in the north and poor in the south.
After the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, Italy changed itself as the Democratic Party of the Left’ in 1991. Italy’s government was shaken by a series of scandals, and there were investigations into links between the Mafia and politicians. Such scandals were the following: the increase of unemployment, low incomes, crimes, and illegal immigration. Further political disruption was caused by government instability.
Many serious events took place in Italy after the fall on Communism. Silvio Berlusconi became a prominent figure in Italy, despite all the controversy about him. Silvio Berlusconi’s House of Freedoms coalition won the elections. He promised the Italians that he would cut taxes and provide better jobs to Italians. Without Berlusconi, Italy’s policies will be completely different. Berlusconi stands on the right of Italian political center. He strongly believes in free markets and is against communism.
Commission: Environmental (Abdulaziz Al- Qatami):
Issue #1: Combating poaching in LEDC’s
Poaching, illegal hunting occurs around the world for many different reasons. One reason for killing endangered species is to provide meat, medicines, fur, skins, or even internal organs. In addition, poaching animals can also act as a sport or a hobby. Also, many animals are being hunted for the following reasons: tigers are slaughtered because of their strong bones, elephants for their valuable tusks, and rhinos for their horns. In many countries, bears are killed because of their bile, which contains ursodeoxycholic acid or UDCA that treats liver problems and some other diseases. Between the years 1979 and 1989, the demand for the ivory tusk in elephant’s population to increased. In 1977, the elephant’s population was about 1.3 million, however, in 1997; 600,000 elephants remained in Africa. In June 1997, CITES (Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species), an international agreement that prevents the killing and trading endangered species, voted the banning of selling ivory tusks and also voted for sanctions if any country is trading them. CITES became well known for working to stop the slaughter of African elephants for their ivory tusks. The IUCN (The World Conservation Union) has protected many endangered and threatened species and provided them with many shelters and food. Some ways to combat poaching is by building wildlife parks, and making educational programs to aware people from the consequences of killing animals. Many projects are held in developing countries such as the Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDP).
Italy is fully aware of the consequences for killing endangered species. Medicines and future food products will be demolished and wiped out. Italy will definitely provide food products to developing countries in order to reduce poaching. Italy thinks by making a treaty that will encourage developed countries to provide aids, not just food products, but medical and financial aid to LEDC’s. Italy also believes by providing educational programs around developing countries, poaching will definitely decrease.
Issue #2: Mobilizing and Coordinating the International Response to Environmental Emergencies.
In our recent days, the world is facing many environmental emergencies. An environmental emergency is best described as a threat to the public. Some environmental emergencies are the following: deforestation, chemical poisons released into the air, oil spills, earthquakes, forest fires, the release of radioactive materials, and much more. When a crisis or a problem hits a country, all countries must provide assistance and military support. It is believed that environmental emergencies will continue to grow due to many causes, such as polluting the environment, the rapid growth of industries, consuming lots of natural resources, and etc.… Also, due to the high population of humans on earth, so more industries are built in order to find their needs and therefore more pollutants are released into the air. A fifth session of the governing council of UNEP was held in May 1998 strengthened the UNEP contribution to organize and manage the natural disasters caused by humans or natural causes. In our recent years, there are many organizations that provide action to environmental emergencies. Some are: UN office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the UN Center for Human Settlements (Habitat), the NGOs, and etc.…
The DTIE (Division of Technology, Industry, and Economics) is a very powerful program under the UNEP, which gave full awareness to the public about the environmental emergencies and gave ways to reduce these emergencies and pointing out their damages and contribution to the near future. Two years ago, seminars on APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level) have held conferences in the following countries: South Africa, Tunis, United Kingdom, India, Jordan, and Qatar to prevent industrial accident and other human activities. Oil spills are a very important environmental emergency; thousands of plant and animal species are killed each year due to chemicals and oils. But 14,000 oil spills are detailed every year. According to the Wall Street Journal, 50 million dollars were spent yearly to clean up oil spills. It is believed that the 50 million will jump because the US Environmental Protection Agency found out that there are 271 new harmful chemicals in seas. Oil spills are still an issue because some ships spill oil and claim it to be an accident, however it was not.
Italy is really proud that there are several organizations that are organizing environmental emergencies. Italy applauds to the UNEP, due to its fully cooperation towards solving these environmental disasters. Italy may develop a good and a very precise treaty, which will call upon all countries around the world to stop polluting the environment and to put an end to human actions, which increases natural disasters. Italy believes by decreasing the amount of fossil fuels released into the air by industries that causes more environmental emergencies that the world would improve. Italy also believes that when all countries fully cooperate and help each other, they could reduce these disasters very quickly. Also, all countries must be involved because if one problem originates from one country, it may affect the entire world.
Issue # 3: Combating the Effect of Urban Air Pollution
Air pollution is the condition in which the air contains harmful to living things. Most air pollution is the result of human activities, but pollutants can come from natural sources such as volcanoes, however, they rarely become concentrated in particular areas. One third of air pollution comes from gasoline burned in motor vehicles. The Clean Air Act was passed in 1970 gives the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) the authority to regulate automobile emissions, and eliminate the amount of lead in gasoline. Air pollution is a major problem in developing countries, such as Asia, has poor fuel quality. Although there are lots of Vehicle inspection and maintenance programs, developing countries still produce more pollution.
According to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), pollution causes a great change in climate. When cars and industries burn fossil fuels, pollutants such as Sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and lots of other gases are produced. These pollutants react with the water in the atmosphere, which reacts and produced acid rain.
Italy thinks that cooperation and obedience are two ways that can reduce pollution in urban areas. Countries have to cooperate and agree with each other. Laws and regulations have to be made. These laws will not completely eliminate pollution, however, reduces the amount of pollution slowly. Italy thinks that reducing pollution is a more effective solution rather than eliminating it because lots of countries depend on industries for their economy. If the industries shut down quickly then the country’s economy will be destroyed. Lots of countries have failed to sign the Kyoto Protocol. Italy thinks that countries have to cooperate with each other to find effective solutions.
Issue # 4: Reducing Lack of Water in Relation to Desertification, Droughts, and Water Shortages
According to the United Nations, thousands of children in developing countries die every year die to the lack of water and sanitation. Contaminated water causes lots of diseases such as diarrhea infections. These infections are due to the insufficient water supply, and the contamination of water causes 1.5 million deaths per year. Droughts and desertification are both problems that cause lack of water in developing countries. Most of the geographical features in developing countries are considered to be desert like. If water was placed out for only minutes, the water will quickly evaporate. Also, deserts occasionally have slight amounts of water.
Italy encourages countries to provide soil, seeds, and water. These substances are essential to change desert-like places into beautiful gardens. By growing plants, the country will not only wipe out desertification; it will also provide food to people. Italy also encourages countries to not exert groundwater very fast. The level of the ground water has been decreased in the past years. By using alternative sources, the lack of water will be reduced. Countries that have seas, could use water to clean dishes, clothes, and etc.… Italy thinks that if cold countries such as Alaska and Greenland provide ice water in plastic bags and then releases it into the sea, then water will be available to needed countries.
Policy Statements (ECOSOC - Sarah Fakhraldeen):
1) Controlling the High Level of Energy Consumption by Fast Developing Countries.
Currently, energy consumption of the nations that are rapidly developing is more than 30% of global energy, but this percentage is expected to increase a lot by 2010 due to the rapid growth of the population combined with rapid economic growth. While the energy consumption levels are expected to rise, the global mix of fuels (78% of which are fossil fuels, 18% of which are renewable types of fuel, and 4% of which is nuclear) is expected to remain constant, which means that the carbon dioxide emissions will increase by about 55% to 60%. According to disturbing estimates by the World Bank, about $1 trillion (USD) will be needed to meet the electricity needs of the developing countries alone, over the next decade. However, about $4 trillion (USD) will be required to meet the developing countries electricity needs for the next 30 years. In industrialized and rapidly developing countries, Canada is the highest energy consumer per capita in the world, with the USA ranking second, and Italy consumes the least among rapidly developing countries.
Energy consumption by rapidly developing nations must be controlled and very soon. The increasing level of energy consumption in industrialized countries is the leading cause of pollution, carbon dioxide emissions mainly, and most importantly global warming, which could cause a major shift in the world’s weather. One way to solve this vital issue is to develop more renewable energy resources. One new source of renewable energy is the fuel cell, which really needs to be developed and used more. The fuel cell is a highly effective, energy conserving technology that generates electrical power much less pollution, and the energy can be used anywhere including in houses and cars. Fuel cells are electrochemical energy conversion devices that convert hydrogen and oxygen into water, which in turn produces electricity. Hence, producing such efficient, and much more environmentally friendly energy sources, can help with the pollution that will lead to global warming, hence disasters soon if it isn’t controlled. Also, there should be a limit to how much energy a country can use per year according to the size of the country, and how populated it is. The USA, for example, uses 26% of the world’s energy despite the fact that its population is only 5% of the world’s population. In other words, every industrialized country must not have the right to use more amounts of energy than other industrialized countries.
Commission: Disarmament (Mays Abdulaziz)
(0) Question of: Review of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).
The development of nuclear weapons is security threat the international community faces today. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) has a very decent goal, which is to eradicate every single danger of a nuclear war. It is also very helpful to nations because it promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The NPT is extremely necessary to maintaining international security. We can never deny how effective the NPT has been in the past few decades. Because almost every single state in the world has signed it, it helped limit the number of nuclear states. Without the presence of such a treaty, the world would have suffered form an inevitable nuclear war. Those are only the positive aspects of the treaty.
Since only a handful of countries have developed and possessed nuclear weapons in the last four decades, the NPT is considered to be successful overall. On the other hand, we can not deny the fact that the NPT has structural flaws that reduce its effectively. Therefore, the threat of having more unqualified nuclear states still remains. There are a few major flaws in the treaty that we shouldn’t overlook. First, it gives signers the chance to withdraw anytime they want without facing consequences. Plus, the NPT makes inspections voluntary. There are many things that need to be discussed and altered in the treaty to make it totally effective. Withdrawal form the treaty should not be as easy as it is today. Further more, inspections and investigations should be easier to carry out. Even though the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is researching ways to make strengthen the proliferation effective, is it still the responsibility of the international community as a whole. Italy is also known for strongly supporting nuclear disarmament. Italy is playing a major role through international cooperation. Preventing a nuclear war requires reviewing the treaty and the signature of the states that haven’t signed the treaty yet. Italy urges all nations to be extremely cooperative and helpful in eliminating the risk of a nuclear war. We urge all nations to stop the spreading of nuclear weapons. Italy won’t feel safe at all if irresponsible countries starting developing nuclear weapons. It is the right of every nation to feel safe and secure, and eliminating nuclear weapons maintains that right. However before taking any serious measures, diplomatic and peaceful negotiations should be carried through. Regarding Iran’s situation with nuclear weapons, we support our prime minister’s suggestion that dialogue with Iran must absolutely continue until a compromise is reached. We also believe in his idea that improved EU-Iran relations will promote global peace. Italy would also like to emphasize on what Prime Minister Berlusconi said about boosting economic and industrial cooperation with Iran if it expresses cooperation in any way.
(1) Reducing Military Budget in Order to Provide Peace and Security.
All nations economies are divided in many sectors. It is appalling to realize how much of their GDP some states just spend on military defense. What is more appalling is the fact that many states are financially incapable of spending that much on weapons. States that are developing their military capabilities out of necessity and for achieving decent goals are congratulated by Italy however; others that spend large percentages of their GDP to threaten peace and security of others are condemned. Italy urges all African and less developed nations to follow the 2% limit imposed on them by the World Bank. Some states should be given no choice other than implementing this limit. This is for the benefit of developing countries, and is also for the sake of the rest of the world.
Italy strongly urges other states to follow the honorable Italian steps of cutting out military budget. Italy perfectly understands that some states increase their military budget to pursuit their decent goals, and we support that. We have taken firm and serious action towards cutting our military spending, and we urge you all to learn from what Italy has done. Italy has done what is best for the international community. Before his election, out honorable Prime Minister, Mr. Berlusconi promised to cut military spending. Today, he is sticking to his promise. By 2006, Italy would be spending no more than 0.84% of its GDP on defense; we would be the European nations with the least defense spending. Italy stands today proud of its Prime Minister’s wisdom for maintaining international peace and security. We have better things to be spending our money on, in order to help our people and the rest of the world. The EU and NATO provide Italy all the protection it needs. Therefore, we urge all nations to take Italy as their role model.
(2) Question of: The Situation in Regions of South America, Including the Role of Drugs, Paramilitaries and Organized Crime.
Economic challenges in South American lead to several problems in the region. Drug operations take place daily. Criminal groups operating from South America smuggle cocaine and heroin into North America. Drug trafficking South America is generates an annual income estimated to be as high as $110 billion. Even though drug trafficking makes about 60% of all organized crimes in South America, there are still other dangerous organized crimes taking place in South America. The involvement of organized crime groups in kidnapping for profit is becoming a serious concern. In addition, the connection between war and organized crime is becoming noticeable in South America. Italy also has the problem of organized crime, but in a lesser degree than South America. Italy is trying its best to keep the situation under control. Unfortunately, even though we put lots of effort into banning all drugs in Italy, drugs are still smuggled into Italy mostly from Turkey and Afghanistan.
The Convention against Transitional Organized Crime and the researches carried out by the United Nations are not sufficient to tackle the issue. Serious measures and stricter laws need to be implemented in order to make South America a safer continent. South American governments need to put more effort into tackling the issue. Their action is necessary to solve the problem. It is the responsibility of the United Nations and Interpol to take action. In addition, Italy urges South American nations to cooperate and give their utmost effort to solve the issues that South American faces today.
(3) The Creation of a United Nations Army which will Remain Independent of Member Control.
The creation of a UN independent army is an important reform that the United Nations should undertake. This idea has been discussed for a long time now; however, it was never implemented. It came up in many discussions regarding UN reform. Today, and after the decisions of the World Summit, the time has come to create a UN army. Italy really supports enhancing the UN capabilities. The UN needs to be given more power in order to implementing its fair ideologies. Also, we shouldn’t be worrying about the decency or nobility of a UN army because it simply belongs to the UN. In addition, the created army should work to stop the spreading small arms and conventional weapons. Plus, this army should only work for defensives and peacekeeping purposes. Plus, creating a UN army will make states feel more protected. Therefore, they will reduce military spending. This would certainly promote more peace and security. Increasing the power of a multilateral organization such as the UN will give member states more faith in it. It would be feared and respected more.
(4) Combating Illegal Trade in Small Arms in South Asia.
The easy availability of pistols, revolvers, handguns, grenades, explosives & other small arms & light weapons is one of the major causes of violence in civil conflicts in the Asian country. Small arms and weapons have been the weapons of choice in 46 out of 49 major conflicts and have claimed on average 3,00,000 lives. Ninety percent of those killed have been civilians and 80% of those have been women & children. This is not just an issue concerning India. Italy considers this issue to be a global threat. It is a "plague" that could reach everywhere, and that makes Italy concerned. The United Nations convened a conference on illicit small arms and Light Weapons in all its aspects in July 2001. The purpose of the conference was to decide on steps nations should take to prevent the illicit trade in small arms. However, this conference is not sufficient to tackle the issue at hand. First of all, governments need to cooperate under the umbrella of the United Nations. Another major step towards saving this issue is creating an independent UN army. A UN army would effectively combat the trade in small arms.
Commission: Human Rights (Abdulla Al-Ibraheem):
(1) The Situation of Democracy and Human Rights in Belarus
Italy stands solid with all human right crises in any of the world’s nations. Italy strongly condemns the human right violations that are taking place in Belarus. Human rights cannot be violated more than they are violated in Belarus. The situation is clear and simple, but lethal. Belarus has one of the worst human rights records in Europe. Belarus was classified as the only "not free" country in Europe in a recent survey by New York based NGO Freedom House. The situation in Belarus has worsened since President Lukashenko came to power in 1994. Soon after, he was reelected in 2001. The election that the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) qualified as falling short of democratic standards. In addition the President has continued to hold back those who oppose his political views. Inhumane actions were always referred to in Belarus, including the execution of three political opponents of the incumbent authorities in 1999. Freedom of religion is also threatened in Belarus. Human right organization involvement in Belarus is limited, due to the Lukashenko administration's lack of respect for human rights and its lack of commitment to restructuring. Unfortunately, Lukashenko is considering running for a third term as President, and plans to hold a referendum to modify the constitution in order to do so.
This situation in Belarus should be reconstructed as soon as possible, before more human rights are violated. Italy strongly condemns all actions taking place in Belarus. Italy believes that there should be regulations enforced on the Belarus government by the United Nations to avoid any upcoming crises. First of all, the Government of Belarus should fully cooperate with all actions enforced by the United Nations and its mechanism. In addition welcome any organization willing to improve the country after the organization is approved by the UN. More over, the UN should employ a committee that should be in charge of the process of the upcoming elections. Also, this commission should make sure that constitution is not modified to satisfy a minority. The use of force may be necessary, Italy believes that the UN should sent peacekeeping troops if the UN finds the situation necessary. With this plans and actions, Belarus will be a democratic nation and will, hopefully, not violate human rights.
(2) Effective Prevention and Investigation of Widespread Religious Humiliation of Muslim Detainees
If a person opposes a threat to a community, this person should be treated in any way to eliminate the threat he or she opposes. Although it is every person’s right to practice and express his religion, under some circumstances, this may be altered. The rights of a nation or a community come before the any rights of an individual. This means that, for the sake of the country, some criminals should be an exception. Some detainees should be dealt with in any way to eradicate the threat. For example, having a detainee and knowing from this detainee information regarding any future plans may save the lives of hundreds of people. This is a very logical ratio, 1 to 100 or any other great number. Therefore, dealing with these detainees will be for the sake of every single person living on the face of earth.
Italy, as it sees itself exposed to future terrorists’ actions, expresses its concerns regarding to taking the measures needed to eradicate this threat. However, when the issue comes to national security, the rights of the nations come before the rights of any individual. Italy urges all nations to take all necessary measures to combat terrorism even if this means taking the rights of individuals. Italy, and many of its allies, take this issue seriously by making sure that the national security. Many nations may accuse Italy or any other country for violating the rights of those detained. This violation is justified in some cases where, if they didn’t take these actions, many people would die because of information that the detainee kept. This is how Italy sees that the issue should be looked at.
(3) Solving the Practical Problems Connected to the Insurance of Equal Enjoyment of Civil and Political Rights by Men and Women
Women formulate half of the society. Every human is born off a woman. Now, we have a right towards them. As give back to all what they gave up, a country should take care and keep this woman safe, healthy and satisfied. Without women, there will be no human life. A man is no better than a woman. A woman is no better than a man. Therefore, they should both be treated equally. However, some countries still discriminate in treatment between the 2 sexes. In many developing countries, women don’t have the right to vote. This is what Italy calls unequal rights.
Italy proudly declares its equal treatments to both genders. Italy and most of its allies do give the women and men their equal rights. There is no difference between a man and a woman. Italy believes that every country should give their citizens their equal rights. If not, the UN is responsible for educating those specific countries. In addition, the UN should set a standard for those counties and if those countries don’t reach these standards they should not be receiving UN benefits like aid. This is how Italy believes the issue should be dealt with.
(4) Strengthening the Protection and Monitoring of Human Rights of the Disabled
Just like any other human being, a disabled person has his rights and advantages. Disabled people are just as equal to a regular human being. A disabled is a person of blood and flesh. This makes them equal to any other human being. Those disabled people should be treated differently. Having this disability makes disabled people special. Specialist, who thoroughly understands their case, should treat them. Some countries don’t give those special people the rights they deserve. For example, they may not be supplying them with the essential medical care and observation. Having a medical center that takes care of and study the disabled and their situations is one of the most adequate necessities. More over, some countries may also never make available any public tools that may help satisfy the situation of the disables. For example, the country should make available several parking spaces for disabled, and make sure they are not misused. In addition, they should also create elevators that may save the disabled power and exhaustion.
Italy is one of the countries that stress on the point of taking care and securing the diabled. Italy stands clear and powerful to the need to secure and protect the rights of all disabled, just like the way Italy does. Similar to the issue of equal treatments of men and women, the UN should educate the countries to make citizens understand the feeling of the disable. In addition, the UN should set a standard that violating countries should achieve, in case they don’t, the will not enjoy UN benefits. This the way Italy believes it will solve the problem.
Pointing out that an independent army is a tactical and administrative military unit organized for a specific cause,
Having studied, according to UN official documents, that up to one million soldiers, police officers and civilians have served under the UN flag in the last 56 years, as of June 2004, 97 countries were contributing a total of more than 56,000 uniformed personnel-the highest number since 1995, according to UN official documents,
Guided by, according to Encarta Encyclopedia, the NATO military and command structrue that has revealed success and competence in numerous cases such as in 1994 when NATO airstrikes help bring the war in Bosnia to an end, resulting in the Dayton Agreement,
Noting with regret, according to CNN, the fact that UN peacekeeping forces have been inefficient and keeping conflicts unresolved in many cases and still has more than 30 uncompleted missions (for e.x. United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan),
Taking into consideration that, according to UN.org, all member states are legally obliged to pay their share of peacekeeping costs under a complex formula that they themselves have established,
Noting with concern, that according to Wikipedia Encyclopedia, internal problems with UN peacekeeping operations have been isolated by the media, prime example of UN failure was the continued genocide in Rwanda, where the United Nations was unable to garner international support for aid to the country, where millions of deaths resulted UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan recently confirmed these issues with peacekeeping missions and vowed to reform,
Alarmed by that, according to Wikipedia Encyclopedia, the UN spends less per year on peacekeeping worldwide than the City of New York spends on the annual budgets of its fire and police departments, which makes UN peacekeeping forces cost effective,
Viewing with appreciation The European Security Strategy, which is the policy document that guides the European Union's international security strategy, and hopes that the UN will imitate those steps in order to internationalize the benefites and responsibiites,
Congratulating, based on UN official statistics Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Ghana, India, Ethiopia, South Africa, Uruguay, Jordan, and Kenya for being the 10 main troop-contributing countries to UN Peacekeeping operations,
1. Resolves the creation of a United Nations independent army through:: A. requiring all nations willing to be part of the UN Army program to sign a protocol which will include the following obligations: i. donate troops to the UN army program, which will be trained by and paid by the UN, ii. legal requirment to financially provide the army the same way they are required to fund the UN peacekeeping forces, iii. states that choose not to sign the protocol will be excluded from the UN Army program,
2. Emphasizing that the UN army’s mission will be to protect signers of the protocol under the following circumstances: A. attack from an offensive nation, B. civil disputes within a state, C. terrorism or organized crimes,
3. Declares that the UN army action will be initiated by the following: A. the failure of the UN peacekeeping forces to enforce peace and security within an acceptable time horizon expressed by a UN peacekeeping report espressing their uncapability at handling the situation at hand, B. an approval expressed by majority vote of all contributing nations: I. votes will be weighed according to each states’ financial and materialistic contribution to the army,
4. Confirms that the UN army in a particular region will keep the signers up to date by send a monthly report concerning all developments;
5. Designates that there will be one military bases in each of the following continents Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America and will be ready for rapid action under all circumstances.
Delegation: Italy Commission: Human Rights Question of: The Situation of Democracy and Human Rights in Belarus
Noting with deep regret that, according to the Human Rights Watch (HRW), the actions by the government continued its crackdown on the opposition, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), the independent media, and religious groups causing the citizen life to demolish in Belarus,
Fully alarmed that, according to HRW, the events of September 11 and their aftermath again pushed Belarus far from the international spotlight,
Keeping in mind that many nations in the United Nations Security Council suggested imposing sanctions on Belarus including the USA and many of the European countries,
Deeply Regressing that, according to HRW, many citizens in the area suffered from the civil unrest like series of tax raids and confiscation of equipment and publications that accompanied the election campaign in 2001, causing the Belarusian authorities moved to a new level of intimidation of the media by launching criminal libel suits against journalists,
Deeply Disturbed that, according to HRW, an example of the disputed election is the situation of one of Lukashenka's major opponents, former Prime Minister Mikhail Chigir, was sentenced in July 2002 to three years in prison for tax evasion, with the execution of the sentence postponed for two years, and in 2001 the government had prevented Chigir from running for president by launching politically motivated charges of abuse of office and imprisoning him,
Bearing in Mind that, according to http://www.belarus-misc.org/bel-crisis.htm, some of the "Disappeared" Belarusian Leaders & Media Representatives are: Belarusian opposition activist and former Interior Minister, General Yury Zakharenko on May 7, 1999, Opposition leader Viktor Hanchar (Gonchar) and his associate Anatoly Krasovsky disappeared on September 16, 1999, Press photographer for Russian Public Television (ORT), Dmitry Zavadsky has been missing since his kidnapping at the Miensk airport on July 7, 2000. Zavadsky had been previously jailed in August, 1997,
Expressing Its Satisfaction at Georgia for, according to the information on the encyclopaedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_presidential_election%2C_2004, having a successful re-election procedure after a dispute in the previous elections, this lead to a successful re-formation of the government, the election was successful because of the efforts of the UN election monitors that proved their importance to make any fraud public,
Having studied many governments have passed in similar situation where the government have been accused of winning a disputed election, like the Republic of Philippines, when Marcos (ex-president) was force by the people to end his presidency after a disputed election, Georgia, and the Ukraine,
Expressing Its appreciation to the UN sub-organization under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs which serves as the Focal Point for Electoral Assistance Activities, called The United Nations Electoral Assistance Division (EAD) and its action in support for national election observers was provided in Mexico in 1994 and 1997, Ethiopia and Kenya in 1992 and subsequently provided to support the international observation of elections in Niger (‘93), Lesotho (‘93), Malawi (‘93 & ‘94), Tanzania (‘95), Armenia (‘95), Azerbaijan (‘95), Sierra Leone (‘96), Mali (‘97), Algeria (‘97),
Approving that Belarusian Government believes that the election won was a fair election, and that they were elected by the people of Belarus, They also do not find it necessary to run another election,
Noting with Regret that there are many other violations in Belarus some can be found on http://www.hrw.org/wr2k3/europe4.html, and the situation must be improved as soon as possible;
1. Urges Belarus to cooperate and allow the actions described further in this resolution to take place in Belarus;
2. Calls upon the use of EAD, after the approval of Belarus, to first: A. deploy a major branch in Belarus, B. Begin the procedure of re-electing the government of Belarus in actions described further in the resolution, C. Initiate the process of democratic elections by: i. Using experts from the UN in the field of democratic elections, ii. Monitoring the process from all aspects to avoid fraud by, but not limited to: 1. Security cameras in voting booths, 2. Security guards to monitor/handle any mistreatments or illegal actions, 3. Any other way chosen by EAD iii. Sending inspectors to inspect and insure the smooth flow of the procedures, D. Have its workers/inspectors/experts selected by the UN to avoid any misemployment;
3. Encourages that EAD to make sure the elected government will properly carryout the specified tasks of a government, and approve any laws, decisions made to make sure it agrees with human rights;
4. Further urges the newly elected government to deal with any human rights violations and freedoms by, but not limited to: A. Invalidate the law that limits the freedom of media, B. Give a fair trail to criminals, and free all innocent convicts convicted by the pervious government should be released after proven innocent by court, C. Allow public protests, D. Enhance the security in the Belarus, E. Employ experienced councilors to advise the government in making difficult laws;
5. Calls upon Belarus and all concerned states to cooperate and take serious actions to improve the situation in Belarus as this organization will serve Belarus and the situation in Europe to great deals after the Government of Belarus agrees to this resolution such as: A. Offer reasonable financial aid to Belarus to help re-construct and compensate any effected side, B. Request to increase World Bank and IMF loans, C. Suggests Belarus for the SC as a non-permanent member, D. Improve the human rights record in Europe;
6. Requests the Security Council, in case Belarus refuses to allow the organization to work at any time, to give permission to intended sides to enter and work on the situation of human rights in Belarus, seeing that the country violates many human rights and human freedoms, in ways described further in this resolution.
Honorable chairs and delegates, Bonjourno,
Here’s the message delivered by our respectable Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, "We are able, with America, to look at the states of the world and assess the dignity of the people and give them democracy and liberty. Yes! By force if necessary, because that is the only way to show it is not a joke. We said to Saddam, do it or we will come. And we came and we did it."
Italy is a nation with a respectable culture, values, and civilization that supports free trade and democracy. Further more, Italy strongly condemns all the enemies of freedom and democracy. Italy has always contributed to the Unted Nations because it believed and still believes that there is a way to world order and justice.
Opening Speech (ECOSOC)
Most Distinguished guests,
"Veni Vidi Vici" - I came, I saw, I conquered - , said Julius Ceaser. Walking in Italy is like taking a trip back in time to the Roman Empire. Walking into art museums, you can see Leonardo DaVinci's, Michelangelo's, Vasari's, and many other famous artworks. Sitting in the Leaning Tower of Pizza, imagine yourself eating the most delicious pizza in the world in the only building on earth that is still standing despite the fact that it is leaning, as its name suggests. In Italy, you can see all you want of the Roman and Italian history, but you can also see modernization with all the new Lamborghinis and Ferraris.
Unfortunately, there are some problems in the Italian labor market because of the illegal Albanians. They are causing many social problems, and are preventing the labor market 'reforms' from having the best possible effect. Also, the Italians are part of two major political parties, but are headed by the northern party or the republicans, and that is also raising some problems amongst the politicians. Burlesconi once exclaimed, "Let this be said politely: Nobody can teach morality lessons to the government elected by the Italian people."
Being here today, Italy hopes to help solve as many problems as possible to help save our world from falling into despair. Thank you and arrivederci.
Delegate: Mays Abdulaziz -SC
LEMUN was a totally new and unique international event. Working with delegates from Europe was a different and new experience. Plus, LEMUN had slightly new procedures. As representative of Italy, I managed to be a main submitter on a resolution creating a UN Army independent of member control. I was able to gain the support of 13 other delegates. My resolution was one of the first resolutions that passed the approval panel. In addition, I made several speeches in both the disarmament commission and the General Assembly. My speeches were about the situation in Lebanon and the Middle East, and the smuggling of small arms in South Asia. I also spoke against several resolutions that I thought were ineffective, according to Italy's policy. All in all, this event was satisfying.
I represented Italy, and I was a close ally with the USA. I passed a resolution regarding the issue of human rights situation in Belarus. The delegates seemed to be convinced with the resolution when only 6 delegations voted against. In the human rights commission, we didn’t debate in the General Assembly. Therefore, the event wasn’t that exciting.