Country: The Netherlands
Event: LEMUN 2005
Dhari Al-Ajeel-Political Yousef Khalef-Disarmament AbdulRazzaq Al-Razooqi-Social Othman Al-Othman-Political Sulaiman Al-Khalid-Ecology Mishal Karam-Ecology
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Political Priorities: From once being under a German dictator, Netherlands is today a democratic monarchy, called a constitutional monarchy. People elect diplomatic members of the country and the Prime Minister. It is an important member of the European union and is considered as a leading contributor to the EU, both financially and educationally. The EU agrees the Netherlands constitution yet when the European constitution was submitted and the people were given the right to vote for the decision of having the constitution as Netherlands own. Sixty percent of their population voted against it so the country chose to decline the European constitution. The Netherlands along with France made this big decision and they are quite happy sticking with it. They thought the constitution doesnít deserve to be approved by as well as being used and hopes that all flaws and problems will be solved quickly and that all member countries approve the final constitution and are happy with the outcome. Politics and Ideology: The kingdom of the Netherlands is constitutional monarchy. Its ideologies are deeply affected by its constitutional monarchy that adheres to Christian laws. Although the kingdom of the Netherlands claims that it is based on a Christian rule, only 31% of the population are Roman Catholics. However, 5.5% of the population is Muslim and 2.5% practice other religions and 41% have no religion. This adds up to 49% of the population that are not Christian. This is almost half the population; however, the government still states that it is a Christian based government. Despite these differences, the citizens co exist and work harmoniously with no sectarian, ethnic, or religious violence. The effects of this monarchy include, the Netherlands strong relations with Christian nations such as the US, UK, and Germany. Because of the German rule in Netherlands, the Dutch government shares a similar diplomatic status with many nations. One of the differences that they share is that the Netherlands is international known as a neutral country in the UN, making it neglect taking sides in wars such as the War in Iraq and the War in Netherlands. The Netherlands ideology is basically neglected taking sides and solving the issue in a logical and neutral way. The Netherlands is in no direct danger of any war because it has no major conflicts with neighboring countries since they are all apart of the EU helping solve their problems peacefully and quickly as they are allies. Statistical Information:
From once being under a German dictator, Netherlands is today a democratic monarchy, called a constitutional monarchy. People elect diplomatic members of the country and the Prime Minister. It is an important member of the European union and is considered as a leading contributor to the EU, both financially and educationally.
The EU agrees the Netherlands constitution yet when the European constitution was submitted and the people were given the right to vote for the decision of having the constitution as Netherlands own. Sixty percent of their population voted against it so the country chose to decline the European constitution. The Netherlands along with France made this big decision and they are quite happy sticking with it. They thought the constitution doesnít deserve to be approved by as well as being used and hopes that all flaws and problems will be solved quickly and that all member countries approve the final constitution and are happy with the outcome.
Politics and Ideology:
The kingdom of the Netherlands is constitutional monarchy. Its ideologies are deeply affected by its constitutional monarchy that adheres to Christian laws. Although the kingdom of the Netherlands claims that it is based on a Christian rule, only 31% of the population are Roman Catholics. However, 5.5% of the population is Muslim and 2.5% practice other religions and 41% have no religion. This adds up to 49% of the population that are not Christian. This is almost half the population; however, the government still states that it is a Christian based government. Despite these differences, the citizens co exist and work harmoniously with no sectarian, ethnic, or religious violence.
The effects of this monarchy include, the Netherlands strong relations with Christian nations such as the US, UK, and Germany. Because of the German rule in Netherlands, the Dutch government shares a similar diplomatic status with many nations. One of the differences that they share is that the Netherlands is international known as a neutral country in the UN, making it neglect taking sides in wars such as the War in Iraq and the War in Netherlands. The Netherlands ideology is basically neglected taking sides and solving the issue in a logical and neutral way. The Netherlands is in no direct danger of any war because it has no major conflicts with neighboring countries since they are all apart of the EU helping solve their problems peacefully and quickly as they are allies.
Statistical Information:* Netherlands is located in Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany. * The area of Netherlands is 41,526 sq. km in total, 7,643 sq. km water, and 33,883 sq. km land. * In 2005 the population of Netherlands reached 16,407,491 people. * The age structure of Netherlands is from ages 0 to14 years are 18.1% of the population which are 1,523,316 males and 1,453,232 females, ages from 15 to 64 years are 67.8% of the population which are 5,627,007 males and 5,491,802 females, and ages 65 years and over are 14.1% of the population which are 974,037 males and 1,338,097 females. * During the year 2005, the population growth rate is 0.53%. * The birth rate is 11.14 births per 1,000 population. * The death rate is 8.68 deaths per 1,000 population. * The net migration rate is 2.8 migrants per 1,000 population. * The sex ratio at birth is 1.05 males per female, less than 15 years is 1.05 males per female, from 15 to 64 years is 1.03 males per female, 65 years and over is 0.73 males per female, and the total sex ratio in 2005 is 0.98 males per female. * The total infant mortality rate is 5.04 deaths per 1,000 live births, 5.62 deaths per 1,000 live births males, and 4.44 deaths per 1,000 live births females. * The life expectancy at birth is 78.81 years, 76.25 years males, and 81.51 years females. * The ethnic groups are 83% Dutch and 17% other of which 9% are non-Western origin mainly Turks, Moroccans, Antilleans, Surinamese, and Indonesians. * The religions are 31% Roman Catholic, 21% Protestant, 4.4% Muslim, 3.6% other and 40% unaffiliated. * The total population of the literacy rates is 99%. * The official languages in Netherlands are Dutch and Frisian. * The Netherlands is a modern and developed country as illustrated by high literacy rate and life expectancy and there is little potential for ethnic violence because of the high majority of Dutch. Medical facilities are also up to date and effective and this shows in the high life expectancy. Finally, Netherlands is a densely populated country which indicates that there is a lot of pressure on their resources and facilities, such as the industrial sectors and the agriculture sectors which are considered as main imports for many nations, meaning that they have to be very advanced and able to cope with the demand.
GDP: $481.1 billion. Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, peat, limestone, salt, sand and gravel, arable land. Land use: arable land: 26.71% other: 72.32%permanent crops: 0.97% Exports: $293.1 billion Export commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, and foodstuffs Export partners: Germany 25.2%, Belgium 12.5%, France 10.3%, UK 10.1%, Italy 6.1%, US 4.5%. Imports: $252.7 billion. Import commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuel, foodstuffs, and clothing. Import partners: Germany 18.1%, Belgium 10.1%, US 8%, UK 7.4%, China 6.3%, France 5%. External debt: 55.8% of GDP Aid donor/ recipient: ODA, $4 billion. Population below poverty line: there is no population below poverty line. Inflation: 1.4% Unemployment: 6%
The Netherlandsí economy is an open system that depends mostly on foreign exchange. Its level of development is that of the leading European nations, as it is one of them. Its economic challenges are to maintain the economical growth, which has increased greatly since the global economic slowdown. Finally, the Netherlandsí economy is significantly growing because it is 4% higher than the EU average.
With little unemployment and moderate inflation, the Netherlands has a stable economy. Also, the Netherlands has a high rate of investment. It gives out a lot of economical donations to the countries that are in need. The basis of the Netherlandsís economy is foreign trade, with imports such as oil from nations mainly Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. On the other hand Netherlands exports manufactured and harvested goods due to its large industrial and agricultural sectors. The Netherlandsís economy is strong in the sense that it needs no financial aid, has a low unemployment rate, and an almost nonexistent population below the poverty line. Also, its economy was still strong even at the time of the global economic slowdown. Its growth rate is 1.2% each year. The Netherlandsí economical system is a well-balanced economic system that could serve as a model for developing countries. It has achieved above average economical growth and a large increase in employment. The global significance of the Netherlands is that it is a major exporter and might affect other nations. The regional significance is that it raises the power of the Euro and it is a vital country in the EU.
The beginning of this century as we all know was marked with world war one. In which the Netherlands was neutral. Then during the Second World Second World War Netherlands declared its neutrality, but on The 10th of May 1940 Germany invaded it and the royal family fled to England. Soon after that, the Netherlands surrenders. The consequences were great; the Netherlands suffered political oppression such as that of poverty and decrease of aid from former allies. Dutch workers were forced to work in German factories, Jews are sent to death camps as acts of genocide, and Dutch hostages were executed as a penalty for acts of retaliation. The war was coming to an end and the coalition, UK France, and US were taking the grounds victoriously from Nazi Germany. Finally the war came to the end when the Nazi surrendered, and Netherlands was liberated.
The end of the world war marked a new era for the Netherlands. The Netherlands became a member of the United Nations in 1949. The Dutch Indies (which was occupied by Japan in the Second World War) received its independence such as Indonesia in 1949. After that the Netherlands abandoned its policy of neutrality and joined NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, in the same year. Further progress came when the Netherlands was one of the founding members of the European coal and steel community, which marked its industrial era.
Then in 1980 queen Juliana abdicated and Princess Beatrix became queen. In 1985 the government decided to increase defense with the cooperation of the US due to the cold war. 2 years later in 1995 the Dutch battled serious flooding when rivers throughout northwestern Europe overflowed. Damages and evacuation expenses were estimated at more than $1 billion in 1994. Wim Kok became prime minister and was re-elected in 1998 but resigned in 2002. The Dutch currency (guilder) was replaced in 2002 with the euro. After that, the Balkenende's government collapsed because of the infighting in List Pim Fortuyn Part. The most resent political event that the Netherlands has participated in is the rejection of the EU constitution. The Netherlands decided to let the people to decide and 60% voted against.
(1) The Improvement of relations between the Islamic and The Western World(1) Friends are countries in which there are no people who effect the reputation of any religion. (2) The enemies are terrorist groups who effect the reputation of Islam. (3) Our goal is to bridge the differences between the Islamic and Western World.
The relationship between the Western and Islamic worlds is very important to global peace. In recent years, certain events have helped to widen the gap between Islamic and Western Worlds. The most significant events are September 11, the continuity of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Gulf War, and the invasion of Iraq.
In view of these events, extremists from both sides are exploiting the situation to divide the two worlds and enhance prejudice and misperceptions. Bridging the gap between Islamic and Western societies is an effort, which should be undertaken by the international community, in order to promote a culture of peace and tolerance. With the globalization of the world, both Islamic and Western societies realize that they are interdependent in a number of aspects.
The United Nations Millennium Declaration highlighted the significance of tolerance and the essential values of international relations in the 21st century, which promotes a culture of peace and dialogue among civilizations. UNESCO has undertaken a number of activities which promote religious and cultural understandings, like UNESCO Conference Resolution 39(20 October 2001) which calls for dialogue among civilizations and cultures and Resolution 47(16 October 2003) which sets out the concrete actions for the UNESCO work on dialogue among cultures and civilizations. In addition, an initiative for dialogue, action and understanding between the Western and Islamic Worlds which started in the World Economic Forum in Davos in Switzerland, in January 2004. A council of 100 leaders was formed to create a dialogue and understanding in different aspects of these relations. The council was co-chaired by former Archbishop of Canterbury, UK and Prince Turkey Al Faisal of Saudi Arabia.
The most recent initiative is the "Alliance of Civilizations" which was launched by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, co-sponsored by Spain and Turkey in July 2005. Mr. Annan is bringing together high level groups of persons to guide the initiative and to present a report with recommendations and action plan by late 2006.
The Netherlands, as part of the Western World and having a Muslim community which exceeds one million, is concerned with improving the relations. It understands the importance of interdependence and the need to bridge differences. Creating stronger ties is the only way to move forward in this new world.
To be more specific, The Netherlands will be an active promoter for the improvement of relations in two aspects, political and educational. In the political aspect, it will have more embassies open in the Islamic countries where there is no representation. Also, the Netherlands will be an active participant in the council of 100 leaders and the "Alliance of Civilizations." In the educational aspect, the Netherlands will support all UNESCO programs for promotions of religious and cultural understandings, in terms of development of textbooks and other learning material, training of medication, and in providing guidelines for intercultural education. It will fund scholarships for Islamic Studies, and accept students from Islamic countries in its universities at a budget of Ä5 million annually. Finally, the United Nations must have a resolution to form a committee, which promotes the alliance of civilizations among all world countries and will dedicate the proper action plans to the concerned UN organizations.
(2) The Oppression of Religious and/ or Ethnical Minorities
(1) Our friends are countries, which do not oppress minorities. (2) Our enemies are countries, which oppress minorities. (3) Our goal is to encourage dialogue between minorities and communities.
Minorities include about 30 to 40% of the world population, and 70% of the world conflicts are often ethnic or religious in nature, according to the Minority Rights Group (MRG). In some parts of the world, minorities are oppressed because of their religion and ethnic origin. They are discriminated against in civil rights, in education, employment, freedom of speech, and in practicing their traditional culture.
There are a lot of statistics that reveal some discrimination acts. In Nepal, 90% of Daltis live below poverty line, while the country average is 45% and Muslims have a human development index rate, which is less than half the national rate. In Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, and Peru monthly earnings of Afro-descendants is about half of white people. Around the world there are different minorities which have suffered from discrimination and intolerance. In Europe Armenians, gypsies, Russians in Ukraine, Chechens in Russia are example of minorities. In Asia, Muslims in China, Chinese in Malaysia, and Jews in Iran are other examples of minorities. In America for a long period there was a discrimination and oppression of Afro- descendent people.
Though there are attempts in the international law and the international conventions to protect the rights of the minorities, those attempts are still weak. It is weak in areas such as in the European Conventions on Political Rights and the Organization on Security and Cooperation (OSCE). In the United Nations in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights there is no reference to minorities, though the principle of no discrimination was considered sufficient to protect the rights of minorities.
A new United Nations mechanism on minorities has been approved by the Commission of Human Rights (CHR) at the 61st session in Geneva. A United Nations independent expert on minority issues will work with the governments and minorities. This welcomed by Minority Rights Group International (MRG).
The Netherlands does not tolerate any oppressive practices against minorities. The Netherlands recommends that governments insure that their legal system does not allow for discrimination among minorities and is also protective for their rights. Also, the UN bodies must focus on supporting minorities in their communities, in health, in education and in understanding their legal rights. The United Nations must also support and fund local groups working to help minorities in their countries. Members in the OSCE must abide by the OSCE commitments. The international community must enforce sanctions through the Security Council for countries, which do not provide civil rights to minorities. Educational institutions like schools and college must include human rights and self determination in their education curriculum to help understand the need of minorities.
(3) The protection of folklore and traditional knowledge(1) Panama, Venezuela, USA, and Ecuador are friends. (2) Countries where regulations haven't been enforced are enemies. (3) The goal is that countries should provide a legal framework, which is effective in implementing the constitutional changes.
The main source of folklore and traditional knowledge in any society is the indigenous people living in it. Their knowledge has been accumulated and practiced over a number of generations. The international community must give more attention to the protection of traditional knowledge.
UNESCO and the Internal Council of Science (ICS) has proposed the following definitions for traditional knowledge "is a cumulative body of knowledge, know how practices and representations maintained and developed by people with extended histories of interaction with natural environment."
Traditional knowledge is a complex issue, because the protection of intellectual property derived from it is not considered part of intellectual property laws and the traditional system. Indigenous communities depend on traditional knowledge to satisfy the financial need for health care and food. They are still waiting to get royalties for their ancient knowledge.
There are many different regulations that are being reviewed to see if they are useful to protect the rights of indigenous people. In recent years some governments in American continents as well as other parts of the world have amended their intellectual property protection laws and their patent laws. The amendments still fail to protect traditional knowledge. However, there are some achievements of protection as in Abya Yalla (USA) where contributions made by indigenous people have brought change to political constitutions. This took place in the political constitution of Ecuador in 1988, and Venezuela in 1999. Also, other countries have adopted these constitutional changes.
In Panama in the year 2000 new regulations were taken towards this matter. The regulations lead to the protection of the rights of indigenous people as well as protecting the rights of the cultural identity and traditional knowledge. This was the first law that could help this matter but it wasn't perfect. There has been a committee that helps solve this issue as well as similar issues and it is called the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFI I). There was a session that was held on 16 to 27 May 2005 to help stop this issue. A new bureau was elected at the start of this meeting. The session was attended by 1200 participants and 68 member states. Also, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) through its Intergovernmental Committee on its 8th session in June 2005 has taken important decisions for new ways of protection.
The Netherlands supports the protection of indigenous people's right to their traditional knowledge. The Netherlands would recommend that countries should provide a legal framework, which is effective in implementing the protection needed for traditional knowledge for disappearing. In addition, multinational companies should be banned from any protection or subsidies by local governments if they illegally use the traditional knowledge without acknowledging its source and paying for it. The UN must through the UNESCO and its other organizations, create awareness of the different civilizations in order to create worldwide awareness which will help in protecting traditional knowledge.
(4) The provision of protection Asylum Seekers in destination countries
(1) Guinea and Bangladesh are friends. (2) Australia is an enemy. (3) The goal is to let governments take immediate steps to reverse immediate steps to reverse asylum immigration policies that discriminate in basis of race or nationality.
An asylum seeker is a person having well founded fear of being prosecuted for reasons of religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country. This definition is stated in the 1951 convention relating the status of refugees. European states have adopted policies to try to limit the amount of asylum seekers. Refugees are almost the same as asylum seekers; the difference is that refugees don't have a well-founded fear of being prosecuted. In locating camps near borders of countries, asylum seekers have a chance of being confronted with dangerous situations.
The number of refugees and asylum seekers has dropped forty percent from 1994 to 2003 according to the United Nations. Each year, thousands of refugees are given citizenship from the countries they are in. The problem of having too many asylum seekers in one country, is the decrease of resources and increase in crime. Sub-Saharan African countries provide thirty percent of refugees and asylum seekers to other countries. The UNHCR has published indicators to show how asylum seekers can harm a country and affect its internal situation.
In July 2000, the UNHCR criticized for its detention policies, and for not allowing NGOs have access to asylum seekers. Australia kept asylum seekers thousands of miles away from any major city. Guinea also realized that the increasing number of asylum seekers and refugees increased the insecurity of the country.
Since 2003 the UNHCR has developed a system which monitors the situation of refugees in destination countries. Other organizations, like the Human Rights, Watch (HRW) call for better protection, since the European states are drafting more restrictive policies for asylum seekers like "Safe Third Countries" and "Safe Origin Countries", which is believed that these policies are at risk of violating the fundamental principle of international refugee protection.
In the past there have been a number of conventions and action programs like the Convention Relating the Status of Refugees, Cairo Program of action in the area of refugees, asylum seekers and displaced persons (UNHCR).
The Netherlands supports protection of asylum seekers in destination countries. It recommends governments take steps to reverse policies that discriminate against refugees and asylum seekers and it will review its internal policies, to ensure that they are protected. Countries should fully implement the 1951 Convention relating the status of refugees and 1967 Protocol. Governments should not return asylum seekers to so called "safe third countries" where they may be at risk of human rights violations. Governments should take immediate steps to reverse asylum and immigration policies that discriminate on the basis of race or nationality, such as visa requirement. The Netherlands will be more respective to accepting asylum seekers and granting them visas particularly if they have good education and professional background.
Ecology: Othman Al- Othman
Issue: Combating poaching in LEDCís(1) All the countries of the world especially the EU. (2) There are no enemies except the citizens in Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America that are poaching animals. (3) Our goals to eliminate poaching by any way possible.
Poaching is to take or appropriate something unfairly, or illegally. Most of the LEDCs often depend on tourism to raise their countryís income. They depend on their countryís scenery, climate, culture, and animals to attract tourists. If these animals are being illegally poached, then less income will be gained for the country. The country will also suffer from a loss of natural resources because the relentless hunting of certain animals will destroy the food web (by forcing it to change), and thus the ecosystem. Poaching will reduce certain types of popular attractive animals like pandas, elephants, and tigers. These animals are going to be endanger and later they may be extinct. These countries are already struggling and they donít have the ability to protect the animals in danger themselves because the money lost (to get workers, train them and get the equipment needed) will effect their economy deeply, putting the country in further debt that it may not be able to repay. All LEDCs are not going to be able to solve this issue on their own because poachers usually target poor countries because these counties are not able to defend themselves, and the resulting low standard of life might lead to bigger problems. A result of a further problem may be a civil war, which could lead to child soldiers and widespread diseases. In fact, most poachers are uneducated and poor like the poachers in Africa.
The three areas in the world that are considered to host the majority of LEDCs are sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. All countries within these regions are the ones that suffer most from the illegal hunt of wildlife. There are believed to be various causes of this extreme difference in poaching between LEDCs and MEDCís.
There are measures that have been taken by the international community to reduce poaching in Lesser Economically Developed Countries. One of the most significant of these is considered to be the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES). CITES is an international agreement between Governments. Its main goal is defined as ensuring that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. This goal of CITES is considered to be beneficial for the combating of poaching in LEDCs, because reducing the illegal trade in wildlife results in less incentive for poaching. CITES is an international agreement to which States adhere voluntarily. Although CITES is legally binding on its Member States, it does not take the place of national laws. Rather, CITES provides a framework to be respected by each Member, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at a national level. This has effects on CITESí role in combating poaching in LEDCs. Therefore there have been many proposals in recent years for the creation of an organization with more authority in order to better combat, the illegal hunt and trade of wildlife.
The Netherlands suggests that there should be serious consequences (15+ years of jail time, a fine and confiscation of all property used to help in poaching). The Netherlands suggested those rules because they believe that in the end poaching will damage the environment of LEDCs and it will lessen the incomes of the LEDCs which is greatly needed since the country doesnít have enough money to maintain security, provide food and water constantly, and build a modern and reliable infrastructure all at once. The Ecological and Environmental commission should try to get international aid (training workers, financial aid, and equipment) for these countries so they can stop poaching and raise their economical level). Netherlands recommends the starting of more treaties and organizations to help provide aids to LEDCs and stop poaching.
Issue: Mobilizing and Coordinating the International Response to Environmental Emergencies.(1) All the nations are with the Netherlands searching to solve this issue. (2) There are no enemies. (3) The goals are to open more organizations to help solve this issue after FEMA had failed.
An environmental emergency is a sudden threat to the environment and public safety. Those can be classified into many parts: international, national, governmental, and nongovernmental. Some important organizations are the UNEP disaster management branch, the Red Cross, FEMA, and the OCHA. FEMA, or Federal Emergency Management Agency, of the US is an example of an organization that failed to respond adequately to a natural disaster. The natural disaster is Hurricane Katrina. Their negligence caused the loss of many lives. Michael Brown the director of FEMA then lost his job.
Environmental disasters are a major threat to almost all countries, including the Netherlands. Since the Netherlands is below the sea level, it is very susceptible it floods. That is the main reason for the Netherlands comprehensive anti flood system. Another significant factor is the economical implications of a disaster. If a country that is a major importer or exporter of certain goods or necessities is hit by a disaster, it will drive up the international prices and there will probably be a shortage of that item. Those items may be any natural resources of maybe fruits and vegetables. The first step to solve this issue is to coordinate between all response teams and governments to allow for swift disasters relief by creating an organization that has information on all disaster relief organizations and coordinates them acting as a connection between all agencies. This organization can be named Organization in Helping Unite Environmental Emergency Organizations (HUEEO). By forming this organization, all well experienced countries and organizations will share their technology and information with less advanced organizations and governments. This will lead to better disaster relief worldwide because all countries will have the necessary information and technology to build a disaster relief system.
Issue: Combating the Effects of Urban Air Pollution(1) All the nations are with the Netherlands searching to solve this issue. (2) There are no enemies. (3) The main goal is to create an organization that monitors all the pollution that are caused by harmful gases.
Almost half of the worldís population lives in urban areas and air pollution is an ever-present factor in their lives. Some of the short-term effects of air pollution include irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, and respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Other symptoms can include headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions. Long-term health effects can include respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys. One of the main causes of pollution is black carbon pollution, which is the release of tiny particles (also known as aerosol) into the air from burning fuel for energy. CFC is another type of pollution that results from using hairspray, air-conditions, and refrigerators. This type of pollution depletes the ozone leaving us vulnerable to the earthís harmful UV rays that cause cancer. Other forms of pollution that are caused by the burning of fossil fuel are Carbon monoxide (the blood absorbs this leaving less space for oxygen), Nitrogen dioxide which affects the throat and lungs), Volatile organic compounds (which cause eye and skin irritation, headaches or nausea) and lead (lead particles can enter the lungs and gradually be absorbed into the blood stream. Over time this may affect the nervous system and the bodyís ability to produce blood). Over time, this may affect the nervous system and the bodyís ability to produce blood). Fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes release sulfur and nitrogen oxide into the air. These oxides may then dissolve in cloud droplets, making acid rain. Acid rain affects humans, animals, plants, buildings, and soil. The UN addresses these issues in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP), and the Technical and Economical Assessment Panel (TESP). One of the most important advancements is the Kyoto Protocol that reduces the emission of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gasses.
The Netherlands would like to propose a worldwide agreement that limits every countryís harmful gas and puts worldwide limitations on companiesí emissions especially, car manufacturers. They will be required to create more efficient engines with better miles per gallon (so less fossil fuel will be burned). This should be implemented as pollution affects us all and causes major problems in every area from health to corrosion of buildings to the loss arable land (because plants cannot live in polluted soil). Signing this benefits the country even if it means the loss of money (countries that are unable to finance themselves without polluting the environment will be given compensation in the beginning, but in the long run it will be more cost efficient). It will be more expensive to solve the problem when it escalates and cannot be ignores. It will also benefit the environment and humans alike. Netherlands is willing to create an organization that monitors all the pollution that is caused by harmful gases. This organization will be called Monitoring Organization of Pollution (MOP).
Issue: Reducing Lack of Water in relation to Desertification, Droughts and Water Shortages(1) All the nations are with the Netherlands searching to solve this issue. (2) There are no enemies. (3) The main goal is to begin implementing water-recycling programs with the aid of countries with more advanced water recycling systems.
Desertification is the transformation of arable land into desert. Droughts are long periods of time without rainfall. Water shortages are any type of situation where sufficient water is unavailable. All of these situations mean a lack of water. Lack of water has many serious implications such as: increase in water borne illness since people are forced to drink unsuitable water (i.e. polluted water), lack of hygiene since there is not enough water to drink let alone bathe (which will cause sickness), increase in violence and crime because people will go to extremes to get water such as stealing. Finally, it will have a substantial negative effect on the economy because agriculture will fail since there is not enough water sustain crops and livestock. Secondly, industry will suffer since many of the needed materials are the product of agriculture making it harder to receive needed materials thus raising the prices of the products that come from those materials. The higher prices mean that the lower class will not be able to afford necessities. That plus the shortage in water (which will cause sickness) will cause totally inadequate living conditions causing the work force to decrease in productivity. All this will eventually slow the economy to a halt. The total result of which is famine. This will also affect the environment as the lack of water and the fact that humans are polluting the remaining water will force many undesirable changes in the ecosystem. Some of the countries that have experienced or are experiencing this problem are Kenya, Ethiopia, Nicaragua, Iran, Mongolia, Afghanistan, and some 25 other African nations. The UN addressed this problem by attacking the source of the problem through the implementation PACD (Plan of Action to Combat Desertification) but sadly this plan has had limited success. The UN has also had programs that help countries that have experienced droughts and now are experiencing famine through the world food program. The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development has also addressed the issue and introduced Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) which was introduced between 11-22/4/2005 a program that finds the best way to conserve water for any particular area. The world water forum and international conference on fresh water have also set some goals to be achieved in water management, few of which have been completed. The UN Millennium Development Goals also state that the number of people without sufficient water should be halved. The World Water Assessment Program has summarized the situation and all related aspects and also provided comprehensive goals that will drastically improve the situation. The world has developed much different organization, but didnít reach their goals complete goals of water management yet. So every many nations especially the Western European Countries are donating and forming different organizations and treaties to solve this issue.
The Netherlands believes that this is one of the most significant environmental issues. The issue concerns the welfare and living standards of human beings. One the main goals of the UN is to better them. If these countries solve this problem, it will help them get back on track economically. The Netherlands suggests that dams and water reservoirs be built to make use of the little water there is. Better irrigation systems should be used that conserve more water. Countries near a sea should also use water desalination to make use of seawater that previously undrinkable. If the country is poor, then the country should ask other wealthy countries for donations. Mora awareness should be spread about water conservation and recycling through any means possible. This could be done by mass media or informing farmers by sending inspectors that inspect the water irrigation system and provide suggestions. Governments should also begin implementing water-recycling programs with the aid of countries with more advanced water recycling systems. Finally, more focus should be put on the world water forum and international conference on fresh water, and achieving them by holding conferences between countries that study these matters about water.
Yousef Khalaf: Disarmament
Issue #1: Review of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)Friends: China, USA, UK, Russia, France Targets: North Korea, India Goals: Create organization to persuade countries to join and to make the treaty its highest priority.
NPT stands for nuclear non-proliferation treaty. The NPT dates back to 1968, when five states had tested nuclear weapons: Britain, China, Russia, France, and the United States. The treaty was a deal between them and the world, which stated that over time, they would reduce and eventually eliminate their entire nuclear weapons and the stocks, and prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Also, the treaty states that they would stop getting nuclear weapons in exchange for financial and technical assistance in developing peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Furthermore, the treaty establishes a safeguards system under the responsibility of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Some countries, however, would not join the treaty and still have nuclear testing, like India and Aruba.
Many resolutions concerning this issue have been passed. Resolution A/RES/59/77
stated the disarmament of nuclear arsenals must be accomplished. The resolution stated some very good and effective points. 117 countries voted for the resolution. Also, resolution A/RES/59/76 states that all countries should sign the NPT and try to disarm all nuclear weapons.
The most recent agreement made by the EU to Iran is that the EU will offer economic, security, and technological incentives in exchange for stopping the nuclear activity. Iran has denied the agreement and insists that they are only using the nuclear power as a means of energy.
The Netherlands, being a peace-loving country, agrees and supports the treaty. The Netherlands does not have any nuclear weapons but it is part of the treaty. The Netherlands urges the countries that have not joined the treaty (India and North Korea) to join the treaty and disarm its nuclear arsenals. The Netherlands will create an organization so that the treaty will be its highest priority. The organization will offer incentives to use nuclear energy in useful ways, to countries that are not part of the treaty. Also, the organization will inspect joined memberís states in order for them to make sure that no nuclear activity is going on. The NPT affects the Netherlands because it doesnít want these nuclear arsenals used against it. Also, it doesnít want to destroy the environment.
Issue #2: The Situation in Regions of South America, Including the Role of Drugs,
Paramilitaries and Organized Crime
Paramilitaries are groups of force that are trained in a military way. Paramilitaries were created in the 1980s by rich ranchers and drug traffickers to guard against guerrillas because there were no authorities. For 40 years, regions of South America lived in violence because of the guerrillas. Paramilitaries were created to protect the regions from guerrillas. However, over time they became linked in illegal drug trafficking and kidnappings. In July 2005 667 paramilitaries were found and they gave up their weapons and surrendered. It was said that by August 23, 2005, all paramilitaries in Narino, Colombia were eliminated. However, locals say that they have seen armed men roam the area. Twelve new paramilitaries have sprung up in Colombia near the countries biggest cocoa farms.
Organized crime is stealing large amounts of goods or money, murdering people, and smuggling illegal substances like drugs. The most recent agreement made to fight organized crime is the formation of the Global Program against Organized Crime. The programís goals are for the countries to take effective steps to fight organized crime. Also, they have to take measures like training and gathering troops and weaponry, to create certain groups of forces against organized crime. In addition, it states that they can have law enforcement assistance, cooperation, and training. The training will be carried out by the most distinguished generals that have been collected from around the globe.
Drug smuggling in regions of South America has gotten out of control. State authorities cannot control the trafficking of illegal drugs. Security has been tightened around American entry points such as harbors, airports, and land borders. The UN has enforced local authorities and provided them with equipment. Special training, detection, and communication equipment have been provided for local authorities. Despite all this help, local authorities still havenít managed to stop drug trafficking.
Resolution A/RES/59/163 states that all drugs should be eliminated. Persuading the government to improve and tighten security around areas with the most drug trafficking can eliminate them. Resolution A/RES/59/99 states that peace should be accomplished in Latin America by the support of the secretary general to the Regional Center. It also states to support of development of the Regional Center in areas of disarmament.
The Netherlands hopes to see all those crimes in South America stopped. The Netherlands wants peace in the world and these crimes are only delaying that mission. The Netherlands will send equipment and experts to countries. If the country does not wish any troops from other countries to enter its land, then the Netherlands will provide financial aid to the country so that it can conquer the problem on its own. The money will be tracked. Many countries want to see drug trafficking stopped; however, the Netherlands thinks otherwise. It believes that soft drugs, like marijuana should be legalized like it is in the Netherlands. If the countries that are affected by drug trafficking legalize the drug then they are able to monitor the usage of the drug. Then they can also put a tax on the drug and it can be one way of income. This will benefit the country greatly and then they can use the money to improve their economy.
Issue #3: Combating Illegal Trade in Small Arms in South Asia(1) Friends: India, Pakistan, USA (2) Targets: Vietnam, Afghanistan, Philippines (3) Goals: Aware public of danger and help IANSA with security
Small arms have been the cause of over 3,000,000 deaths in South Asia alone. Small arms are light weapons such as pistols, handguns, revolvers, and Russian hand grenades. The reasons why South Asia is the most affected area with the illegal trade of weapons is because it has experienced many internal conflicts like Indonesia, Burma, and the Philippines. Another reason is because of the weapons that are left behind after wars. Most of their weapons have been destroyed in areas like Vietnam; however, some are still being smuggled in the black market. South Asian countries are weak and cannot control their borders and their security. As a result to that many weapons have been smuggled in and out of the countries. The most places were small arms are being traded are Timor, Maluku, and the Southern Philippines.
In 1993, small arms have been the cause of the serial blasts in Mumbai, which took the lives of many in the train and bus bombings. In 1995, many hand grenades, AK-56 assault rifles, and ammunition were recovered in Mumbai.
The organization responsible for taking care of this issue is the International Action Network on Small Arms. The organization held a meeting in June 2003 in Mumbai where the chief guest spoke about the violence and crime in India. He gave his support towards stopping the trade of these weapons.
The Netherlands is deeply concerned about this issue because not only is it harming the countries, it is also delaying the goal of world peace. The Netherlands wants to see the IANSA take appropriate measures to increase security around the boarders of countries that are most affected. If the country does not want troops entering then the IANSA should give financial aid to the countries so that they can use it to improve the security. The money will be tracked so that the countries wonít use them in a bad way. Also, the Netherlands wants to aware the public of the dangers of these small weapons. Posters, documentaries, and seminars should be held in the country so that the public is aware of the danger and will know what to do in a situation where a small arm is present. Equip a country with the latest tracking and monitoring technology in order to get all the weapons in the country and confiscate them.
Issue # 4: Reducing Military Budget in Order to Provide Peace and Security(1) Friends: Thailand, Bangladesh, Cambodia (2) Targets: USA, China, France (3) Goals: Decrease military budget, create organization for the decision of how the aid will be spent and how much the decrease in the budget will be
About $1 trillion dollars globally have been spent on the military and the development of new weapons. More expenses have been used on military and the creating harmful weapons rather than for growth of the developing countries. The UNís disarmament is helping the development because if the countries disarm their arms then they will have more money to spend on other developing countries. By the disarmament of the weapons resources can be used on the development of the countries. Also, this will bring the world even closer to peace and security.
This issue has been debated in the sixtieth GA meeting that took place in 2005. The first commission, which is the disarmament commission, had a two-day debate on this issue. Many countries supported the reduction of the military budget. Thailand, Bangladesh, and Cambodia all stressed at the fact that reducing military budget will allow the country to help developing countries, and bring us closer to world peace. They also agreed that disarmament and development are the main causes of world peace. This issue affects the Netherlands because the Netherlands wants world peace. The Netherlands also wants to help all developing countries to develop.
The Netherlands is concerned about this issue because it wants to see the disarmament of weapons and the reduction of military budget so that the country can spend more on helping developing countries. The Netherlandsís military budget is %1.6 of its annual GPD. It will decrease that percentage to 0.9% in order to have more money for development. The Netherlands wants the creation of an organization that will include all strong and developed countries and they will be offered incentives like cheap defense systems and peace agreements between countries in order for them to join. They will meet and decide how much they will decrease their military budgets. They will also decide on how they will spend the money that has been received from the reduction of the budget, and to what countries will they send the aid. The countries will be chosen according to their situation and wealth. The organization will also propose new, cheap methods of defense like cheap missiles so that the country isnít left vulnerable to attacks. The Netherlands also wants China and the USA to reduce their military budget since they are the highest military budget. The Netherlands will send aid to countries in Europe that are in need like Albania. The Netherlands will contribute to stop the most oppressing problems in Albania.
Issue #5: The Creation of a United Nations Army which Will Remain Independent of Member Control(1) Friends: USA Targets: France, UK, China, Russia, Korea Goals: Make bills for countries to contribute to the army, meet annually for discussions, contribute 2% of its military to the UN army
The UNís Secretary General, Kofi Anan, wants the creation of a UN army free of any countryís control. The army would work under the UN. The UN wants to form a 6,000 man army. The army would be able to fulfill the goal of disarmament and will not interfere with the country it is disarming and will not over-stay so that it can use the countryís resources. The US is the main provider of troops for the UNís army. Kofi Anan wants $200,000 more from the US government so that they can coordinate peacekeeping troops around the world. Now many countries have donated troops to this army like Italy and Germany.
A bill has been passed by James P. McGovern, the defense minister of the USA that called for the immediate creation of a 6,000 man army. This was the first step towards the creation of a UN army, which would control US troops and US weapons.
The Netherlands supports the UN in creating an army that would work under its authority. That will allow the disarmament of the weapons and would stop countries from taking another countryís resources when they go in to help. This affects the Netherlands because the Netherlands would like to see peace come to countries with out the help of other countries that will only take advantage of them. That will lead to the country will not know how to function independently and the country will have a small amount of recourses and that will affect their growth and development. The Netherlands will offer 2% of its armyís troops to the UN army and will allow the UN to take control of these troops. The secretary general will be the one who has control over the army. After that, the SC will elect a person that they see fit to take control over the army after the secretary general. The troops will come from each country that is willing to donate some troops and that signs the resolution that the Netherlands proposes. The Netherlands will create resolutions that will make countries offer a certain number of troops to the UN. The resolutions will state the minimum number of troops that the country will have to offer which is 2,500 troops and any country that wants to offer more will be free to do so. The resolution states an organization that will offer incentives to countries that join. For example, if the disarmament of a country succeeds, then the countries that have joined the army will be able to offer the country business and marketing opportunities. The countries can be partners of trade and they could set up agencies in the country. The organization will hold meetings annually to discuss why signing the resolution will benefit each country and how many troops will each country contribute. The Netherlands will also meet with allies to discuss why they should sign this resolution.
Defining that paramilitaries are groups of forces that are trained in a military way
Defining that organized crime is stealing large amounts of goods, murdering people, and the smuggling of illegal substances like drugs
Defining that soft drugs are drugs that do not have a major affect on the human body and are not lethal, like marijuana
Noting with approval that 667 paramilitaries were found in July 2005 and were all disarmed
Deeply disturbed by the fact that 12 new paramilitaries have formed near Colombiaís biggest coca farms
Noting with satisfaction that security around South America entry points have been tightened,
Noting with regret that despite the UNís help to the authorities in South America by providing them with equipment, they have still not managed to progress in stopping drug trafficking,
1. Resolves the creation of the organization Peace in South America (PSA) that will: A. Consist of all countries in Latin America, B. Any country that wants to join the organization to help Latin America, C. Have a biannual meeting, or sooner if needed, to discuss the issue at hand
2. Creates a sub-organization of the PSA called Organization of Drug Control in South America (ODGSA) that will: A. Authorize the legalization of soft drugs in the South American region, B. Create a law that states the maximum amount of soft drugs that an individual can consume in a certain amount of time, C. Convince each country in the PSA to legalize drugs because of the benefits which are: i. The country will then be able to monitor the trade of drugs within their boarders and that will stop the illegal trafficking, ii. The country will be able to put a tax on the drugs and therefore benefit financially from the legalization of drugs by spending the money on things like: A. Help rehabilitate drug addicts, B. Improving educational standards and increase awareness about drugs, C. Improving hospitals and other medical facilities like drug rehabilitation hospitals, D. Using the money to solve economical problems, iii. The elimination of organized crime because there will be no need for the illegal trade of drugs iv. With the legalizing of drugs the government can collect data about areas with the most drug use and find possible solutions for these problems D. Show the country that soft drugsí like marijuana risks and compare to similar hazardous substances that have been legalized like cigarettes and alcohol E. Provide the country with proper methods for selling the soft drugs like: i. Having government owned stores that will have a record of who buys the drugs so that they don not exceed the amount that they are permitted to have ii. How many stores should each region have and how many companies should be made for the selling of the drugs iii. Set a price for the soft drugs
3. Further resolves the creation of a sub-organization of PSA that is called the organization of Stopping Paramilitaries and Organized Crime in South America (OSPOCSA) that will: A. Send troops to countries with paramilitaries or organized crime, with their permission to tighten security and help stop paramilitaries and crime B. Provide the latest equipment to the country and provide specialists so that they can operate them and the equipment will consist of: i. Detection equipment, ii. Set up watch towers in certain distances so they could keep a look out, iii. Arms so that they can stop the paramilitaries, C. If the country does not wish troops to enter then the OSPOCSA will provide financial aid and track it so that the country can secure the land, D. Help the countries to develop better prison systems to avoid escape and other problems within the prison, E. Allow countries to share expertise and knowledge in many fields like crime, controlling drugs, and stopping paramilitaries;
4. Urges all countries to aid the PSA by: A. Joining the organization, B. Providing financial aid to the countries of the organization to proceed with the projects mentioned above, C. Sending specialists or providing equipment for the organization
5. Calls upon all South American countries to cooperate with the PSA by: A. Allowing the PSA to enter the country in order to stop the paramilitaries and organized crime, B. Agree to the legalization of the drugs so they can benefit from it and also eliminate the problem of drug trafficking and organized crime, C. Join the PSA;
Commission: Social, Humanitarian, & Cultural Submitted by: The Netherlands Delegate: AbdulRazzaq Razooqi 10D Question of: The protection of folklore and traditional knowledge
Defining traditional knowledge according to the UNESCO and the Internal Council of Science (ICS) as a cumulative body of knowledge and to know practices and representations maintained and developed by people with extended histories of interaction with natural environment,
Recognizing that the main source of folklore and traditional knowledge in any society is the indigenous people living in it,
Believing traditional knowledge is a complex issue because the protection of intellectual property derived from it is considered part of intellectual property laws and traditional system,
Realizing that indigenous communities depend on traditional knowledge to satisfy the need for health care and food,
Fully alarmed by the fact that the governments around the world who have amended their logical property protection laws, failed in protecting traditional knowledge;
1.Requests the formation of a committee the will be called the United Nations Committee on Folklore and Traditional Knowledge Issues (UNCFTKI) which will support the protection of folklore and traditional knowledge and will: A. Meet quarterly each year and discuss those problems and try to find solutions for them, B. Appoint inspectors who will: i. Inspect all patents used by multinational companies to ensure that they are not using any traditional knowledge illegally, ii. Ban subsidies or protection that is provided to them by local governments in case they are violating any laws, c) Promote awareness through supporting folklore events, which can accompany main international conferences in order to create international awareness,
2. Recommends the UNESCO to protect and support folklore, traditional knowledge, and indigenous people by: A. Giving indigenous people land to live and work in, B. Giving indigenous people opportunities to exhibit their knowledge through exhibitions and documentaries,
3. Further recommends the establishment of institutions and museums in each country that will show the history of each country and its folklore which will be under the support of the United Nations Committee on Folklore and Traditional Knowledge Issues (UNCFTKI),
4. Further requests governments to affirm that their legal framework is effective in implementing the constitution required for indigenous people to have the right to their natural resources and tradition,
5.Calls upon the UNESCO, to review education curriculums in countries, to ensure indigenous people's human rights are well explained in the education system.