Event: LEMUN 2005
Political Structure: (Saoud Al-Sabah))
The formal name of the Philippines is the Republic of the Philippines; the capital of the country is in the city of Manila. The Philippine's government is a republic type where the president is elected on a six-year term by a popular vote. The current political party that is in power in the Philippines is the Lakas Ng Edsa (National Union of Christian Democrats) party. The head or chairperson of the party is Gloria Macapagal -Arroyo. The government of the Philippines is divided into three separate branches, and the branches are the Executive branch, Legislative branch, and judicial branch.
The Executive branch is made up from the chief of state, head of government, and cabinet. The chief of state who is the president is Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo; the vice president of the Philippines is Manuel De Castro. In the Philippines, the chief of state is at the same time the head of the government. The head of the government elects the cabinet of ministers in the Philippines.
The Legislative branch consists of the parliament, which is the bicameral congress that consists of the Senate. The Senate consists of 24 seats and each senator serves a six-year term by a popular vote. Every three years one half of the senate is elected for a six-year term. Another part of the Legislative branch is the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives consists of 212 members and 24 sectoral party-list members, by which its members are elected by a popular vote and serve a three-year term.
The Judicial branch mainly consists of the Supreme Court, which is the highest level of justice in the country. The president of the Philippines chooses the fifteen judges of the Supreme Court. The judges of the Supreme Court serve their term till the age of seventy years old. The Judicial branch also consists of the Court of Appeals.
Currently in the Philippines, the government is not politically stable, there are some forces trying to overthrow or trying to cause problems to the government. The government faces much political pressure from political parties. There are many groups trying to revolt against the government. One of the main threats to the current government is from armed communist Muslim forces in the southern area of the Philippines. Another group that is a threat to the central government is the Abu Sayyaf group that does terror actions within the country. The political party that applies the most pressure for the current government is the LDP party. But the main concern is that there might be a civil war in the Philippines that may throw the government and demolish the current ruling party, and that threatens the country instability.
With time passing the political status of the Philippines is improving, however, corruption is still present in Philippine's politics. Corruption has still a major mark in Philippine's politics. The corruption started since Marcos's time and increased with time. Corruption declined for a while until Estrada started bringing corruption again into Philippine’s politics. But recently the Philippines government started an anti-corruption program for two main reasons the first is to reduce the amount of corruption in the Philippines to increase the standard of living for the people. The second is to increase foreign investment in the country.
Geography: (Ibrahim Abu Saleh)
Being a set of islands effect the RP both positively and negatively. Agriculture accounts for about a quarter of the GDP. The Philippines produces most of the food needed to feed its entire GROWING population. The main food crops are rice and maize. These two crops occupy more than half of the farmland. Other leading food crops include cassava, sweet potatoes, bananas, mangoes, sugar canes, tobacco, coffee, and coconuts.
The positive side is that many of the islands have different types of soil which are fertile and rich; these different soils or grounds enables them to plant variety of greens so there agriculture will be dissimilar.
The negative side is that most leading islands have slightly different culture. This difference will cause problems that may lead to civil war and incorporation between the majorities of the population. This problem will affect the RP economically and politically.
Natural Resources: (Zaid Al Marzooq)
Though the RP is trying to industrialize, it's most important resources are still agriculture, specifically its rich soil. Arable farmland comprises more than 40% of the total land area. The rich soil of the Philippines makes planting fairly easier. The soil is rich with nutrients and is naturally fertilized so it helps with planting a lot. Unfortunately agricultural output fell in 1997 and 1998 due to drought but increased by 6.0% in 1999.
With its 7,107 islands, the Philippines have a very diverse range of fishing areas. The Philippines is one of the world’s most highly mineralized countries, with untapped mineral wealth estimated at more than $840 billion. Philippine copper, gold and chromite deposits are among the largest in the world. Other important minerals include nickel, silver, coal, gypsum, and sulfur. The Philippines also has significant deposits of clay, limestone, marble, silica, and phosphate. Despite its rich mineral deposits, the Philippine mining industry is just a fraction of what it was in the 1970s and 1980s when the country ranked among the ten leading gold and copper producers worldwide.
The Republic of Philippines produces it energy or electricity from sources, which are: 55.6% (fossil fuel) - 17.5% (hydrogen) - 26.9% (other). Even though Philippines have some proven oil reserves, it imports oil mostly from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait due to the fact the Spartyls islands, which have Philippines proven oil and gas reserves, are currently unstable because of the disputes over the island between nations of the region. The discovery of natural gas reserves off Palawan Island has been brought on-line to generate electricity. None of the Philippines energy is produced by nuclear power.
Although the Philippines is a very historic country found along time ago, it has divisions due to ancestry and the era of colonization which shaped the Philippine nation. The Philippine population is estimated to be 87,857,473. The growth rate is 1.84%. It has been influence by many nations including the Spanish colony in Philippines, which allowed it to adopt the Spanish language as a main language in the country.
The Filipino people are mostly descendants of Indonesians and Malays who migrated to the islands long before the Christian era. The most significant ethnic minority group is the Chinese, who have played an important role in commerce since the ninth century, when they first came to the islands to trade. As a result of intermarriage, many Filipinos have some Chinese and Spanish ancestry. This ancestry has caused an internal division within the nation.
More over, there are differences in the level of people. There is a huge difference in the living of standards of the upper class and lower class; This is upper class is composed of the Chinese and Spanish ancestry who usually ran the governmental parties (both the democratic and communist), while the lower class is composed of Indonesian or Malay ancestry, who make up most of the Filipino citizens especially the poor ones (they are the ones who work overseas and bring in the countries budget from remittances ). This class diversion will continue for a long time due to the benefits the government gets such as power for being the high class and money from remittances, which are brought in from the low class.
The most important religious influence on the RP is Catholicism, but Islam is very important on the southern island of Mindanao. Religion estimates of Philippines are estimated to be 83% Roman Catholic, 9% Protestant, 5% Muslims, and 3% Buddhist and other religions. Christians were to be found throughout the archipelago. Muslims remained largely in the south and were less integrated than other religious minorities into the mainstream of Philippine culture, by the means of trade Islam has reached the southernmost part of Philippines where Muslim countries such as Indonesia and Bangladesh and other Muslim countries trade. Christianity has its role in the Philippine society. The President of the Philippines is considered to be Christian and so is the Spanish Colony in Philippines. In addition the current Democratic Party in the Philippines is considered totally Christian as one of the main parties is called Christian Democratic International (CDI).
Religious is Philippines is a cause of many disputes especially between Muslims and Christians. When the American based constitution was written it encouraged immigration to the Philippines, this brought all religions through out the country into one land, which unfortunate brought disputes over land, the Muslims wanted their own land and so did the Christians. Because the Christians were the majority, the Muslims didn’t get their autonomy. Since then vital conflicts have occurred, the Christians made their own terrorist groups against the Muslims called Ilagas, and the Muslims made their own terrorist group called the Barracudas, these two groups fought, until government troops interfered and brought peace between the groups. After that event a commission for minorities was assigned especially for the Muslim called Office of Muslim Affairs and Cultural Communities, which failed because the Muslim failed to agree with Christians. The Christians do not consider Muslim as Philippines but as the minority of the south. Therefore Christianity is the higheirchy in Philippines while islam is the low archy.
Defense: (ZAID Al Marzooq)
The Philippines has the capabilities of a reasonably strong army that it possess, but its challenged to meet its current obligations fighting terrorists, Communists, and the threat of China. Due to these threats and current obligations the Philippines created a defense department to handle such matters called Department of National Defense (DND), which was organized on November 1, 1939. This department is lead or managed by the Secretary of National Defense (SND), that is assisted by six undersecretaries: the Undersecretary for Finance and Administration (USFA), the Undersecretary for Programs, Planning and Special Concerns (USPPSC) the Undersecretary for Armed Forces Operations (USAFO), the Undersecretary for Attached Agencies (USAA), the Undersecretary for Internal Control (USIC) and the Undersecretary for Joint Defense Assessment (USJDA).
This Department of National Defense is consisted of 4 branches, which are Office of Civil Defense (OCD), National Defense College of the Philippines (NDCP), Government Arsenal (GA), and finally the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP).
The most important branch in this department is the AFP. This branch was after the Second World War. Its function is to secure and protects the country against all kinds of threats- external and internal. It also enhances and pursues activities, which make it the protector of the people and partner of government in promoting national stability and development. It also assists in the maintenance of peace and order and law enforcement activities. Finally it pursues the Self-Reliant Defense Posture (SRDP) Programs to reduce dependence of defense materials and technology from external sources and instead develop a viable defense in accordance with the country’s economic capability. The AFP consists of Philippine Army (PA), Philippine Air Force (PAF), and the Philippine Navy (PN).
This defense system in the Philippines has been under pressure due to an opposition force within the Philippines. The opposition force is considered as a Muslim terrorist group that has been striving for independence, by that the opposition has been doing terrorist attack on the citizens and tourists within the region, the opposition conflict is mostly found in the southern islands. Other opposition groups within the country are the communist parties that strive for control over the country, but the Democratic Party’s strong ties with the US make it difficult for the communist parties to overthrow the Democratic Party. The Philippine population is scattered in several groups, yet the stronger force, which is the Democratic Party, keeps the country stable by its relation with the US.
The DND has been securing peace in the world by sending troops to the Iraqi war and providing security within the Iraqi region. The Philippines has controlled its regions of security within Iraq yet the DND has suffered from a few loses of soldiers. The DND has also tried to get back the Philippine hostages that have been kidnapped by terrorists within the region.
The government has tried to defeat the terrorists or separatists (such communist party) but they did not succeed; yet the government is still trying. Some of the separatists such as the Muslim of the South seek autonomy; have been getting aid from other Muslim countries within the region but the aid is not enough. While separatists such as the communists seek control over the leading party, these separatists have been opposed by the US government which supports the leading democratic party, and yet many Filipino citizens join the communist party because it bring equality between the high and low classes, which the low classes definitely want. Further more the US has aided the Philippine government such as the recent $356 million aid package, which included 30 Huey helicopters, $30 million for counterterrorism equipment and training, $30 million in development assistance and support for peace negotiations with the MILF, and $25 million to fund a combat engineering unit, plus unspecified funds for operations against Abu Sayyaf.
The government has no problems in controlling its army, the army is well disciplined. No cases have been reported to the government on illegal actions of the Philippine army, such as that of the US army in Abu graib. The Philippine government is proud of its army and wishes to defeat any terrorist threat.
Economy: (Yasmeen Dashti)
The Philippines is a developing country. Its monetary system uses the Philippine peso (PHP). The Philippine’s economy traditionally depended heavily on the production of crops and timber. Although today, manufacturing makes a larger contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP).
Since most of the islands contain fertile areas with rich soils that formed from volcanic rocks and since the Philippines is a developing country, agriculture has played a major role in the Philippine’s economy. Agriculture accounts for about a quarter of the GDP. The Philippines produces most of the food needed to feed its entire population. The main food crops are rice and maize. These two crops occupy more than half of the farmland. Other leading food crops include cassava, sweet potatoes, bananas, mangoes, sugar canes, tobacco, coffee, coconuts, etc., which are all grown for local use and for export.
The Philippines is rich in mineral resources and minerals that are important exports. The estimated reserves of copper and nickel are among the richest in the world, though the reserves of iron and gold have declines in recent years. Not only that, but since the Philippines is a huge archipelago, the waters around it contain various kinds of fish that participates in its economy.
Another sector that accounts for about a third of the GDP is manufacturing. The manufacturing of food and beverages is the largest single industry in the manufacturing sector. Major industries of the Philippines produce food, cement, chemicals, cigars, clothing, petroleum products, wood products, etc.
The Philippines cannot produce everything the public needs and so it depends heavily on foreign trade. The value of the nation’s annual trade represents about 50% of the annual GDP. The chief exports are clothing, electrical and electronic devices, food products, chemicals and furniture. The leading imports include machinery, raw materials (petroleum, chemicals), semi-processed materials, and vehicles.
The Philippines was the most developed country in Asia after World War II, but since then it started to get behind other countries because of poor economic growth, government confiscation of wealth, widespread corruption, and neo-colonial influences. Currently, the country has a moderate economic growth, maintained by remittances by its large overseas Filipino workforce and active information technology. However, the Philippine was not severely affected by the Asian financial crisis compared to its neighbors due to the fact that there is a considerable part to remittances of approximately $5 to $6 billion annually from overseas workers.
Despite the considerable economic progress in the last 30 years, many Filipinos is poor compared to neighboring Asian countries. The government estimates that half of the families live at, or below, poverty level.
Due to the Philippines’ economic problems and low employment, it might suffer from a depression yet again. The causes of unemployment and underemployment include rapid growth of the population, lack of skills and the emphasis on capital-intensive rather than labor-intensive industries. If there is underemployment then that will lead to less production of products and then that will lead to Philippines’ economy to fall since its economy mainly depends on manufacturing and industries. Right now, the unemployment rate in the Philippines is 11.7%. However, there are 25.86 million employees in whom 36% work in agriculture, 16% in industry, and 48% in the services sector. Also, the government has a very high debt, a substantial share of foreign obligations, and the weakening in the tax collection performance over the past have years have increased the country’s vulnerability to severe external and domestic problems. Therefore, the government is trying real hard to try and solve these issues; however, it needs foreign aid from nations around the world. The Philippine’s main trading partners are the USA, Japan, Australia, and the European Community.
However, despite agriculture, industry and the services sectors, the Philippines’ main exports aren’t crops or electronics. Its main export is people. Unfortunately, most of these people are illegal workers who mostly work in the Gulf as maids. These maids gain a lot of money and by this money they could feed thousands of people at home. These workers leave their country out of desperation because they don’t have any money and are obliged to work overseas just to gain some money to feed their family back home in the Philippines.
Views on world problems: (Zaid Al Marzooq)
Its strongest relationships are almost entirely with nations who either give it money or hire its workers. Therefore the Philippine has a strong relationship with the US. The representative democracy in the Philippines was modeled on the US’s system. The United States HAD (past tense) maintained and operated major facilities in the Philippines such as at Clark Air Base, Subic Bay Naval Complex, and several small subsidiary installations too.
Unfortunately these relations didn’t last long, the government of the Philippines informed the U.S. on December 6, 1991, that it would have one year to complete withdrawal due a misunderstanding of the US’s offer of staying within the Philippines. That withdrawal went smoothly and was completed ahead of schedule, with the last U.S. forces departing on November 24, 1992. Yet, on September 21, 2001 the Philippines joined the United States and cooperated with it for the war against terrorism. This cooperation led to reconsidering Philippines as one of the US’s current countries on the good list.
A few decades ago the world faced another war, The Gulf War. This war led to the increase of the oil prices. In that time the Philippines faced a conflict, in which the economic income decreased. Further more, IMF, World Bank, and Japanese government stopped loans at that time. In addition due to contracted workers in that region money remittance played a huge role in this conflict, aiding the Philippines through its struggle. The Philippines foreign policy towards that region changed positively, and more workers went to work in that region. Yet, there are some conflicts that occur to Philippine citizens outside the country that the government doesn't take into consideration, such as the case with Singapore due to the threat that they might loose their relations with the country and to get the remittances, which is one of the countries main incomes.
The problems that we face today such as illicit drugs are also a conflict that has not been solved. The Philippines has tried to fight this problem, but international sources state that illicit drug traders have been using the Philippines as trades stop for trading to the western countries.
The problem in Iraq grew and troops were needed and so were labor workers. So the Philippine government assisted the coalition in solving this conflict by sending troops and labor forces, in which protection and help in reconstruction is provided. Yet, the decision to send troops was issued later after the US had already entered Iraq, the reason for this late decision was because the US had already violated the SC decision, and ignored the UN decision, so the Philippine had to consider its relation with other nations too, such as china and Japan. Many problems have faced the Philippines in Iraq such as hostage situations that made some Philippine troops leave Iraq.
The strong ties that the republic of Philippines has with other Asian nations and the Middle East are reflected through the labor force in these nations and the traded goods they share. For example the Japan, which is considered the Philippine’s most important trade partner. The Philippines exports more than 15% of its own exports to Japan, in addition the Philippine’s most important importer is Japan, which covers more than 20% of the Philippine’s imports. Further more the Philippine has over 31 trading ships that belong to Japan, making it the leading foreign trade ship owner in the Philippines. By this relation that they share, the Japan imports their needs from the Philippines, and the Philippines import its needs from Japan. Japan has also assisted in investing money in the Philippines for the construction of factories.
The Philippines is part of ASEAN and cooperates with it in solving different conflicts such energy shortages and needs, in addition to tourism attractions and wastes they leave behind. The Philippines has contributed greatly to ASEAN by successfully providing solutions to the tourism conflict and planning that was held in the Philippines and to the energy conflict that was also held in the Philippines. Yet the Philippine differs from other ASEAN countries in aspects such as foreign labor force and its relationship with the US that has been going on for many years.
History: (Yasmeen Dashti)
The History of the Philippines is the story of a nation of many different groups of people living on more than 7, 000 islands. For most of the country’s history, these groups were geographically isolated from each other. They were separated not by sea, but also by rivers and mountain ranges. The people spoke various languages and developed their own different cultural and social traditions. These groups didn’t become one nation until after the Spanish arrived in the 1500’s. The period of Filipino history before 1521 is known as the pre-Hispanic era.
In the 1500s, the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed to the Philippines in search of a western route to the East Indies. When he arrived to the Philippines at that time nothing was known about the area. Most Philippine communities were fairly small with no strong centralized authority. The community’s authority was spread to various parts such as the headmen, the warriors of the military, and the people who were thought of possessing spiritual powers or magical healing abilities.
Before Magellan arrived to the Philippines, there were many Muslim Filipinos; however, due to the lack of a centralized power, the Spanish were able to convert many Filipinos into Roman Catholicism. Unfortunately it wasn’t that simple. Many historians have claimed that the Philippines peacefully accepted Spanish rule; however, in reality there were many revolutions and rebellions that happened in small numbers in different places all through the Hispanic colonial period.
The legacy of the Spanish conquest and its colonial rules in the Philippines changed many things. The Spanish were very destructive of local religious practices. They systematically destroyed native holy places, statues and representations of native spiritual spirits, gods or goddesses. The Spanish also imposed new moralities on Filipinos by discouraging slave holding, polygamy, gambling, and alcohol consumption in which all were part of the native social and religious practices. Also, at the same time, at the same time, the Spanish rule introduced some European features of Catholic practices.
The Spanish Catholic priests relied on vivid, theatrical presentations of stories of the Bible in order to help Filipinos understand the central messages of Christianity in which this lead to something called a "Holy Week" in which there is a Christ’s martyrdom. Thus, the Spanish rule lasted for 300 years. It began in 1565, when the first Spanish settlement was established in Cebu, and ended in 1898 when the Filipino leader at that time declared independence and established the first Republic of the Philippines. During the time of the Spanish rule, the Spanish introduced a centralized form of government and Roman Catholic Christianity. With Christianity came the abolition of slavery, polygamy and infanticide. Other changes included bringing the Roman alphabet, introducing western music, painting, sculpture, and literature into the islands. The Spanish built schools, churches, and hospitals. Not only that, but they also established roads, bridges, ports, and other public improvements. Furthermore, the Spanish introduced trade with the Americas in which they brought in imported plants and farm animals in order to meet the needs of the colony.
The first Philippine Republic didn’t last long. Due to the importance of the Philippines as a market as well as a stepping-stone to the Chinese market, the US embarked on its new role as an imperialist power that was ready to take the place of the Spanish empire such as Puerto Rico, Cuba and the Philippines. In the face of defeat during the Spanish-American war of 1898, the Spanish governor general to the American forces despite being under blockade by the Filipino revolutionary forces surrendered Manila after a prearranged battle. Spain then gave the Philippines to the US for $20 million in the Treaty of Paris of 1898.
The Philippines was the US’s colony until July 1946 soon after World War 2 which resulted in the occupation of the Japanese imperial forces and the return of the American forces in 1945. In less than 50 years, the Americans were able to accomplish many things that the Spanish failed to accomplish. During these years, the Americans used the power of books instead of swords to make the Philippines the most westernized nation in Asia. During the American colonial rule, schools, churches and the military were built and American teachers introduced education.
By the time the American left, the education of Filipinos was oriented toward American values and the American perspective in world affairs. Education raised the literacy rate of the Philippines to the highest in Asia at that time. Moreover, most people learned to read and write, the death rate dropped, and the presence of new hospitals and clinics helped eradicate diseases and the plague. However, not everything went the way the US planned it to be. The US presence and the worsening socioeconomic conditions led to a near-civil war situation in the late 40’s and early 50’s with the peasant-based communist rebellion. In brief, after the US paid $20 million for the Philippines, America continued to control the Philippines until Japan invaded the country in 1941 during WW2.
After years of Japan occupation, the Philippines was given independence in 1943 in which they established a second republic. Later the nation came under the hands of the US, which lead the Filipino leader at that time to surrender in 1901 and made swore its loyalty to the USA. This was the beginning of a new era in which the Philippines could rapidly start developing.
Furthermore, the Americans also granted Filipinos the right to free trade. They also encouraged foreign investment in the Philippines to improve and develop industry and trade. In 1916, the US Congress passed legislation promising the Philippines independence in condition for the Philippines to establish a stable government. The Philippines gained independence in 1946 from the Americans; however, Japanese occupation of the Philippines from 1942 to 1945 temporarily disrupted the plan to have its own government and rule.
This "independence" in turn encouraged many Filipinos to oppose the Japanese "republic." Today, EVERY Filipino claims he helped the US side. In particular, US commander McArthur was and is a hero to Filipinos, but many helped the Japanese.
Recent History (Saoud Al-Sabah):
In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos WON the presidency election, Marcos was the Senate president at that time. Marcos made rapid changes in the nation's economy; Marcos brought prosperity in the nation's economy. Marcos was supported financially by foreign loans.
The reason that the presidential elections did not take place in 1973 is that Marcos declared martial law in the previous year. That was the start of the major corruption in the Republic of the Philippines politics. A new constitution was written in 1973 that gave Marcos absolute power, Marcos ruled by dictatorship.
The United States of America continued to provide Marcos's government with financial and military aid. The reason that the United States of America kept backup Marcos is that it does not want communists to rule countries; it would prefer dictators to rule than communists. The main reason that the United States of America backed dictators was that it does not want countries to follow the path of the Soviet Union and stand by the Soviet Union. Another reason that the United States of America backed up Marcos is economic and military strategies; the USA would like to have military bases in the Philippines.
In 1981, Marcos ended martial law. In 1986, a presidency election was held and Marcos won the elections, however, the election result was a fraud and the Roman Catholic Church recognized that the election was a fraud. In February 1986, Marcos was overthrown from the presidency and had fled the country. The reason that Marcos fled was that the church recognized that the elections were a fraud, and also the people protested against him and did not want a dictator and a cheater to be their ruler.
Corazon Aquino succeeded Marcos for the presidential elections. Her term in presidency was difficult it suffered many coups that prevented her improving the country's economy. In 1992, Field Ramos was elected president. Ramos's term was marked with great economic and political stability. In 1992, the last U.S military base was closed. In 1998, Joseph Estrada was elected president of the Republic of the Philippines.
The people of the Republic of the Philippines hoped that Estrada would bring prosperity into Philippines politics; however, it turned the exact opposite direction. The term that Estrada served as president was marked of corruption and his corruption infected the politics of the Philippines. Due to corruption Estrada was overthrown from his presidency and his vice president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo took his place. Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo won the presidential elections in May 2004.
The people of the Philippines are looking up to Macapagal with high expectations to recover the corruption that Estrada has created. Macapagal immediately started to eliminate corruption from the Philippines by creating an anti-corruption program. Currently, president Arroyo has been accused of corruption; the main reason is that corruption is too deep in Philippines politics and its almost part of the political culture of the Philippines.
More over, there are differences in the level of people. There is a huge difference in the living of standards of the upper class and lower class; the government likes it that way to get what it wants.
The treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons is a major treaty within the UN and specifically the IAEA. The treaty was signed at London, Moscow, and Washington on 1st of July 1968. The NPT was established to keep the uses of nuclear weapons stable and further encouraging useful methods of using nuclear energy rather than destructive uses, such as WMD. The NPT has encouraged many nations that have joined the treaty to use nuclear energy and dispose their nuclear weapons to decrease the use of it. It also has another organ within it called the safeguard, which has been put under the responsibility of the IAEA to inspect nations for unauthorized nuclear actions. Recently we have seen these inspections in Iraq. Today the NPT has over 188 parties joined including the 8 nuclear weapon states.
The republic of Philippines has taken this issue under hand. The Philippines has recently requested the review of the NPT, by stating that its members, such as DPRK that disagreed with disarming its nuclear arsenal in the beginning have violated the goals of the NPT. Further more, the Philippines acknowledge the fact that there are 8 nuclear states, but request the UN to reconsider reviewing the NPT for the following measures:
1. 1-the NPT was established to stop non-nuclear states from being nuclear states.
2. 2-The NPT was established to decrease the use of nuclear weapons in the nuclear states rather than increasing nuclear weapon technology in the states.
3. Nations that are not part of the NPT are using nuclear warfare, and are not being inspected, such as India, Pakistan, and Israel.
4. Nations such as Iran work on nuclear warfare technology and say that they are creating nuclear energy, even when they have other energy resources, and unfortunately are not being inspected.
5. Nations are selling their nuclear technology such as China to other nations that were recently named as non-nuclear states, such as Libya.
6. People are being educated on the creation of nuclear warfare without considering the fact that they might spread nuclear technology.
7. Uranium enrichment companies are selling uranium the base of nuclear warfare to nations without the UN's supervision.
Nations that are peace loving such as us do not want our neighbors to be one day nuclear states. We now fear that even nuclear material and weapons can be sold through black-market and transported easily.
The Philippines has also witnessed and states that the goals of the NPT are being ignored and are not being taken to consideration. We have seen North Korea, Pakistan, Israel, and India become nuclear states
The Philippines has also witnessed the 5 nuclear states increasing their stockpiles in the recent years rather than decreasing them and improving nuclear weapons technology in a destructive way. The Philippines does not see the NPT doing anything to such matters. This is the responsibility of the NPT, to effectively take these goals under actions. Unfortunately the NPT has weakened, it has once stopped the cold war from being a disastrous nuclear tragedy but can it do it again by stopping nuclear weapons technology, No! The Philippine urges nations not to use nuclear power due to its disastrous effects on nature, and because it will lead to the production of nuclear weapons. The Philippine wishes to live in a peaceful world, one with no nuclear weapons, in other terms nuclear free, such as the nuclear free zones in the world. The Philippine suggests nations such as India, Pakistan, North Korea, and other nuclear states to stop their nuclear weapon development due to its hazardous effects on nature and foreign relations. Nations that are not part of the 5 main nuclear states can be under sanctions or even a war plan, but the problem mainly comes from the 5 SC permanent SC, and nuclear states that are not willing to submit their weapons, thus we, the Philippine, need the NPT to reassure us, non-nuclear states, that these nuclear states shall abide with the NPT.
(1) Reducing Military Budgets in Order to Provide Peace and Security:
In this recent era nations have increased their military budgets rapidly, due to the arms race that is going on between nations. The increase of budgets has contributed to the development of both defensive and offensive systems; it has also been contributed to the development of arms technology. Today the arm race is uncontrollable, political experts have suggested the decrease of military Budgets to provide peace and Security. Nations have not cooperated with such matters; instead they have increased their offensive military budget rather than their defensive. This increase of military budget has lead to the creation of weapons of mass destruction rather than public development, especially in regions such as the Spratley islands.
The Philippines urges nations to reduce military budgets. It thinks that peace can only be established when weapons do not exist anymore, yet they can exist if they are for defensive purposes. The Philippines seeks for a solution that involves researching nations' military budget and allocating it into factors, such as defensive and offensive use. It also seeks solutions that decrease offensive military budgets and monitor defensive systems instead. The Philippines also seeks resolutions that decrease military budgets and use that for aid to needing states.
(2) The Situation in Regions of South America, Including the Role of Drugs, Paramilitaries and Organized Crime
The situation in the region of South America, can be expressed by saying that their has been an increase in poverty in the region, so the region has increased the production of illicit drugs that have been sent or sold almost on every continent. The poverty in the region is due to corruption and low education standards, which has led to the conflict at hand.
The South American region has been notified as the no.1 producer of these drugs. The UN tried to deal the with this issue and came up with the Agreement on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (ASEP), this agreement still exist among many south American countries. In addition the UNCP has created programs to decrease the drug production, this program started by Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru in 1994. Further more there are other nation that have given deep thought to the conflict and have come up with solutions, such as Colombia, which has created its own drug control council that aids the UN in fighting the conflict of illicit drug production. The poverty situation has even led to the creation of organized crime groups that not only search for power by eliminating the more powerful people in the country or city, but also have started to get involved in the illicit trading of drugs. These groups have not yet been overcome, but many efforts have been put in this matter, such as the efforts of the Colombian government in overcoming these organized crime groups.
The Philippines has been noticing this conflict for a long time. South America has influenced the Philippines through language and cultural aspects, but yet this part of the South American culture must be stopped. The Philippines agrees with the fact that poverty is the reason. Philippines also admits that their was a time when the Philippines faced this conflict, yet the government put a lot of effort in overcoming it, with the help of international organization, NGOs, and neighboring countries. The Philippines suggests that nations should join together to overcome this conflict. The Philippine has put in a lot of effort in solving these types of issue not only in South America but in it region, by establishing the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA). This agency has seized $709.6 million worth of illegal drugs, equipment. Of the arrested suspects during the three-year period, 180 were foreign nationals, mostly from South America. In order for nations in that nation to survive or live they need their income from these illegal drugs or they might work as organized crime groups.
The Philippines agrees that organized crimes must be overcame by the Interpol but illegal drugs must be separated, into groups of drugs that can be sold and those that cant because there are nations such Netherlands that legalized drugs but not all types, so the nations in that region can now use drugs as an income legally. While on the other hand Paramilitaries in the Philippines point of view must be banned and hunted down or overcame. We the Philippines have suffered from this with the terrorist group that have been creating these paramilitaries to train their soldiers and attacking innocent citizens. The Philippines also suggests the increase of foreign aid to decrease poverty and make better education systems.
(3) Creation of a UN Army Which Will Remain Independent of Member Control and The Effects Such an Army Might Have:
The UN's peacekeeping troops are troops that are under the control of the UN Security Council. The UN has no yet created an army out of the members' control. The army would replace the peacekeeping troops that have volunteered from many UN member nations. If this army would arise then who will lead it? And what makes the US so sure it won't turn against it or become another superpower? The chance of the UN having an independent army is one out of a hundred. On the other hand this army can replace missions that take place such the war on terrorism.
Philippines disagrees with the UN having an independent army. In Philippine's eyes this army would increase poverty due to the large income needed by the UN to support the army. In addition, if the UN had an independent army would it be a super power, bearing in mind it has the technology needed to create different weapons. This will also cause disputes between UN members allies such as the US with other nations, due to the fact that other members do not need help any more. The Philippines seeks resolutions that increase peacekeeping troops that are aided by member nations and decrease military budgets and increase aid to needing states.
(4) Combating Illegal Trade in Small Arms in South Asia.
Small arms and light weapons fuel civil wars and other conflicts, cause harm to millions of people, particularly in Africa. These small weapons are only part of a larger trade that includes heavier and more lethal weaponry, but light arms are often especially baneful because they are cheap, easy to transport and can be handled by ill-trained rebel soldiers and even children. Recent UN reports show how these weapons are illicitly exported transported with the connivance of government officials in many countries and smuggled into war zones. In some areas, automatic weapons are so cheap they can be bought in exchange for a chicken or a few pounds of rice. Regions such as North of Sri Lanka where armed separatist movement Liberation Tigers of Tamil (LTTE) are illegally smuggling weapons into the country and are causing tension and insecurity to the citizens. In the Jammu and Kashmir region, rebel groups have been smuggling small arms to combat the opposing groups; this has not only increased tension but also made the region insecure for the local citizens of Jammu and Kashmir. Recently the first UN Conference on this issue took place called Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) Conference. There many nations expressed their ideas and visions towards the issue. The UN register of Conventional Weapons and the International Action Network on Small Arms is also great contributor in combating illegal trade of small arms.
The Philippines knows that the source of crime in the region is mostly from the fact that illegal small arms are being smuggled regularly. The Philippines urges the cooperation of the South Asian nations to combat this conflict. The relations of these nations have made it hard for Philippines to combat the conflict. In addition Philippines seek to create an organ than brings all the NGOs and UN organization together to combat the issue. The Philippines is seeking for resolutions that stop or reduce Illegal small arms trade by both law enforcement and monitoring system. Philippine is also seeking for solutions that deal with creating a ban list for companies that their weapons have been found in the region, which were illegally smuggled. Philippine also urges the SC to create quarantine in the region especially in the straits between Sri Lanka and India.
2nd Committee: Ecology & Environment (Ibrahim)
Question of:(1) Combating Poaching in LEDC’s
Poaching is the act of illegal hunting or fishing. The reason why it is made illegal is because the animal is out of season, or the animal is on restricted land, the right to hunt this animal is claimed by the owner of the land, the techniques used are illegal such as battering of the animal and torturing him or using dynamite, or the animal or fish is protected by law. The reason this issue is been taken seriously by the UN and many countries of the world is because organized poaching threatens extinction of some animals. The Problem isn’t really starting to become serious. Almost every month, Chinese fishermen are being caught for fishing endangered turtles. More examples of endangered animal that are being hunted illegally are great apes and elephants. The RP isn’t tolerating this act and is acting quickly. The Philippines will not tolerate any act of poaching. The UN is concerned about this problem because it is causing extinction of some animals. The UN is laying orders and laws that make sure poaching of any king of natural resources and animals illegal
If the UN makes striker laws concerning poaching, the illegal poaching rates surely will decrease. The RP supports this problem and is working on stopping it. Few weeks ago Chinese fisherman were caught fishing endangered turtles, they were directly arrested for poaching violation. The RP plans to commend stricter laws on all poachers it wants to form an organization that provides professional workers that will satisfy the protection of these animals.
(2) Mobilizing and Coordinating the International Response to Environmental Emergencies
Mobilizing and Coordinating the International Response to Environmental Emergencies is the job of the joint UNEP and OCHA. Its main job is to deliver aid to needing countries where an environmental crisis has just strike. It has helped lots of countries during their time of need. Few incidents were action by this organization took place were during the Darfur crisis, Kosovo conflict, Tsunami and Guyana floods. This organization is important because it provides immediate aid to all countries suffering of an environmental problem. Many people are donating money, however, countries that have faced a crisis need materialistic things more then moneys. Such things could be non-expiring food, tents, first aids, doctors, loaders, and emergency transports. The money that is sometimes sent to the country that has faced a crisis sometimes reaches it late. By mobilizing the teams of this organization, immediate response will be available. One of the main reasons why many people died during the tsunami was the delay of help
The UN wants to prepare this unit for immediate action. It hopes all countries could cooperate with this organization. The RP also wants to cooperate with this organization and wants to help in forming an organization whose main mission is to directly react to emergency crisis. During the RP crisis, (tsunami) many countries helped while others didn’t. This Organization will assure this problem that late help won’t occur, because it will have its teams already mobilized in the country with its permission. So when the crisis occurs instant help will be available. The UN with necessary equipment to face the problem will supply this organization.
The RP would like to give suggestions to make this organization better. To begin: it should be directly linked to the Rapid reaction forces so that it can have support if necessary. Second, the workers of this organization should be placed around countries that are suspected of enduring an environmental crisis. Third, the rich part of the world should donate money to help keep this organization supplied with proper gadgets to face the problem. A reminder that these countries aren’t forced to donate.
(3) Combating the Effects of Urban Air Pollution
Temperature of the earth's surface has risen by 0.6 °C since the late 1800s. It is expected to increase by another 1.4 to 5.8 °C by the year 2100. Due to industrialization (the burning of ever-greater quantities of oil, gasoline, and coal, as well as the practice of certain farming methods. This is commonly referred to as (urban) air pollution) the green house gases have increased. This increase of gases are pushing the global temperature to artificially high levels and altering the climate. Besides these effects on the environment, urban air pollution also has serious consequences for public health. Diseases such as lung cancer can be caused by frequent exposure to an environment with heavy air pollution.
The position of the Republic of the Philippines regarding this situation is sort totally against it. The Green Peace group, located at Manila where extremely concerned. The Global warming is affecting the Republic of Philippines economically. A press release clearly showed that the Rice harvest was more affected than first thought by global warming. This incident declined the production rate by 10%. The are many other production that are being affected such as the fruits products. The Republic of Philippines is also concerned about the world a whole. Global warming is causing ice in the north and South Pole to melt. This is causing major floods and other climate related problems
(4) Reducing the Lack of Water in relation to Desertification, Droughts, and Water Shortages
Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas into desert, resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities. Modern desertification often arises from the demands of increased populations that settle on the land in order to grow crops and graze animals. Many believe reducing the lack of water in the world essential to ensuring the long-term productivity of inhabited dry areas. Many organizations the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). These organizations acknowledge the fact that this problem needs many years to solve it.
The RP has know direct relation with this problem however, it directly supports. It is widely believed that one of the causes of the extreme poverty in many developing countries is to be blamed to the sudden lack of water. It is also believed that wrong irrigation can be responsible for sudden droughts. The RP, as a country that depends widely on planting, is sure that some farmers are misusing the water; therefore it needs to have a greater grip over its water supple. However, there are more ways to reduce the lack of water in the world than by financing projects. It is also possible to take measures to avoid desertification. The UNEP and the UNDP believe that desertification can be prevented by educating and supporting mining corporations and farmers in (potentially) dry areas so does the RP.
3rd committee Human Rights Committee Question of: (Yasmeen)
(1) The Situation of Democracy and Human Rights in Belarus
Belarus is a small sized country that is located in Eastern Europe and has Poland in the west. In 2002, the government of Belarus made policies that aimed to crush the political opposition which included NGOs, the independent media, and religious groups, and wanted to isolate the country internationally. After President Alexander Lukashenka won the presidential elections in 2001, the president received numerous criticisms and started the human rights problems in Belarus, which became one of the international concerns by other countries. The president challenged anyone who opposed him. He would basically seek revenge to whoever he thought was a threat to him. For example, he threatened to nationalize the Federation of Trade Unions (FTO) if its leader, Vladimir Goncharik, wouldn’t resign. Gonchanrik was a threat to Lukashenka because he wanted to run against him in the next presidential elections. Also, authorities of the government of Belarus launched criminal libel suits against journalists after a series of tax raids and confiscation of equipment and publications that accompanied the elections of 2001. Moreover, the government also tried to control all parts of social life. The authorities tried to restrict religious freedom, for one. The Parliament made a new law on religion that would ban organized religious activity by communities of fewer than twenty members and would also outlaw religious confessions that have had representation in Belarus for less than twenty years. Not only that, but it also requires the leaders of all religious organizations to be citizens of Belarus and the government would also introduce censorship on religious literature under certain circumstances. Until now, the government persecuted non-Orthodox groups and demolished a whole building that was under the Orthodox group and destroyed their church.
The Philippines is a strong supporter of human rights. It is a peacekeeping country that wants to see peace spread all around the world. The Philippines wants to see significant changes in human rights and wants the violations of human rights in Belarus to end. It feels that everything the government is doing is selfish and is not what the people of the country want. The President should consider democracy and not take drastic actions by himself. If the government wants the people to stop fighting against it, then it should stop making its own decisions that could lead to many deaths. The people are fighting because they are being victimized by the cruel acts of the government. Why should the people suffer because one person is afraid of being in danger? The government should fight for its people and not against its people. The Philippines sees that many people in Belarus are loosing their freedom and rights because of the lack of democracy; therefore, the Philippines wants to see changes and wants to see democracy introduced to the government and to the people. To begin with, the Philippines feels that the first thing the government should do is diminish the laws that restrict religious freedom. The people need their freedom to practice whatever religion they want for as long as they want and they shouldn’t be restricted. Furthermore, the President could return the newspapers and the media to the people. The people need to know what’s going on in the world and around them and they need media to get those kind of news therefore the media should be returned to the people and not be controlled a 100% by the President.
Moreover, the Philippines encourages the international community to take part in helping the people of Belarus recover from the hardship they had to live by under the former restrictions by the President. Also, provide aid to those in need and those who have suffered the most in which they have lost their homes, community, family members, etc. Lastly, the Philippines feels that there should be regular inspections done in Belarus to over-see that no human rights violations are happening and if there are, they should be reported and punishments will be carried out in which there will be direct contacts with the Government and the people with the UN to make sure that laws are being implemented correctly and not violated. Also, human rights education programs could be established for all sectors of the society, especially in law enforcement, prison officials, and the civil society. Philippines will also happily negotiate with other nations other ways into solving the situation of democracy and human rights in Belarus.
2) Effective Prevention and Investigation of Widespread Religious Humiliation of Muslim Detainees.
Ever since 9/11, Muslims and Arabs has been a target for humiliation for many people around the world. For example, young female Muslims are forced to take off their "Hijab" before they even entered their schools. Thousands of Muslims are robbed of their homes, having them live on the streets.
The Philippines believes that torturing people because of their religion is wrong, unless they present a serious threat towards the government and people, and must have serious consequences. These people who humiliate others with no apparent reason shouldn’t be left unpunished. In the Philippines, the government is fighting Muslim groups, but not for no apparent reason or humiliation. The government is fighting these Muslims because they are a threat to its citizens; thus the reason for fighting against the Muslims is merely for defense and not humiliation.
The Philippines urges the world community to act as one in this matter. We must create a program that will identify Muslim criminals from innocent ones. Philippines doesn't support Muslims that threaten nation's security through weapons and other matters, yet it supports those Muslims that significantly supported the nation's decisions. Therefore Philippines urges nations to penalize those that humiliate innocent Muslims, and yet penalize those Muslims that use weapons to threaten civilians.
(3) Solving the Practical Problems Connected to the Insurance of Equal Enjoyment of Civil and Political Rights by Men and Women
According to the principles in the Charter of the UN, "recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and [absolute] rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world. Also, according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, "the ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, as well as his economic, social and cultural rights." When countries enter the UN, they have to sign the UN Charter, thus by signing it they are agreeing to these terms which is to promote a universal respect for human rights and freedom.
The Philippines has various development interventions, which were undertaken in the past years to enable all sectors of society to properly respond to available development opportunities. These were mostly in the form of direct interventions to increase access to basic social services and to improve delivery of services on education, health, nutrition, housing and community development, and social welfare among other things.
Furthermore, at the international level, the Philippines is committed to human development through its active involvement in several international forums such as the World Summit for Social Development, the World Summit Conference on Women. Such involvement helped strengthen the country's cooperation and collaboration with other countries on important social development issues. Also, at the national level, the commitment to human development was reaffirmed with the formulation of the Philippine National Development Plan in the 21St. Century (PNDP) and the Philippine Human Rights Plan (PHRP) which serves as a framework for the formulation and implementation of national policies, legislative measures, programs and projects for vulnerable and disadvantaged groups. The PHRP covers 16 vulnerable sectors, which also include women and children communities. It gives women the participation in the decision making process in all levels as well as full access to education, maternal and child care, health, nutrition and housing services, as well as training facilities. Moreover, the Philippines Plan for Gender Responsive Development (PPGD) is a 30-year perspective framework that pursues full equality and development for men and women. The PPGD is the government's blueprint for gender mainstreaming.
Philippines thinks that women and men should be equal in particular but not all aspects, which mostly include politics and the right to vote. The Philippines discourages any other sort of equality that involves interfering with a nation's culture. For that Philippines seeks resolutions that involve creating an organization that makes sure women are given the right to vote, work, and get involved in politics. Philippines also seeks solutions that involve discouraging any involvement of foreign aid in the matter of civil rights due to the fact that these rights are based on culture and ancestry.
(4) Strengthening the Protection and Monitoring of Human Rights of the Disabled
Unfortunately in our recent day the disabled find themselves with many disadvantages. According to dictionary.com, the disabled are those who are impaired, as in physical functioning. Education, employment, housing, overall buildings and transportation are all facilities that are not fully employed for the disabled people nor are they found all over the countries. Also, it is sad that most employers believe disabled people have mental issues while most do not. Employers often tend to tie between physically disabled people and mental retardation. Thus, making it really hard for disabled people to run and have an independent life of their own. By that, the disabled people do not have all their rights handed to them though it's possible if each country takes this issue in serious consideration. Furthermore, not having their own rights and having trouble to be independent adds more pressure and work for those who live with care and those disabled individuals.
The Philippines has many education programs for both persons with disabilities as well the mentally disabled. The Supreme Court mandates the employment of qualified disabled persons is granted the same terms and conditions of employment as qualified able-bodied employees. Once these disabled persons have attained the status of regular workers, they should be given all the benefits granted by law. This treatment is given not merely on charity or accommodation, but to give justice for all. The PHRP also covers the rights of the mentally disabled persons in which it serves as the overall framework of the CHR's programs and services for the vulnerable sectors in which the CHR performs secretariat functions in the implementation of the PHRP in which it includes the coordination, monitoring and facilitation functions and networking and inter-agency collaboration with government, NGOs and Pos. Also, the Philippines has many accomplishments towards both human rights and the disabled in which it has organized and activated the Sectoral Working Groups (SWG's) that include migrant workers, indigenous peoples, public sector labor, persons with physical and mental disabilities; monitored various legislative, administrative and program measures stated in the Sectoral Plans reveal the following results: 9 new laws covering children, women, prisoners/detainees, disabled, 29 administrative or program measures completed and several on going programs and projects. Furthermore, in 1983 a law was made that provides equal physical access for the disabled to all public buildings and establishment. Also, a law was passed in 1992 that provided "the rehabilitation, self-development, and self-reliance of disabled persons and their [addition to the] mainstream of society." Moreover, the Philippines created an act known as the "Magna Carta for Disabled Person" which grants the rights and privileges for disabled persons in which they are recognizes as part of the Philippine society, the Senate will give full support to the improvement of the total well being of disabled persons, the disabled have the same rights as other people to take their proper place in society, the rehabilitation of the disabled persons is the concern of the government in order to foster their capability to receive a more meaningful, productive and satisfying life, etc.
The Philippines recognizes that the disabled are part of the society and must have equal rights as those that are well being persons. Thus, the Philippines sees that the "Magna Carta for Disabled Person" be implemented in other nations or at least some of what is said in it in which it includes providing health services, rehabilitation programs, job opportunities, training for disabled persons, educational programs as well as grants and support, provide public services to disabled persons, provide special training programs to developed their skills, provide special educational classes that help the disabled such as the deaf, blind, and mentally retarded. Also, there should be no discriminations since the disabled are people just like the normal person. Moreover, implement the objects of the World Program of Action concerning Disabled Persons in which its objects are to promote effective measures for the prevention of disability, rehabilitation and the realization of the goals in the full participation of disabled persons both social life and developments, as well as equality among everyone.
Since the situation of the disabled persons is closely related with the overall development of the persons to the national level, thus, there should be an establishment of international economic command in which it is important to have a flow of resources to developing countries. As well as work with other international organizations such as WHO, ILO, UNICEF, UNESCO, the Trust Fund, UN Development Program, etc.
4th Committee: Social, Humanitarian and Cultural
(1) The Improvement of the Relations between the Islamic and the Western World (Saoud)
Currently in the world we live in today, the Islamic words are tagged with the label called terrorism. After September 11Th., 2001, the entire Western World changed its view regarding the Islamic world. The reason is that the terrorist group that committed the attacks was Muslim, hence, the Western World linked the religion to terrorists. At the moment, ties between the Western World and Islamic world are tense and shaky due to the terrorist activities done by Muslims; however, not all Muslims are terrorists
The Philippines agrees with the western nations that the Islamic nations are not taking enough effort to solve the problem of terrorist in their religion's name. The Republic of the Philippines encounters same terrorist acts by Abu Sayyaf terrorist group that are Muslims. The Republic of the Philippines would like to point out the terrorism is not Islam, and Islam is not terrorism. There are some Muslim groups that commit terrorist acts. The Republic of the Philippines emphasizes that the religion of Islam is a peaceful religion, however, the international community should not give it much freedom because the terror groups will commit more terrorist attacks and claim that Islam is responsible for the attack. Moreover, the Republic of the Philippines suggest the western nations must cooperate with Islamic nations in order to understand the true meaning of Islamic religion and to solve the terror problem. The Philippines further suggests that an awareness program to be developed in western nations to teach civilians the true meaning of Islam and that Islam is not a terror religion.
(2) The Oppression of Religious and/ or Ethnic Minorities (Saoud)
In some nations that have religious governments such as Iraq which has oppressed the Kurds, and Italy oppresses the Albanians. The most people that get oppressed are illegal immigrants in other countries. Mostly because they have no rights by law, which lets people, oppress them because of their religions, race, or origins. And many people Philippines working in other countries are as well oppressed. In the world that work in other nations and get oppressed because of there religions.
The Philippines is worried about the work in other countries that might be oppressed by their employers. That is why this issue is very important to Philippines to help the UN solve this issue. Many Filipinos in other nations are beaten up if there work is not good enough; some starve for not being a specified religion, or a specified race, or minority. The Republic of the Philippines believes that religious groups have the rights of practicing their religion but to a certain limit. The limit is that they do not create violence or tensions in the society, and if they do commit terrorist acts therefore they must face the consequences charged.
(3) The Protection of Folklore and Traditional Knowledge(Zaid)
The families', tribes', and clans' folkore or traditions in nature and their traditional knowledge that is used in their daily life is being threatened by exploitation and other prejudicial actions. In the this long lasting conflict the leading roles played were by WIPO and UNESCO which offered a set of Provisions for National Laws on the Protection of Expressions of Folklore Against Illicit Exploitation and Other Prejudicial Actions.
A few years ago the Philippine was applauded by the UNESCO for its tremendous efforts on the conflict at hand. Some of the Philippines ideas that were presented to the UNESCO were:
Extend cooperation and support for national initiatives for awareness-building including through discussion, debates, seminars.
Institute studies and projects for in-depth study of these issues relating to protection of folklore and traditional knowledge.
Initiate steps for development of a sui generis form of binding legal protection at national and international levels for the protection of traditional knowledge and folklore, taking into account the technological, legal, social, cultural and commercial developments which have taken place since the Model Provisions for National Laws on the Protection of Expressions of Folklore Against Illicit Exploitation and Other Prejudicial Actions.
Establish a Standing Committee on Traditional Knowledge and Folklore within both WIPO and UNESCO to facilitate the process of establishing legal protection of folklore and traditional knowledge. The Standing Committee will, inter alia, implement Recommendation 3 above, and facilitate and fund intra- and inter-regional consultation on the protection of traditional knowledge and folklore.
(1) Increase WIPO-UNESCO cooperation in providing assistance to developing countries in the form of: (a) legal and technical assistance, (b) specialized training in identification, documentation and conservation of folklore and traditional knowledge. (c) provision of necessary equipment and other financial resources.
These ideas were stated to be a useful guidance for further work in addressing the protection of traditional knowledge and folklore. Philippines seeks any resolution with the fact of protecting the folklore and traditional knowledge through regulation and strengthening the UNSECO.
(4) The Provision of Protection to Asylum-seekers in Destination Countries (ZAID)
For a long time Asylum-seekers or in other words refugees have been moving from country to country, and yet they seek protection and find more murder, poverty, and disease. These refugees run away from problems such as war, disease, famine, and corruption. When these refugees run away they are placed in shelters provided by the UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, which is unfortunately not quiet effective due to the fact the wide spread of refugees. Many of these refugees are located in Africa which had their rights abused especially in Sudan. The Refugee Unit in the Department of Justice determines which asylum seekers qualify as refugees. Philippines allowed approximately 1,800 asylum seekers from Vietnam to remain in the country. All had been precluded from refugee status. Most live on Palawan Island or in major urban areas. There was significant popular support, particularly from the Roman Catholic Church, for allowing permanent residency for those asylum seekers who do not wish to repatriate and are ineligible for resettlement in other countries. The Government continued to encourage voluntary repatriation of such asylum seekers but has not ruled out forcible repatriation. During the year, an estimated 80,000 Philippine citizens were deported from Malaysia. The Government protested the treatment of thousands of these persons who had been confined in camps in Sabah, Malaysia, while awaiting deportation and assisted in their return by providing naval vessels. Several children died of disease en route. The Government provided the deportees with food, shelter, and, in some cases, medical care following their arrival in the country.
Philippines stands with the protection of these asylum seekers, and asks the UN to increase its efforts in providing their necessities. The Philippines also recommends nations to support the UN convention on refugees and wishes the creation of suborganziation in which the UN convention on Refugees can function more efficiently and precisely. The Philippines also urges the UN in strengthening the current UN convention on refugees by providing and increase of budget and equipment. The Philippines seeks resolution in which rights of these asylum seeks are protected from human right abuses. It also seeks solutions with nations donating food and other types of aid.
Question of: (Saoud) (1) The Tensions between the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan
The tensions between the two countries China and Taiwan heated up from the early 1950’s. China is located in eastern Asia and Taiwan is declared by the Philippines as a rogue state. The issue is that Taiwan wants to gain independence from china, while China declares that Taiwan is its own property. After the break of the Korean War, U.S president Truman sent the 7th fleet into Taiwan to prevent any Chinese attack on the nation; the U.S provided the island with money and military support to reduce communist expansion within Asia.
During 1996, the tensions between China and Taiwan increased when China fired test missiles at Taiwan. The tensions even increased when Hong Kong was handed over to China in 1997. Taiwan started keeping its military active to protest and stand against any Chinese attack.
In 1999, President Lee of Taiwan put the tensions at the maximum when he stated that China and Taiwan had good relationships. This statement angered Beijing because it meant that Taiwan has total state sovereignty.
The current updates are really heating up the tensions, where China will introduce an anti-secession law into its parliament. If the anti-secession law is passed within the parliament, it means that Taiwan cannot get its independence from China. However, China warns Taiwan that if it tries to gain independence, China will use power against Taiwan to stop it from getting independence. China will allow Taiwan to have independence but will be legally a part of China.
The position of the Philippines is very critical at the moment, because its location is critical and dangerous to the situation. If a nuclear bomb explodes it may be the end of the Philippines forever. The Philippines will support any decision that will not cause any kind of tensions to increase between the two parties and to prevent war.
(2) The situation in Sudan:
Since the year of 2003, the country of Sudan has been under the spotlight of the rest of the world. The situation in Sudan is currently severe, and especially the current situation of Darfur in the west of Sudan. The current crisis conflict of Darfur has stolen the attention of the international community. The scene of Darfur has become a truly bloody scene since the year of 2003. The rebellion groups, mainly the Sudanese Liberation Army and the Justice and Equality Movement, started opposing the Sudanese National Army. The two rebellions have accused the government of oppressing non-Arabs in favor of Arabs. Since then, the two sides have been in constant battles resulting in major bloodsheds in the region of Darfur. Many believe it became a major genocide location.
The main victims of this crisis are the civilians of the Darfur region. Millions of civilians have fled their destroyed homes to the nearest refugee camps near the region of Darfur. Moreover, other than security, starvation has become another concern to the people of Darfur. It is estimated that up to the next 2 years, food shortages could lead to a number of 4 million people.
The position of the Republic of the Philippines regarding this situation is sort of neutral. However, the Republic of the Philippines wouldn’t want the crisis to continue or would want Darfur to gain its independency and be a country be its own. The reason that the Republic of the Philippines doesn’t want that to happen, is that it doesn’t want to trigger the world's attention of the situation occurring in the southern region of the Philippines. The Republic of the Philippines believes that humanitarian and security aids are essential to be a key part in solving this crisis.
(3) The Situation in Afghanistan and its Implications for International Peace and Security
Since the last decade, it can be said that Afghanistan has not been in any type of stability. The only sector that improved in Afghanistan is democracy; however, the security, educational, economical, and health measures are in serious harms. Since the overthrow, of the Taleban regime, democracy took place in Afghanistan, yet, the resistance of the Taleban resistance and Al Qaeda terrorist group are causing great security harm. Therefore, with security measures at risk in Afghanistan the economic field will be greatly affected. With the economy of Afghanistan mainly based on farming, the people have only enough sources to feed themselves. With security and military unrest the economy has been affected greatly. With security and military unrest, the health concern in Afghanistan is high. There are not enough medical to content the peoples needs. The educational sector in Afghanistan is severely low. The literacy in Afghanistan is estimated to 36%, and that is really low.
The Republic of the Philippines stands firm by any decision taken by the United Nations to improve the security, economical, health, and educational measures in Afghanistan. Moreover, it would support any decision that will be for the benefit of Afghanistan.
(4) Providing the UN with a More Powerful Mandate
The issue of providing the United Nations with a more powerful mandate has been raised several times before. This issue means that to give the United Nations a more total authority or command. However, this issue has been raised several times and failed. The issue has failed several times because some countries do not want any other party to take control of its army or another sector. Moreover, providing the United Nations with an army is a risky matter. It is risky because there are some procedures and voting on topics in the United Nations that are sort of biased. Hence, the decision that passes may harm several countries and those countries will victims of injustice. Furthermore, if countries provide the United Nations with an army it may shift from being an organization that solves its problems with diplomacy to a violent organization.
The Republic of the Philippines firmly rejects any idea of giving the United Nations a more powerful Mandate. The Republic of the Philippines will not allow any party to control its army or any section in its country. In addition, the Republic of the Philippines would never want to be a victim of injustice or see any country be treated with injustice. Moreover, the Republic of the Philippines believes that the United Nations has enough resources to perform its tasks.
Defines small arms and light weapons (SALW) as a weapon that a person can easily transport and fire, It describes personal weapons such as pistols, rifles, grenades, grenade launchers, mortars and machine guns, Small arms find a variety of uses including police and military uses, hunting, personal protection, crime, civil war and sports shooting,
Notes that, according to International Action Network on Small Arms "South and Central Asia" issue, that there are over 75 million firearms in South Asia, 63 million of which are in civilian hands, India and Pakistan overwhelmingly account for most of the weapons (40 million), while civilians in Nepal and Sri Lanka own an additional 23 million weapons,
Taking Note that, According to BBC "Foreign aid" issue, that Motaku Shipping Agency and the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), are on the UN leading ship donators,
Noting with regret that, according to Sri Lanka Ministry of the Interior, that over 20,000 unregistered civilian stockpiles are estimated to exist in Sri Lanka,
Notes that, according to the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) "Prospects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia" issue, the UN observers have been collecting data on small arms in the South Asian region with the cooperation of United Nations Military Observer Group (UNMOG) and the Security Council,
Bearing in mind that, according to global policy "small arms and light weapons" issue, that the UN SALW conference, UN Register of Conventional Weapons, International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA), and Interpol are the leading international organs that combat illegal use of SALW,
Recognizing that, according to Federation of American Scientists (FAS) "The Global Threat of Small Arms and Light Weapons" issue, that UN Register of Conventional Weapons trained a group of governmental experts that investigated the proliferation of small arms and light weapons,
Bearing in mind that, according to institute of peace and conflict studies "Small Arms and the Security Debate in South Asia" issue, that the flooding of the Pakistani market in weapons due to the cold war and the Afghani war, spilled over into the society of Kashmir,
Further Notes that, according to International Action Network on Small Arms "South Asia Small Arms Network" issue, nearly 4500 illicit fire arms have been seized from terrorist and criminal gangs in the past 10 years and almost 75,000 people (33% civilians) have been killed in the Jammu & Kashmir region,
Further Defines that, according to The American Society of International Law "Insights" issue, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe only pan-European security organization,
1. Resolves the creation of an agency called the South Asian Small Arms control which will be considered as a main organ of the UN Programme of Action on Small Arms, that shall: A. have a main headquarters in Mumbai, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka, B. consist of South Asian UN members and other UN members willing to cooperate, C. A president, will be elected by the members of the SASAC, D. Have a biannual meeting in each of the headquarters to discuss: i. Improvements to be done on the conference and agency, ii. New methods to decrease small arms, iii. The data on the current situation presented by the research and investigation committee; E. Have a research and investigation committee that shall: i. Consist of 10 SASAC superior researchers and investigators from UN Register Panel of Experts and cooperative IANSA researchers, ii. Be provided with the latest investigation technology from the SASAC, iii. Collect data from current UN Observers and other NGOs in the region on the condition of situation based on their estimate of illegal small arms in the region, iv. Present the most important areas in the region suffering from illegal small arms trade based on the estimates presented by the UN Observers and NGOs;
2. Declares that the SASAC shall identify the manufacturers of the illegal small arms found in the regions recognized, with the support of UN Register, IANSA, and OSCE and create a black list with all the manufacturers, which will, A. Be publicized in the media through TV broadcasting, Interpol media press, major Internet websites, and radio broadcasting, i. Publicizing the manufacture black list shall be aided by NGOs specializing in spreading blacklists, B. Be renewed every 4 months depending on the number of manufacturers on the black list, i. As the manufacturers on the black list increase the black list will be publicized longer, ii. When the black list is renewed the current or new data will be put in place by the research and investigation committee, c. Refer the illegal small arms' manufacturers, on the black list, to the Security Council or to their UN member nations for penalization
3. Calls upon the SASAC to create mobile conference based on the UN SALW, that shall move within the region, for the purpose of eliminating the ideology that small arms are needed by civilians, and urge member states to decrease small arm manufacturing and increase public development, A. The conference shall be invited by needing states of the region; B. Local UN observers, NGOs, and local head of state shall provide the SASAC conference with the data, C. The conference shall include UN SALW experts, and NGO, IANSA specialists, D. The conference shall establish the conference for a period of 1 week in every state and more if necessary depending on the SASAC members, E. Create an incentive package that will consist of tangible aid requirements and an increase in foreign aid in exchange for South Asian nations' police or citizens, based on which one of them further decreases small arms, i. The information shall be given by the local police about both the citizens' and the police's small arms in the area with evidence, which will then be negotiate by the SASAC with the cooperation of UN observer data and UN analysis for accuracy, ii. If both sides show tremendous decrease of small arms then, with the analysis of UN observers and permission of the SASAC, they will both get the increase of foreign aid, iii. If no decrease has been spotted by neither the citizens nor the police, the SASAC shall request the Security Council to decrease foreign aid;
4. Requests implementing a quarantine in the Palk Straits of South Asia, to stop illegal small arms from entering the region and: A. Request the aid of UN members in increasing the security facilities of the straits, B. Create an inspection group by the SASAC that will: i. Inspect ships moving across the straits for small arms, ii. Be aided with inspection ships by RAN, Mutako agency, and cooperating nations of the region, iii. Be based in the straits harbors for necessary ship maintenance and increase security on small arm investigation, iv. Cooperate with local police to penalize illegal traders of small arms, v. Send illegal small arms to the research and investigation committee for identification, vi. Cooperate with the local police to penalize illegal traders of small arms, and all traders of small arms too after the quarantine has been implemented, C. Uncooperative nations in the region shall be referred to the Security Council and be publicized on the blacklist with manufacturers, D. Request the assistance of SC, if necessary, to enforce the quarantine.
Human Rights Resolution: Country: Republic of the Philippines Commission: Human Rights Issue: Strengthening the Protection and monitoring of Human Rights of the Disabled
Defining that according Disabled Person International (DPI), disability is the functional limitation within the individual caused by physical, mental, or sensory impairment,
Noting that according the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, over 600 million people (10% of the world’s population) have a disability of one form or another in which 400 million of them are in developing countries,
Congratulating the USA for its part in working to help disabled persons enjoy equal opportunities with normal persons according to the Least Restrictive Environment law passed in 1996,
Taking into account the emergence of organizations of disabled persons all over the world and their positive influence on the image and conditions of persons with disability according to a publication by UNESCAP,
Noting with regret that according a major report published by the Open Society Institute and the Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities, many people with learning disabilities are being excluded from schools and jobs because of lack of resources and training especially in third world countries,
Recalling that according to resolution 37/52 adopted in 1982 by the GA, the purpose of World Program of Action Concerning Disabled Persons is to "promote effective measures of disability, rehabilitation and the realization of the goals of ‘full participation’ of disabled persons in social life and development, and of ‘equality’,"
Draws the attention to the fact that according to the UN Economic and Social Development council, not many countries are able to reach the World Program of Action Concerning Disabled Persons, especially developing countries because lack economic, medical and other related services to help these people with disabilities,
1. Calls for the implementation of the World Program of Action Concerning Disabled Persons;
2. Resolves the creation of a sub committee called the UN Disabled Persons Program (UNDPP) under the UNHCHR who will: A. Have members of different UN countries participating in this program who are going to: i. Include members that are part of the UNCHR, ii. Meet every 6-10 months to discuss improvements that might help the disabled, iii. Review reports that will be written by the governments themselves and/or specialized personnel in that country to make sure that everything is being done to help the disabled; b. Implement the World Program of Action Concerning Disabled Persons in which it will work in the following developing countries that are going to be chosen by the members of the UNDPP not according to political affiliation but according to those countries who meet these conditions: i. Who have disabled persons in their country, who are in need of help in their economical and social life, ii. Who do not have enough resources and training to implement this program in which they need foreign aid;
3. Further Resolves that the UNDPP will work side-by-side with UN and international organizations in which specialized personnel will carry out the needed operations to reach the objectives of this program in which: A. the UNESCO who will be responsible for: i. Ensuring that the disabled are provided with quality education and plenty of opportunities in developing their skills, ii. Making sure that the country is making all necessary actions to make sure that education is accessible to all disabled persons and make it illegal for any learning institution to deny admission to the disabled, iii. Providing financial assistance to qualified disabled students who are pursuing their dream of wanting to get an education in which this assistance may include scholarship grants or student loans in both public and private institutions, iv. Establishing and maintaining adequate educational programs for the deaf, blind, mentally retarded persons, and any other exceptional children in all religions; B. The ILO (International Labor Organization) will be responsible for: i. Using inexpensive local resources to ensure vocational rehabilitation and occupational safety measures; C. The WHO and UNICEF who will be responsible for: i. Providing measures that will help support maternal and child health services, ii. Providing health education and disease control, iii. Preventing disability by early diagnosis of disability, immunization, nutrition, environmental protection, and genetic counseling, iv. Providing medical treatment and rehabilitation; D. The FAO who will be responsible for: i. Providing the improvement of nutrition; e. The World Bank who will be responsible for: i. Providing economists, ii. Financing development projects involving disability components such as education, health care, infrastructure, and employment,
4. Strongly urges that the UN system to: A. Make all its facilities such as education, jobs, etc., available to the disabled, B. Encourage the employment of the disabled in various UN organizations and/or have job centers that are directly funded by the UN for disabled persons to work in those job centers, C. Have the disabled working in various job levels such as general managers, assistant managers, workers, etc.;
5. Proclaims that this program is based on voluntarism of countries who want to participate to help its people get the betterment out of life by allowing various UN organizations to help the disabled in their country;
6. Further urges all nations to provide a free data exchange regarding the situation of disabled persons and to want to help the disabled persons and in improving their way of living.
Delegation: Italy Commission: Human Rights Question of: The Situation of Democracy and Human Rights in Belarus
Noting with deep regret that, according to the Human Rights Watch (HRW), the actions by the government continued its crackdown on the opposition, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), the independent media, and religious groups causing the citizen life to demolish in Belarus,
Fully alarmed that, according to HRW, the events of September 11 and their aftermath again pushed Belarus far from the international spotlight,
Keeping in mind that many nations in the United Nations Security Council suggested imposing sanctions on Belarus including the USA and many of the European countries,
Deeply Regressing that, according to HRW, many citizens in the area suffered from the civil unrest like series of tax raids and confiscation of equipment and publications that accompanied the election campaign in 2001, causing the Belarusian authorities moved to a new level of intimidation of the media by launching criminal libel suits against journalists,
Deeply Disturbed that, according to HRW, an example of the disputed election is the situation of one of Lukashenka's major opponents, former Prime Minister Mikhail Chigir, was sentenced in July 2002 to three years in prison for tax evasion, with the execution of the sentence postponed for two years, and in 2001 the government had prevented Chigir from running for president by launching politically motivated charges of abuse of office and imprisoning him,
Bearing in Mind that, according to http://www.belarus-misc.org/bel-crisis.htm, some of the "Disappeared" Belarusian Leaders & Media Representatives are: Belarusian opposition activist and former Interior Minister, General Yury Zakharenko on May 7, 1999, Opposition leader Viktor Hanchar (Gonchar) and his associate Anatoly Krasovsky disappeared on September 16, 1999, Press photographer for Russian Public Television (ORT), Dmitry Zavadsky has been missing since his kidnapping at the Miensk airport on July 7, 2000. Zavadsky had been previously jailed in August, 1997,
Expressing Its Satisfaction at Georgia for, according to the information on the encyclopaedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_presidential_election%2C_2004, having a successful re-election procedure after a dispute in the previous elections, this lead to a successful re-formation of the government, the election was successful because of the efforts of the UN election monitors that proved their importance to make any fraud public,
Having studied many governments have passed in similar situation where the government have been accused of winning a disputed election, like the Republic of Philippines, when Marcos (ex-president) was force by the people to end his presidency after a disputed election, Georgia, and the Ukraine,
Expressing Its appreciation to the UN sub-organization under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs which serves as the Focal Point for Electoral Assistance Activities, called The United Nations Electoral Assistance Division (EAD) and its action in support for national election observers was provided in Mexico in 1994 and 1997, Ethiopia and Kenya in 1992 and subsequently provided to support the international observation of elections in Niger (‘93), Lesotho (‘93), Malawi (‘93 & ‘94), Tanzania (‘95), Armenia (‘95), Azerbaijan (‘95), Sierra Leone (‘96), Mali (‘97), Algeria (‘97),
Approving that Belarusian Government believes that the election won was a fair election, and that they were elected by the people of Belarus, They also do not find it necessary to run another election,
Noting with Regret that there are many other violations in Belarus some can be found on http://www.hrw.org/wr2k3/europe4.html, and the situation must be improved as soon as possible;
1. Urges Belarus to cooperate and allow the actions described further in this resolution to take place in Belarus;
2. Calls upon the use of EAD, after the approval of Belarus, to first: A. deploy a major branch in Belarus, B. begin the procedure of re-electing the government of Belarus in actions described further in the resolution, C. initiate the process of democratic elections by: i. using experts from the UN in the field of democratic elections, ii. monitoring the process from all aspects to avoid fraud by, but not limited to: 1. security cameras in voting booths, 2. security guards to monitor/handle any mistreatments or illegal actions, 3. any other way chosen by EAD iii. sending inspectors to inspect and insure the smooth flow of the procedures, d. have its workers/inspectors/experts selected by the UN to avoid any misemployment;
3. Encourages that EAD to make sure the elected government will properly carryout the specified tasks of a government, and approve any laws, decisions made to make sure it agrees with human rights;
4. Further urges the newly elected government to deal with any human rights violations and freedoms by, but not limited to: A. invalidate the law that limits the freedom of media, B. give a fair trial to criminals, and free all innocent convicts convicted by the previous government should be released after proven innocent by court, C. allow public protests, D. enhance the security in the Belarus, E. employ experienced counclers to advise the government in making difficult laws;
5. Calls upon Belarus and all concerned states to cooperate and take serious actions to improve the situation in Belarus as this organization will serve Belarus and the situation in Europe to great deals if the Government of Belarus agrees to this resolution including: A. Offering reasonable financial aid to Belarus to help re-construct and compensate any effected side, B. Requesting to increase World Bank and IMF loans, C. Suggesting Belarus for the SC as a non-permanent member, D. Improving the human rights record in Europe;
6. Requests the Security Council, in case Belarus refuses to allow the organization to work at any time, to give permission to intended sides to enter and work on the situation of human rights in Belarus, seeing that the country violates many human rights and human freedoms, in ways described further in this resolution.
Commission: Social Delegate: Bader al Omairi Issue: Maintaining Cultural Sites
Expecting UNESCO maintains world heritage sites;
Expressing its appreciation to UNESCO for maintaining 812 different properties;
Fully Believing that UNESCO should also research and maintain cultural and folklore traditions, that might be useful in the near future;
Deeply concerned that with the loss of forests to logging will lose the habitat and the culture will be lost with it;
Noting with deep concern In this sense, various forms of folk arts such as folk literature, folk songs and dances, and crafts, always struggle for existence on the fringes of mainstream society;
Deeply disturbed that Folklore scholarship has focused on cultural loss, decline of language and oral histories;
1. Calls upon all nations to create a sub organization of UNESCO to research and document cultural and folklore traditions called UNCFP ( UN cultural and folklore preservation) and it will be maid up of : A. President to report to the UN every month about its progress. B. The field agents will consist of cultural scientists and a translator in foreign areas C. Main bass in New York and it will have other based in other counties that will be decided after the resolution passes,
2. Considers that its main objective to research and document any information found or used in a culture as well as: A. publish useful scienctific and medical traditions used B. publish about any lost cuture found C. publish facts/true folklores as well as meaning
3. Further declares that it will fund nations by the conditions of: A. if the country joins B. has no research center in place to preserve their tradtion C. has problems with other issue that interact with this such as: i. terrorism ii. moderninzation iii. unstable government
4. Encourages nations to cooperate and agree to allow UNCFP to aid their research and peraservation of tradtions,
Security Council clauses: Mays Abdul-aziz
Issue (1): The Tensions between the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan:
1. Resolves that a conference to be held sponsored by ASEAN that will: A. Consist of: i. All ASEAN members, ii. China and its provinces, iii. The other 4 permanent Security Council members as observers to the conference, B. Taking place in Manila, C. Have goals of: i. Increasing trade between the ASEAN members and China and its provinces, ii. Discussing economic issues between all parties present and try to solve them by cooperation between the parties, iii. Signing a trade agreement treaty between the ASEAN members and China and its provinces that will be outlines as following: a. China to decrease the number of missiles targeting at the Taiwanese province, b. Will propose a trade alliance between ASEAN and China and its provinces, c. Will exchange technology that will help in more efficient production means between ASEAN members and China and its provinces, d. Creating a free trade zone between ASEAN members and China and its provinces, e. Will have a semiannual meeting between ASEAN members and China and its provinces, f. Will propose an exchange of personal experience between ASEAN members and China and its provinces in regards for economic development, g. To create a training program for personals in the economic field between ASEAN and China and its provinces, iv. Having China disarm its missiles targeted at the Taiwanese province in exchange of: a. Getting the permission from ASEAN to drill oil from the Spratley Islands, b. To become an active member of ASEAN;
Issue (2): The situation in Sudan:
Defines according to http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/su.html, the Darfur region is located in the southern area of Sudan,
Noting that accorging to http://www.darfurinfo.org/bbc.html, that the Sudanese government didn’t take much action in order to solve the problem,
Disturbed by the fact according to http://www.cbc.ca/story/world/national/2004/10/16/darfur041016.html, that the death toll of refugees in the region of Darfur has reached 70,000,
Taking note that according to http://www.cbc.ca/story/world/national/2004/10/16/darfur041016.html, WHO says at least 10,000 people a month are dying from disease,
Deeply disturbed according to http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4289924.stm, hundreds of houses are burnt by militia's in the region of Darfur,
1. Resolves the establishment of an oil for peace program in the region of Darfur that will: A. Create a program with the following specifications: i. Assign Paul Volcker as the head of the program, ii. Appoint oil drillers and the number of the oil drillers will be determined by the United Nations Secretary General, iii. Appoint engineers that are specialized in oil drilling and the number of engineers will be determined by the United Nations Secretary General, iv. Appoint economic experts and the number of economic experts will be determined by the United Nations Secretary General, v. Appoint political experts and the number of political experts will be determined by the United Nations Secretary General, vi. Appoint legal attorneys that will be appointed by the United Nations Secretary General, vii. Appoint heavily armed United Nations obserevers and their number will be determined by the United Nations Secretary General, B. The cell will have tasks of: i. Ensuring peace in the Darfur region by distributing oil in return of peace for the following parties: a. The Sudanese government, b. Rebels in the Darfur region, c. Countries that contribute to the program, ii. The distribution of oil between the three parties will be arranged by forming a committee from economic experts that will determine the percentage of oil revenue to be given to the three parties, C. Establishing a Darfur Fund in the program that will: i. Collect money from receiving donations, fundraising activities sponsored by the program, and by creating marathon runs that will be sponsored by the program, ii. Collect money only for humanitarian needs, health measures, and helping the refugees, iii. Send the money collected to the United Nations that will distribute the money to NGO's and United Nation's agencies working in the area of Darfur, iv. Sending heavily armed United Nations observers into the region of Darfur, v. Give the Sudanese government and the rebels in the region of Darfur 6 months to implement peace in the region since the start of the program and if the peace is not implemented then: a. The legal attorneys will sue the Sudanese government or the militias if they did not implement peace, b. Have sanctions on the Sudanese government of peace is not implemented and file legal charges against the militia's, c. Send in United Nations troops into Darfur to disarm the rebels by any necessary means if the rebels did not implement peace and will locate the rebels with the help of the Interpol, vi. Deduct the amount of oil revenue to the party that does not implement peace or uses the act of violence, D. Will close down when the crisis ends and that will be determined by the head of the program, E. Will have its headquarters based in Geneva, Switzerland;
2. Resolves the formation of a UN sub organization under the WHO called the UNOHCD ( United Nations Organization for Health Concerns in Darfur), the UNOHCD will: A. Consist of: i. 500 UN Peacekeeping troops, ii. Doctors that are experts in different fields in medicine, and the doctors, and the number of doctors will be chosen by the UN Secretary General and his advisors, B. Have a headquarter in Geneva, C. Have the mission(s) of: i. Studying the health concerns in the region of Darfur by: a. The formation of an authority that will study the health concerns in the region of Darfur, and send the collected data to the main WHO headquarter that will provide the required amount of medication needed and send it to the UNOHCD that will distribute the medical aid, ii. Distribute the medication needed to the people in need of medical care with the help of the UN Peacekeeping troops, iii. Training Sudanese nurses and doctors to perform operation and medical care for the people that have serious health deteriorations, D. The UNOHCD will close down when the crisis ends and if it is successful a similar organization will open in other regions where there are health crisis's ;
3. Resolves the formation of a UN sub organization under the UNHCR ( United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) called the UNROD ( United Nations Refugees Organization in Darfur) and the UNROD will: A. Have a headquarters in Geneva, B. Will consist of: i. 500 UN Peacekeeping troops, ii. Contractors chosen by the UN Secretary General and his advisors based on their experience and professionalism, iii. Engineers chosen by the UN Secretary General and his advisors based on their experience and involvement in building refugee camps, C. Have a mission(s) of: i. To analyze and determine the required amount of construction needed in the region according to the information sent to the organization from NGO's, ii. To construct refugee camps based on the data that they have collected, iii. Rebuilt villages that have been devastated with the permission of the United Nations, D. The UNROD will close down when the crisis ends and if it is successful a similar organization will open in other regions where there are devastated regions in result of combat ;
General Assembly Opening Speech
Honorable Chair, fellow delegates, and most distinguished guests.
"lahat"(peace to you all) from The Republic of the Philippines, The land of paradise, where even beaches, oceans and mountains are all at your doorstep. Ah ah! Perceive the crystal clear water cooling your face as you dive in the Celebes Sea.
Unfortunately delegates, it will not last long if Abu Sayyaf and Al Qaeda keep eradicating our brothers in the south. These terrorists, delegates, threaten us with small arms that we have fabricated. Nations! The UN is our binding; conjointly we can accomplish the impossible, and insure a safe world for all of us. Salamat, Thank you.
Security Council Opening Speech:
Honorable chair fellow delegates,
"Kapayapaan sa lahat"(Peace to you all)
From Manila her Excellency President Arroyo sends her finest regards and welcomes you all to this Security Council session. Imagine a tourist spending his vacation on the coasts on San Fernando, sitting on the beach and looks straight into the horizon of the South China Sea. Suddenly, his face becomes disturbed, worried, horrified… The person immediately fled the area and the country. What did he see?! He saw trouble. Suddenly, his facial appearance changes, he becomes disturbed, worried, and horrified. The person immediately flees the area and the country.
Delegates over the past five decades the Eastern Asia countries have never experienced true security and the tensions between China and Taiwan are not helping it. Tensions between the two parties are increasing at a rapid rate, and China has announced that it will use all force necessary to stop Taiwan.
Again the Republic of the Philippines emphasizes that China will use any force necessary to stop the Taiwanese province. Does that include nuclear weapons? Off course it does! If a nuclear explosion occurs, it will definitely destroy Eastern Asia, and Eastern Asia will be part of history. This issue is vital to the security of Eastern Asia as a whole. The Republic of the Philippines emphasizes that a comprise must be reached in order to solve this crisis. The Republic of the Philippines calls upon the entire international community to side with each other in order to impede a catastrophe from occurring.
The Republic of the Philippines believes in the professionalism and experience of the Security Council at handling serious issues. Hence, the Republic of the Philippines anticipates that we all have a productive and a successful session here at the council…. That’s if we don’t die from the nuclear blast. Or from a Third World War.
Zaid AL Marzooq: (Disarmament)
It was a fun and interesting event. I was the disarmament representative of the Republic of the Philippines. The first day was lobbying and merging It was very easy to become a main submitter but it was really hard to get signatures from other delegates not writing on the same topic, they asked many and quite unusual questions, which were sometimes irrelevant, therefore reflecting their preparation for the event. The approval panel for submitting the resolutions was slow and inefficient, it was because of the organizers and not the directors in the approval panel. The next day we debated many resolution in the disarmament commission. The delegates were very positive towards the resolutions they did not want to fail any resolution, and rather amended almost all the resolutions. The Philippines was considered the best delegation in the commission, many delegates or almost all the delegates didn't want to speak, so I had to stand and motivate them. The chair didn't try to motivate the commission until the end when my resolution came up and the chair became a delegate and talked against my resolution, but he could not fail the resolutions. The final day we debated al most 5 BBS resolution out of 8, and 4 of them passed including mine, which I was not given the honor to speak for at any point throughout the debate of my resolution. Overall we were the best delegates and the event was exciting, humorous, and aggressive.
Yasmeen Dashti (Human Rights)
The Netherlands was a great country to visit. It was an extremely enjoyable experience. While we were there, it was raining most of the time, which made it an even better trip. The first two days were basically relaxing in which we went sight seeing and shopping. However, after two days of fun, it was time to get serious. The first day of the event was lobbying and merging in which I, as the representative of the Philippines, was trying to get at least 8 people to sign for my resolution in order for it to get debated. After gathering about 14 signatures and the approval of the judges, my resolution was ready for debate. The chair planned for us to debate about 10 resolutions for the next two days. We talked, argued, laughed, and voted. During that time, we had Iran arguing with the US and Israel in which the Israel and US weren't able to argue back. At the same time, the WHO kept on submitting amendments for every single clause for every single resolution. As for the Philippines, I talked against every resolution and followed my country's policy when it came for voting and debating. By the time it came for us to debate the fifth resolution, the chairs were trying to avoid choosing the Philippines and Iran since we talked a lot; however, when they saw that no one was raising their placard, they'd choose either one of us. Furthermore, when it was time to debate my resolution on disabled persons, no one spoke for or against it; and it passed: 38 for and 1 against. Then it was time for the closing ceremonies and the WHO, Iran, Philippines, and Belarus were recognized as the most active delegates in the forum. All in all, the 2005 LEMUN trip was an interesting event in which we not only enjoyed the sights and "events" of the Netherlands, but also enjoyed our time debating and meeting new people from different backgrounds.
Bader Al Omairi (Social, Humanitarian, Cultural)
At the event we overestimated the Netherlands students, and I believe we over worked. As soon as I got off the buss in the event I could see how weak the delegates were, they didn't know what to do. I got a group together and showed them my "OK" resolution, and they totally agreed with it. as well I became a main submitted. My resolution got signatures from the chair, which was the first time I ever had to get the chair to sign, and the approval panel was easy to pass because the resolution was on a computer. The debate was extremely weak. The delegate of USA didn't even know what bias meant. Also they do not shout at each other like in Kuwait and they were afraid of me. It was fun. My resolution passed in my form, but it was not debate in GA. it was a fun weak debate. And I had fun in LEMUN 2005.
Saoud Al-Sabah (Representative of the Republic of the Philippines in the Security Council):
The Republic of the Philippines delegation worked very hard in order to be prepared for the LEMUN event. Unfortunately, when I entered the Security Council session I was severely disappointed. My opponents in the Security Council were not as formidable that I thought they were and the chairing was not up to the standards of a Security Council forum. The Republic of the Philippines dominated the Security Council forum. I personally spoke on an average above thirty times per day. Successfully, the Republic of the Philippines passed a total of seven clauses in the forum. Overall, the Republic of the Philippines performed up to the highest standard and I am sure that the country of the Republic of the Philippines will be proud of our presentation of their country.