Republic of Armenia
Student: Nouf Al-Fayez
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Being born into the world with a burden of wars and problems, Armenia declared independence on September 21, 1991. A republic, with a reasonable presidential governmental system, they started out quite all right. Levon Ter-Petrossian was the first president of the Republic of Armenia, who was elected president on October 16Th., 1991. After 7 years of ruling and guiding the country, he resigned in 1998. Then, becoming Acting President, former Prime Minister Robert Kocharian took hold of the country. He was elected president on March 31st, 1998. Second scheduled elections were held on May 30th, 1999, since Armenia last declared independence. President Robert Kocharian signed a decree on the changes in the governmental structure of Armenia on May 20, 2000.
The most powerful government official in Armenia's national government is the president, who is elected by the people to a five-year term. The president appoints a vice-president, who also serves as a Prime Minister. This official heads a cabinet called the Council of Ministers, which helps carry out government functions. The president appoints council members. A one house Parliament makes Armenia's laws. The people elect its 259 members. Members of the Parliament serve five-year terms. Armenia's main units of local government are regions, and city regions (regions within cities). Each of these political units has a governing council, whose members are elected by the people. All Armenians 18 years old or older may vote. As you can clearly see, the government is quite organized, fair, and strong. Armenia is a republic. It has a parliament, so it is definitely democratic.
Here is a list of political party groups: Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALYAN]; Armenia Party [Myasnik MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Alex ARZUMANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Harutyun MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Levon MKRTCHYAN]; Democratic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party, National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, the People's Party, and the Republic Party) [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Revival Party [Albert BAZEYAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGHAMYAN, chairman]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Aram SARKISYAN, chairman]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARGARYAN]; Rule of Law Party [Samvel BALASANYAN]; Union of Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENYAN]
Armenia is located in Southwestern Asia, the east of Turkey. Its geographical coordinates are 40 00 N, 45 00 E. Armenia's total area is 29,800 sq. km. 28,400 sq. km of that total is land while 1,400 sq. km of it is water. Armenian highlands are with mountains, little forest, flowing rivers, and great soil throughout the Aras River (of which separates Armenia from Turkey and Iran) valley. Its bordering countries are Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia and Iran. The land is fertile. 16.78% of the land is arable while 2.01% is permanent crops and 81.21% is categorized as "other".
Agriculture is quite rich, but the Armenians are known for their fruit (especially their grapes!), vegetables, and their livestock. It does not produce oil or natural gas, but it does offer small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, and alumina. Armenia is not self sufficient at all (currently), for it imports a lot of goods and depends on other countries for supplies rather than producing its own. It used to manufacture and mine quite a lot, yet this rate declined since the economic blockage caused by Azerbaijan in 1991. Electricity production is 42.3% from fossil fuel, 27% from hydro power, and 30.7% from nuclear power. These resources are very important for Armenia in the trading industry because they work with neighboring countries (Georgia, Iran) and supply them with electricity and power, and in return gain their support and food supplies. Armenia mainly trades with Georgia, Iran, and other close neighboring countries. They try to avoid Turkey, because they are experiencing many problems with them. Therefore, the most important resource is Agriculture.
Cultural FactorsThe country does not thrive with a rich cultural combination of ethnic groups, for the population is 97.7% Armenian, 1.3% Yezidi (Kurd), 0.9% Russian, and 0.4% other groups. Seeing that Armenia was the first nation to adopt Christianity, you can obviously understand that most of the population is Armenian Apostolic. They make up 94.7% of the population, while 4% are other branches of Christians, and 1.3% is Yezidi (monotheist with elements of nature worship). Despite the major differences, they get along just fine. Immigrants are decreasing in size, but like I said, despite everyone's differences, people in Armenia seem to get along quite well. The culture of Armenia was slowed down, because of the colonization of the Russian Federation since it used to part of the Soviet Union.
Armenian currency is the dram (AMD). It's exports partners are Belgium 18%, Israel 15.3%, Germany 13.3%, Russia 12.5%, US 8.1%, Netherlands 7.2%, Iran 5.5%, Georgia 4.3%, UAE 4%. It's imports partners are Russia 11.3%, Belgium, 10.1%, Israel 8.4%, US 7.6%, Iran 7.1%, UAE 6.1%m Ukraine 5.9%, Italy 5.5%, Georgia 4.3%, France 4.5%. The debt external is 1.819 billion dollars.
Manufacturing and mining account for about two thirds of the value of Armenia's economic production. The chief industries make chemicals, electronic products, machinery, processed food, synthetic rubber, and textiles. Armenia is a leading distiller of cognac. Alaverdi, Kafan, Kirovakan, Kumayri, and Yerevan are the main industrial centers. Copper is Armenia's most important mineral. Armenian mines also produce gold, lead, and zinc. Service industries account for about a quarter of Armenia's economic production. These industries include health care, education, and government activities. Agriculture accounts for about 10 percent of Armenia's production. Farm products include apricots, peaches, barley, potatoes, quinces, walnuts, wheat, and wine grapes. Crop production benefits from Armenia are many areas of fertile black topsoils called chernozem soils. During the period of the Soviet control, the government owned most of Armenia's businesses, factories, and farmland. However, in January 1991, it began a program to introduce more elements of a free enterprise system. By the time the Soviet Union broke up in December 1991, the government had already sold about three-quarters of Armenia's farmland to private owners. It also had begun to sell many state-owned businesses and industries. Obviously, they have a good economy. One dollar equals to about 495 drams. Armenia makes 19.8% of its GDP in the agriculture sector while 41% in industry and 39.2% in services. Its real growth rate of the GDP is approximately 13.9% per year.
Armenia has three military branches: The Army, Air Force, and Air Defense Force. Military service age and obligation is 18-21 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation – 12 months; and 18 years of age for voluntary military service. Males of age 18-49 (722, 836 men), are available for military service, while 551, 938 of them are actually fit for military service. 31, 774 men reach the military service age annually. All military funds are 6.5% of the GDP. Armenia currently is disputing with other neighboring countries such as Turkey and Azerbaijan, over various issues. Armenia has a strong army, being able to protect itself. It does not have any weapons other than weapons used for military purposes.
Views on World Problems
Armenia was deceived and cheated by the Soviet Union after independence, left with nothing much at all. Russia and Armenia have now made peace, and are no longer as tense as they used to be. But despite the peace between Russia and Armenia, neighbor Turkey, decided to take 99% of land that was rightfully Armenia's and deprived them of water, knowing that Armenia is a landlocked country (they did so by blocking and taking over the river that runs between them, Aras). Citizens are dying of thirst and starvation, and yet the UN seems to take no concern at all over the matter.
Armenia has always had an ongoing war with Azerbaijan, which it has won, yet at a massive cost. They are fighting over a land called Nagorno, which supplies Armenia with oil. Armenia and Russia have an important relationship, yet it's been edgy lately, for the Armenians fear the impact of this relationship on events and happenings throughout the country, since Russia is now Orthodox. That creates tension because Armenia was the first country to adopt Christianity as its official religion, therefore they were all Catholic, and as you all know, there are slight differences that the Catholics and Orthodox argue about.
Armenia has created and kept many friendly relationships throughout the world with various countries, with embassies and so on. Such as the Arab Republic of Egypt, the People's Republic of China, the French Republic, Georgia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece / Hellenic Republic, the Republic of India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Lebanese Republic, Romania, the Russian Federation, the Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America. Armenia had suffered soil pollution from toxic chemicals (DDT) which was caused by the war with Azerbaijand, that also affected the forests, by deforestation.
The UN has taken no part in helping Armenia at all with its endless conflicts, despite the fact that Armenia is a UN member. Armenia is a country that seeks salvation, understanding, and peace for this world, and supports the UN in any peaceful action necessary. Also, Armenia is a member of UNESCO (United Nations, Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), WHO (World Health Organization), FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), BSEC (Black Sea Economic Corporation), and many more such as: WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UNCTAD, ACCT (observer), AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD.
Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s, has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan enclave; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy; tens of thousands of Armenians emigrate, primarily to Russia, to seek employment.
One of the world's oldest civilizations, Armenia once included Mount Ararat, which biblical tradition identifies as the mountain that Noah's ark rested on after the flood. Early, during the 4Th. century, Armenia proudly, became the first nation to adopt Christianity. Indeed, it had its periods of independence, yet soon, over the centuries, surrendered to the power of many great empires such as the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. There was a Great War that happened with Turkey over religious disputes that ended with the killing of more than 1.5 million people without any charges. This caused havoc with Armenia's national and human rights.
Early, during the 4th century, Armenia proudly, became the first nation to adopt Christianity. Indeed, it had its periods of independence, yet soon, over the centuries, surrendered to the power of many great empires such as the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. The Ottomans ceded the eastern area of Armenia to Russia in 1828; this area of Armenia then declared its independence in 1918, yet was soon conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920. Conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh preoccupies Armenian leaders with Muslim Azerbaijan, which was assigned to the Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920's by Moscow. Azerbaijan and Armenia fought over the land in 1998; then the problem blossomed after both countries became independent from the Soviet Union in 1991.
1. The question of detention without trial in the war on terrorism.
Armenia, being a fair, democratic country, believes that all suspects or offenders in terrorism need to be treated as what they are. And what these suspects (offenders, terrorists, etc.) are, are people. Does not the UN seek peace and understanding between nations? Why, to condemn these people for just a mere suspicion, is just unpardonable! How shall the world be ruled fairly if the people who rule the world do not go by the rules themselves? Every person has his or her own rights, and therefore, these so called "terrorists", (whether they are or not), have the right to an attorney and to be tried. Probably these trials shall help solve and add leads to other people associated with terrorism. Or not. But the UN needs to think of the fact they might even be saving an honest, good civilian from spending years in prison for something he or she might have not done. Also, taking into consideration, the fact that terrorists are worldwide, and the native country of this offender or honest civilian might get offended and demand rights for its civilian, therefore, shall cause tension between countries which will lead to controversial reactions. Armenia demands that there should be trials for these people.
2. Improving the living conditions in Africa.
Armenia suffers from similar conditions (minus the droughts, floods, and diseases), like starvation, immigration, and displaced people. Hence, would like for its honorable African countries a good, stable home for it's people. First, Armenia would like to establish a secure home and living conditions in it's own country before focusing on others, but would like to mention some ideas the might help in improving the living conditions: Demanding 20% of every persons salary that is ranked above normal and is able to afford the cost of giving. Also, raising more awareness worldwide and asking people to donate to the UN for a generous funding for all the poor homeless people suffering excruciating pain and starvation. The UN is not doing a good job about this right at this moment, because it has cut down the food aids for Sudan because of its lack of funding, which is absolutely unacceptable and ridiculous! Also, the UN itself has cut down food rations to Darfur by 1/3. It's uncalled for.
3. The control and guidance on the media.
Armenia believes that there should be no limits to the media in any way unless it disturbs the freedom of others or influences the population negatively in anyway whatsoever. There should be rules, placed by the UN they that should be followed by all countries in the UN, and shall not offend, (as said above) or preach upon others in anyway. Also, it should avoid religion and cultural beliefs and traditions since many worldwide finds certain, different things or concepts offending.
4. Towards eliminating arms proliferation.
Nobody should feel threatened enough to feel it essential to have a weapon to protect them. The madness of this must end here, and the UN isn't doing anything about it right now. Global education should take place on the matter.
5. Integration of women in development.
There is not much to say, for Women's Rights have embedded themselves into our minds so many times to not know how important it is for women these days to be apart of society. The UN should start campaigns to eliminate all sexism, and start a new beginning helping women worldwide regain power and honorable positions in this world other than being "mothers" or simple "secretaries". They are humans too, and have the right to speak their mind, and are ready to take action in any sort of development about to take place in our world today. Give them a chance to make the world better, because without them, there would be no world.
Affirming that detention without trial is the violation of human rights,
Defining human rights as a right or rights (for instance to freedom of speech, freedom of movement, certain standards of life or treatment) which are believed to belong to every person and individual, and are those basic standards without which people cannot live in dignity; To violate someone’s human rights is to treat that person as though she or he were not a human being; To advocate human rights is to demand that the human dignity of all people be respected,
Pointing Out that suspects of terrorism are put in detention whether they have direct or indirect relations with the act, and therefore, are simply "suspects",
Bearing in Mind the controversy the UN could arouse through the public on its decision of the question,
Demands that the UN takes decent procedures in solving this issue by not declining suspects of their humanitarian rights; such as providing them with a high-quality trial, giving the suspects a basic chance to explain themselves,
Confirms that this resolution is about THE DETENTION, not the trial, therefore, wishing to express the fact, yet again, that detention without trial is a disgrace to the human race and we as UN delegates must end this dishonor,
Acknowledges that there is a vast media throughout the world and yet we are not taking good advantage of it by informing the public on how serious this issue is; yes there is the internet but many people around the world do not go to websites in which inform about terrorism,
Informing the Delegates that this resolution is not about how the trial of the suspects shall take action, but actually finding a solution to whether or not these suspects shall have a trial, once the votes are added and decided, then the UN or the organization may decide to take action on the issue of the trial itself,
1) Further wishes to acknowledge the fact that this trial might add a list of leads of where the rest of the terrorists are, and the major question of "Where is the Leader;"
2) Therefore the formation of HOoTWO (Humanitarian Organization of The Worlds Opinion) should be formed by six representatives of multi religions, cultures, and nationalities from countries that are not suffering from major issues such as starvation, civil war, and unstable communities (this is only logical because the question shall not be on their "top list" of priorities to ponder on), and it is not necessary for the country to have been affected by terrorism;
3) Duties of which will be called upon from them are: A. Collecting poll results from their public immediately, from people ranging from 18-69 and are in good health mentally, of whether or not they believe these suspects deserve a trial or not, and whether or not they believe detention without trial is the violation of the suspect's rights, B. Organizing a unique workshop by the six representatives is vital in informing the public of their actions and goals with the organization they represent; The workshop will provide people with basic information on the suspects, their actions, and their backgrounds; At the end of each workshop (please note that each group of representatives will be designing their OWN workshop for their country, there will not be one SINGLE way of presenting the workshop, since the representatives will adapt their workshop to the situations in their countries, since they know their country best);
4) Votes shall be collected by each representative (it is not mandatory that the public participates) and shall send the results to the head of the organization; It is the head of the organization's responsibility to guide the representatives through the process of creating a successful workshop that will convince the audience and public to either accept or decline the right of trial for these suspects;
5) Specific qualities will be looked for when picking the representatives such as the fact that these representatives must have had at LEAST a master's degree in political science/law or the study of foreign affairs. The representatives must be hardworking, honest, and a good model of his/her country;
6) Further background information will need to be provided when the representatives apply for their position: A) Full Name, B) A copy of the representatives ID and birth certificate, C) Majoring fields in which he or she excels at, D) A copy of their health files and information, E) Profile of where he/she lives, and works at;
7) Note that each representative and head of the organization shall be picked by his or her country's representative in the UN,
8) Workshops worldwide will take place on the same day, a date given by the head of the organization,
9) Workshops must not take up more time than 5 hours, and results must be sent in at the MAX of five days after the specific date of the workshop.
10) Wishes to end the resolution with the fact that once each countries votes are added up, the information must be sent to the head of the organization, which will result in the adding up of all the votes worldwide, A) Whether the votes agree or decline the right, the UN shall take the action of the votes that make up the majority of the people’s opinions,
She is that space between earth and air that hovers lightly beneath the sun, and kisses the grass with the roots of her history bearing the magnificent fruit of triumph once born into the universe. Feel the chronic soothing breezes of her land sweep through your hair, tickling your sweat, as you encounter her prefecture. She is young, but an abused child of beauty, stripped of many of her rights. But she is thriving, to regain her power soon.
Armenia the beautiful, the mighty, the great. Armenia, her succulent culture blossoming throughout her land. She was once apart of the stories shared by the Soviet Union, before the great divide. Gaining her freedom and national sovereignty in the year of 1991 soon brought her the burdens of envy and jealousy, from the beautiful creations that bud from her body. Yet, the ones that surround her shelter her; she still needs to rise. Prosperous and beautiful, she is. She'll raise her head high, and grin, her magnificent smile. The Republic of Armenia wishes peace between all.