Event: Pearl-MUN 2006Student: Sarah Al-Sayer
Brazil took its independence from Portugal on the 7Th. of September 1882 to form a Federal Republic. The constitution followed today was set on the 5Th. of October 1998. Brazil constitutes of 26 states and one federal district. The legal system in Brazil is based on Roman codes. Voting is voluntary between the ages of 16 and 18 and for those above 70. Otherwise, it is compulsory to vote. Those who are serving in the military do not vote.
The president is both the chief of state and the head of government. Currently, the chief of state is President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); and the Vice President is Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003).
The president and the vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; the last election was held on the 6th of October 2002 (next to be held 1 October 2006). The president appoints the Cabinet.
Bicameral National Congress or Congress National consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members from each state and federal district elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a four-year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
There are many political active parties in Brazil, to name some: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB ; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB; Democratic Labor Party or PDT; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD.
Brazil is located in Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean on one side and most South American countries on the other side. It shares borders with Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Guyana, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay. Its total area is 8,511,965 sq. km, so it is just slightly smaller than the United States.
Bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
Brazil has quite a diversified ethnicity with a majority of 53.7% being white, 38.5% mulatto (mixed white and black), black 6.2%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7% (2000 census).
As for religion, the Roman Catholic is by far the most predominant with a 73.6%, followed by Protestant 15.4%, Spiritualist 1.3%, Bantu/voodoo 0.3%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.2%, none 7.4% (2000 census). The official language is Portuguese, while Spanish, English, and French are also in use.
The Military in Brazil constitutes of the Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil (MB), includes Naval Air and Marines), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB). It is compulsory to serve in the military for those in between the ages of 21 to 45 years. The service time is between nine to 12 months. Women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning early 1980s when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks.
Characterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. In 2004, Brazil enjoyed a solid growth that yielded increases in employment and real wages. Productivity gains - particularly in agriculture - also contributed to the surge in exports, and Brazil in 2005 surpassed the previous year's record export level. While economic management has been good, there remain important economic vulnerabilities. The most significant are debt-related: the government's largely domestic debt increased steadily from 1994 to 2003 - straining government finances. Another challenge is maintaining economic growth over a period of time to generate employment and make the government debt burden more manageable. The difference between the rich and the poor remain a big problem, as the gap is very wide.
View of the Worlds Problems:
Though Brazil might be of a small force, but it has a huge symbolic significance. Brazil has long been a gentle and introverted giant, content to be a bystander on the world stage. Now that is changing. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, the country's left-leaning president, is carving out a role for Brazil as spokesman for poor countries, most notably by founding the G20 group which lobbies for rich countries to open up farm trade. His government is playing a more active role across South America. And it is seeking a permanent seat on the UN Security Council. "Brazil has begun to flex its muscles as a regional superpower," says Miguel Díaz of the Centre for Strategic and International Studies, a Washington-based think-tank.
Brazil deployed its troops to Haiti and is commanding a United Nations oeacekeeping force which is taking over from American and French forces in the Caribbean island.
Brazil's new activism often, though not always, coincides with the interests of the United States. Both countries want democracy and stability in places in the Americas where these seem fragile. However, Brazil was against the war on Iraq. Furthermore, Brazil refused to allow international inspections of its centrifuges for enriching uranium. A signatory of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, it claims to have impeccable credentials as a custodian of nuclear technology and says it is not obliged to reveal technology that could be swiped by competitors.
Brazil is a member of many international organizations, namely: AfDB, BIS, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became an independent nation in 1822 and a republic in 1889. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil overcame more than half a century of military intervention in the governance of the country when in 1985 the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, it is today South America's leading economic power and a regional leader.
1. The Question of detention without trial in the war on terrorism. (see below)
2. Improving the living conditions of Africa.
3. The control and guidance on the media.
4. Towards eliminating arms proliferation.
5. The integration of women in development.
Believing in the Human Rights and the UN role as its main defenders
Congratulating the Human Rights Watch on their efforts,
Noting with appreciation the concerns of the International Committee of the Red Cross regarding the detainees of Guantanamo Bay and of Iraqis and other Arab nationals being arrested without a warrant, without trial and without any rights,
Realizing that violations of the human rights are still taking place regardless of our strong oppositions,
Pointing out that such violations are creating more negative feelings towards the United States and the West in general,
Deeply regretting that the President of the United States is ignoring the appeal of even his own highest judicial body,
1. Deplores nations that act in the exact opposite of what they preach
2. Urges the UN and the Human Rights Defenders to take serious measures against these violations a) Refusing to accept the current status of "enemy combatants" as it has been put forth by the President of the United States. b) Redefining the rights of the "enemy combatants" and the procedures to be followed before detention takes place.
3. Affirms that with Human Rights Defenders watching over each and every registered case, fewer humans will suffer unjustly and those who do deserve punishment will get the proper punishment humanly and is in accordance to Human rights principals.
4. Encourages the UN in general and the Human Rights Defenders in specific to keep the pressure on the United States to set an example to all other countries that are not following human rights codes.
5. Suggests that able nations donate the equivalent of 1% of their UN dues to Human Rights Defenders;
6. Reminds nations that the contributions of the extra funds will help ensure media exposure on this humanitarian issue as well legal representation of those defenseless detainees;
7. Emphasizes the Human Rights Defenders will follow up on "enemy combatants" regardless of the charge they have been accused of, for even a criminal is entitled to a fair trial and humane treatment;
8. Strongly affirms that Human Rights Defenders will provide free legal advice to all and any human being that has been incarcerated without trial and proper defense.
We have a great soccer team. Thank you.