Event: LEMUN 2005 Students: Sarah ShaheenLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2005-2006 Team page
Italian Brothers, Italy has awakened, She has wreathed her head With the helmet of Scipio. Where is Victory? She bows her head to you, You, whom God created As the slave of Rome. Let us band together, We are ready to die, (repeat) Italy has called us. (repeat previous four lines) (repeat entire song)
Italy has 20 administrative division regions which are Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscano, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d’Aosta and Veneto.
Italy’s government changed from a monarchy that was ruled by a king to a republic that was headed by a president in 1946.The people voted for that. The voters elected a group of 556 members called a Constituent Assembly to write a constitution. The constitution was written and approved on January 1St. 1948. The government became a republican. It became made up of a president, the Council of Ministers headed by a Prime Minister and a Parliament with a senate and a chamber of deputies. People of age 18 and above could vote and woman could also vote.
The president of Italy is elected to a seven-year term by both of the houses of Parliament. He must be at least 50 years old. The president has the power to get rid of Parliament and call a new election, but other than that he is only ceremonial and doesn’t have much power. The Prime Minister decides a national policy and is the most important person in the Italian government. The Prime Minister is chosen by the president and can be voted out of office anytime.
The Prime Minister picks the members of the cabinet, then the president appoints the members of the cabinet and they are approved by the Parliament.
The Chamber of Deputies and Senate are the Parliament. The Chamber of Deputies has 630 members who are elected by voters from 27 voting districts. The Senate has 315 members who are elected by voters and 5 members selected for life by the president. The Chamber and Senate both share equal powers to pass laws.
Judges of courts appoint rather than elect. The Italian judges get appointed during service exams except the 15 judges of the Constitutional Court. The President of the Parliament chooses five of the judges, and the parliament and the other five by other courts choose five. The courts work under a notional ministry for a justice panel of the judges. The Constitutional Court has the ability to stop any acts declared by the Parliament.
Italy was announced independent on the 17Th. of March 1861. However, Italy was not finally unified until 1870.
Italy is part of many international organizations. It is an observer in BSEC, LAIA AND OAS. It is a member in the United Nations, AFDB, ASDB, Australia group, BIS, CCC, CDB, CE,CERN,EAPC,EBRD,ECE,ECLAC,EIB,EMU, EU, FAO,G-7,G-10, IADB,IAEA,IBRD, ICAO,ICC,ICFTU,IHO,ILO,IMF,IMO,Interpol,IOC,IOM,ISO,ITU,MUNURSO,MONUC,NATO,NEA,NSG,OECD,OPCW,OSCE,OPCW,OSCE,PCA,UNCTAD,UNESCO,UNHCR,UNIDO,UNIFIL,UNKOM,UNMEE,UNMIBH,UNMOGIP,UNTSO,WCL,WEU,WHO,WIPO,WMO,WTOO,WTRO, and ZC.
Italy is situated in southern Europe. It is a peninsula that extends into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia. Italy’s coordinates are (42, 50) to north and (12, 50) to the east. The total area of Italy is 301,230 SP km, which includes 7,210 sq. km of water and 294,020 sq. km with the two islands Sardinia and Sicily. Austria, France, Holy See, San Marino, Slovenia and Switzerland border Italy.
Italy lies in the temperature zone, but because of its great length, there is a great variation between the alpine section to the north and Sicily in the south. Average temperature ranges 43.9 F with rainfall of 41.5 inches in parts of the north to 64.7 F with rainfall of 23.5 inches in the southern tip. Overall the climate is Mediterranean where summer spring and fall are sunny and winter is rainy and cloudy. Sicily’s climate is subtropical.
About 75% of Italy is mountainous or hilly and approximately 20% of it is forested. There are many short rivers in Italy and the two best known are the Arno and the Tiber. The Po River is the only large river in Italy. The highest point in Italy is the Mont Blanc at 4807meters and the lowest point is the Mediterranean Sea at 0 meters.
Italy has great scenic beauty including the majestic Alps in the north, the soft and undulating hills of Umbria and Tuscany and the romantically rocky landscape of the south Apennines. The Bay of Naples, dominated by Mt. Vesuvius, is one of the world’s most famous sights.
The most abundant area in Italy is the Po valley in the north, where good rainfall helps in the growth of wheat, rice and corn. The hard wheat for making pasta is grown in the south while the soft wheat for bread and pizza comes from the northern lowland. Italy is known for its pizza and pasta and also has two other field crops, which are tomatoes and rice. Tree crops from olives and grapes are big parts of the agricultural exports in Italy. Most of the citrus crops come from Sicily, while other fruits are the specialties of other regions. Almonds are also well known for being in Italy. Dairy farming in the north supports the production of about 50 different types of cheeses. Cheese is an important export of Italy’s.
Italy’s fine white marble is the most famous exported mineral resource. Italy also has asbestos, bauxite, sulfur and zinc from the Po River. Other industries of Italy are tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals and motor vehicles.
Italy and mainly Rome, the capital of Italy, is known for its ancient attractions, art, design, ancient churches and sculptures. Italy has been a country since ancient history and is a great tourism attraction.
Natural hazards in Italy include landslides, mud flows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and flooding land. Etna, on the coast of the island of Sicily, is the highest active volcano in Europe.
Italy’s official language is Italian and is spoken by the great majority of the population. Moreover there are small German, French Slavic and Greek speaking minorities in parts of Italy. There are also Albanian, Catalan, Sardinian and Croatian speaking minorities.
The majority of the Italians are Roman Catholic. However Jewish and Islam are practiced. There are Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community. Islam started growing in Italy when the first few immigrants arrived from North Africa. These North Africans, mostly of Arab and Berber origin came mainly from Morocco and have been followed the recent years by Tunisians, Albanians and to a lesser extent, Libyans, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Middle Eastern Arabs and Kurds. Yet still the catholic churches in Italy receive some privileges not available to other religions.
Since the beginning of Roman civilization, important ethnic groups like Greek settlers, Germanic and Celtic invaders, and Norman colonizers have all left important impressions on the people today. However, they have all been absorbed in a homogeneous Italian Ethnic group.
Yet Italy can be separated into two parts which are the north and the south. Jewish and Islam are practiced in both parts but there is a slight difference in the languages spoken. In the north there are groups of Albanian and Greek Italians and the languages spoken are Italian, Albanian and Greek. In the south there are small groups of Germans, French and Slovene Italians and the languages spoken are Italian Slovenian, French and German. Another difference, which is well known, is that the people in the north are harder workers than the people in the south and are more advanced and more industrial.
Italy has an industrial economy with the same total and per capita output as France and the UK. The capitalistic economy remains divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less developed, welfare dependent, agricultural south with 20 % unemployment. More than 75% of energy requirements are imported. However, Italy has moved slowly on implementing needed structural reforms, such as lightening the high tax burden and overhauling Italy’s rigid labor market and over generous pension system, because of the current economic slowdown and opposition from labor unions. The economy in Italy experienced almost no growth in 2005, and unemployment remained at a high level.
Northern Italy is one of the most advanced industrial areas of Western Europe. Industry in Northern Italy makes up about 30 % of the GDP. Northern Italians, as said earlier, are harder working than Southern Italians and get more income. About 40% of southern Italians work on agriculture and yet only make 2% of the GDP.
Italy is on debt of about 107.3% of its GDP. Italy’s GDP (gross domestic product) is $1.651 trillion from purchasing power parity and the GDP per capita is $28,400 (2005 est.). The GDP structure by structure is separated into 2.1% agriculture, 28.8% industry and 69.1% services (2005 est.)
Italy’s main export partners are Germany, France, Spain, the UK and the USA. It exports about $371.9 billion. Italy’s main imports partners and Germany, France, Netherlands, the UK and the USA, and it imports $ 369.2 billion. (2005 est.) .
Italy is a member of the European Monetary Union. When the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions member countries in January 1999, and the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries in January 2002, Italy’s currency changed from Italian Lira to Euro.
Italy is part of four military defensive branches, which are Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare, MMI), Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), and Carabinieri Corps, CC). The military service age and obligation is 18 years old. The manpower available for males of 18-49 years of age is 13,491,260. (2005 est.) Italy’s military expenditures- dollar figure is $28,182.8 million, which is 1.8% of the GDP (2005). When the male reaches the age of 18, he must serve the armed forces for 16 months in the air force and the army and 28 months in the navy. Italy has many airbases filled with Allied aircraft, four to five naval groups that cruise around its seas and is preparing to host important Allied Rapid Intervention Forces. Italy also owns 571 ships.
Italy is a strong enough country to fight but is not as strong as the United States or the United Kingdom. Italy has strong relationships with different countries from around the world including the United States.
Views on World Problems:
Italy became a member of the United Nations in 1955. Italy is also part of the EU (European Union), OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), and the OSCE (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe). Beginning with the year 2002, Italy became one of the European countries that share the Euro Dollar; therefore, it has a good relationship with the European countries, which are part of the European Union.
Italy is part of many organizations to protect the world from problems and supports all actions made for peace. There are many things that Italy does to support the world and its problems.
Italy sends peace troops to different places of conflicts in the world. Italy supports many poor countries all over the world including Palestine, Afghanistan, Iraq and Latin America by sending aids, medical help and donating money. Yearly, Italy offers 1 billion dollar aid contributions to fulfill peace in the world. Italy also offers thousands of students from around the world full studying scholarships every year.
Since the beginning of the Kyoto Protocol Environment to protect global climate change, Italy has supported it. Italy is with the protection of Earth, and believes that the environment is the most important thing.
Many of Italy's corruption problems began in 1992 and went ahead by Amato. This main reason led to the arrest of hundreds of business and politician figures and the catching of many others. The resigning of Premier Amato occurred in the success of Carlo Azeglio who was the head of Italy's central bank. In addition, public prosecutors massively ending comparative representation in parliament were passed. The Italian popular party was the new name of the previous one that was called the Christian Democratic part; the change took place in 1994. The center - right faction became the United Christian Democratic party after a split in 1995. In new elections in March 1994, a coalition of conservatives and neofascists won a majority in parliament. Billionaire industrialist Silvio Berlusconi of the fledgling conservative party Forza Italia became premier, but his coalition government disintegrated in Dec. It was succeeded by a "nonpolitical" center-left government under Amberto Dini, and then, after elections in April 1996, by a center-left government under Romano Prodi that included the Democratic Party of the left. Prodi's government collapsed in October 1997 after a series of confusions over austerity measures put in place to arrange for European economic union.
Following Prodi's collapse, Massimo D'Alema, one of the members of Democratic Party of the Left, became premier as head of a new alliance government that included several political parties. The Parliament made previous leader Ciampi president in May 1999, taking over for Oscar Luigi Scarfaro, who had retained the office since 1992. After D' Alema's coalition put up with loses in regional elections, in April 2000, he quit. After that, socialist Giuliano Amato, D'Alema's investment minister and an ex-premier, created a new center- left government that was considerably alike to D'Alema's.
Parliamentary elections in 2001 gave Berlusconi's traditional coalition a solid victory, and he became premier of a center-right government for a second time, ending six years of liberal rule. In 003, the Parliament passed a law making the premier and other top Italian officials immune from prosecution while in office. The law was seen as a heavy-handed move to end Berlusconi's trial for bribery and provoked a disagreement from many in Italy. The constitutional court overturned the law, however, allowing the trial to continue, and he was found not guilty (2004) of bribery; other charges were dismissed. Losses by the governing coalition in local elections obligated Berlusconi to resign in April 2005, and re-form his government. Later on in the year Berlusconi secured passage of electoral changes that reestablished relative representation as the basis for electing national legislators; the changes were made to reduce his coalition's losses in the 2006 elections.
1. The Question of detention without trial in the war on terrorism.
After the September 11 terrorist attack on the U.S.A, the American Government and many western countries started applying a new law against terrorism. They stared applying the law of detention without trial. They began arresting people who they suspected and arresting them without trial or proof that they did something. The people arrested were mostly of Arab and Muslim origin. The law was made because America claimed to fight war on terrorism around the world. The American base on Guantanamo Bay in Cuba is a jail of detention without trial. There hundreds of Muslims and Arabs are detained for over three years without trial. With detention without trial, the world is a safer place. People are assured that there is less terrorism, and trust the governments to take care of all the people that they believe are terrorists.
Italy believes that there are many terrorists and that there should be detention without trial. Suspected people should be put into jail right away and should not have the chance to get out of the government’s hands.
The International Law and The Declaration of Human Rights wrote many articles against detention without trial. Most importantly, article number 10 says, "Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him." Many other articles of the Declaration of human rights stood against detention without trial. However, as countries with the war on terrorism we believe that we have the right to put people in jail immediately and support detention without trial, for the sake of keeping everyone safe from terrorism.
Countries likely to take the same position on the issue: Canada, England, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan Generally, Allies of America
2. Improving the living conditions of Africa
Africa has been suffering from famine, draught and starvation for many years. Thousands of people in Africa are dying daily because of the problems they have. Countries around the world are trying to find solutions for the people in Africa and trying to improve their living conditions.
Italy has always been supportive to the African nation. The Italian government sends doctors and many helpers to Africa to help with its improvement. Italy also donates over 1 billion dollars yearly to support the developing nations, especially Africa. The G8, of which Italy is a member of, agreed to donate 50 billion dollars in the coming 10 years to support Africa, improve its quality of life and advance democratic reforms in Africa. Italy strongly supports helping African countries and helping the people. The UNIDO helps Africa by giving them money and loans to help develop their countries. However, the UN should open more organizations for Africa to become a more advanced continent and in order for it to get all it needs and be able to support itself. Italy is also a part of the FAO (food and agriculture organization) and in 2005 it started to raise money with Norway and U.S.A and raised about 2.1$ to start with. They raised the money to respond to the worsening situation of the severe food shortage in Africa.
Italy urges all Gulf countries to donate as much money as possible to Africa. The more aids and help the more we will help Africa become a more developed continent. Countries most likely to take the same position on the issue: All members of the G8 (Canada, America, France, Japan, England etc.)
3. The control and guidance on the media
Some governments and their agencies control and direct the media contents and send orders and instructions to media workers and publishers to adhere to certain government guidance. The western governments started to supervise most media activities, especially after the September 11 attacks.
Italy believes that there should be control on the media. It believes that it should be able to manage its own affairs and means of information and what could be put on the media.
When Denmark created the disrespectful cartoons about the Islam religion, Italy did not put them on the media and believed and respected the fact that it is a disrespect and dishonor to all Muslims. Italy did not allow the media to show the cartoons and stood against them by saying they are not right and extremely disrespectful.
Media in developed countries should have less control over its publications. Governments should control the media, because sometimes things are not appropriate. Some media could be disrespectful to some people and nations and sometimes even to the government itself.
Countries most likely to take the same position on this issue: Most countries who have recently went to war with America, agree that media should be controlled, and agree that some issues must be covered. Likewise, the rest of the countries ARE most likely to take the same position. (Canada, Poland, England, Bulgaria, Japan, South Korea, Romania… etc.)
4. Towards eliminating arms proliferation
The United Nations has been trying to eliminate the production and trading of weapons for many years, but failed. They wanted and still want to decrease the amount of weapons made every year. The UN tries to influence as many countries possible every year to eliminate the most of arms proliferation.
However, Italy trusts that the war against terrorism needs more and more weapons and believes that we are in need of the money made by the trading of weapons.
More weapons should be made in order to protect countries from wars and to support countries' incomes. Italy needs the weapons for war on terrorism and also needs to trade weapons, since it needs as much money possible to repay its depts. All other countries with the war on terrorism are also in great need of weapons. Countries most likely to take the same position on this issue: Countries that are part of the war against terrorism or any war Countries in need of the money made from the selling and trading of weapons
5. Integration of woman in development
Countries around the world encourage and support women in taking bigger roles in the development of societies, because woman often participate less than men in terms of many high ranking positions including working in the government, and being part of many leadership positions. Women do not have a big influence on the world and are not a big part of development and decisions. The UN believes that women should be a bigger part of the development, and hire many women to work for them and help them every year.
In countries around the world, especially developed countries, there is a growing trend for integrating woman in development. In Italy woman usually play an important role in the society. Italy supports the participation of woman in the third world and in Africa. The African center for Woman is with the integration and encouraging of woman's participation in the society and Italy supports it. Last months Italy offered many scholarships to Afghani woman to pursue their graduate studies and encourage them to play a bigger part in the development of Afghanistan.
Italy believes that every country around the world should encourage woman to take part in the society and in development. Woman form about 50% of each society and should take the same percentage of responsibility as men because they could help with the development of the world. Other countries should encourage woman to be part of development, and send scholarships to woman from around the world to study in their universities, just like we Italians do.
Women in Italy are integrated in the government. They have the exact same right as men. They have the right to work, be part of the government and do anything men do. Countries most likely to take the same position on this issue: Canada, America, France Japan, Australia, Poland, Russia Chili (Countries that have woman leaders, and women that work in the government)
Defining some African poor as impoverished who have food to live however do not have money to open their own small businesses and improve their lives and live decently,
Having studied that Africa's GDP/capita is only $671 and deeply disturbed that this does not give the continent the opportunity to improve because of the vast shortage of money,
Alarmed by the fact that according to the World Fact Book 36% of the African population live on less than 1 dollar a day,
Expressing its appreciation to the UN and all the organizations like the UNIDO that are trying to helping fight poverty and improve the living conditions of Africa and also to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) that sends money to Africa and called to get $11.4 million from the international community to help fight hunger in Africa in 2005,
Expressing it's appreciation to UNICEF for providing long-term humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries including Africa and to all organizations that are trying to improve Africa from poverty and problems,
Deeply disturbed that African individuals are not getting opportunities to improve their living conditions independently by making their own money by working,
Congratulating India for such a great idea of the Grameen Bank which makes small loans to the impoverished without requiring collateral and for having great success in getting its loans back and truly hoping that UNOABL can be as successful as Grameen Bank and help the people of Africa open small businesses and improve existing businesses,
1) Calls Upon the formation of an organization called UNOABL (United Nations Organization for small African Business Loans) that will: A. Have main branch in Rome, Italy which will: i. Have a committee that will consist of 25 economic specialists hired by the UN based on their experience that will: ii. Construct survey's on a country's living conditions, what it has and what it needs and decide whether branch of the organization should open iii. Decide on certain economic issues like if the country in Africa is poor enough for branches to open iv. Record the loans taken for every business and be a backup for any important information like who took loans when and what loans were used for B. Have branches in countries classified by the committee as poor African countries that will: C. Provide loans in parts to: i. Groups of African individuals who want to open small businesses like selling: dried food, fruits, anything hand made, etc. and also to poor who have skills and could hand make items ii. People who already have existing businesses and want to make it bigger and/or better D. Have workers in all African branches hired by the UN based on their experience which will be: i. Professional accountants that will: 1. Decide whether small business plans are appropriate and will actually help improve the individuals and the country's economy 2. Investigate for opportunities of the country where poor people could take part of the organization ii. Business specialists trainers hired for loans taken that will: 1. Train people who take loans for 1 year during the business to teach them on how to run a business and everything their business needs and 2. Give people who do not know anything and need more training additional training depending on how much they need 3. Help business groups to run certain parts of the business if the business doesn’t run very well (new and old), E. Legal Investigators that will: i. Decide whether people are poor enough (depending on what they have and on their living conditions) to take loans and whether businesses are appropriate and will help the economy of the country and the people, ii. Assume the amount of money needed for each business depending on the exact business and its needs, iii. Will encourage as many groups possible to join the organization and start small businesses F. Economic professionals who will be hired for each loan taken by each small business group (new or existing) and will: i. Surprise visit the business every month to inspect it ii. Make sure that the money is used only for the business and not for any other needs, by keeping track of what is exactly bought with the loan and where it was spent iii. Decide whether the business is running as assumed by the investigators iv. Record the amount of money made by the business v. Make sure that when the amount of money for paying back the loan is made, the group must return it vi. Inform the investigators if the business is running well, in order to help make the business larger vii. Check whether the group needs the second part of the loan and inform the investigators E. Have branches in outer- African countries which will: 1. Support branches in Africa and support businesses and loans by : i. Sending required materials to needed businesses and take money from the loan of which material is bought for 2) Further proclaim that in order for a group of people to take a loan to start a new business, they must: A. Be a group people who are willing to open a shared business and pay back the loan equally after the money is made B. Prepare a proposal that provides the organization with i. The information of the exact business and where it will open ii. The information of who will participate in the business and what it will be based on iii. The information on how the money will exactly be separated on the small business iv. The information on where the group will get their needed supplies to start the business if they know where from and do not need help from branch
3) Further proclaims that if the business goes on very well, the organization will help expand the business and sell the goods to other areas and/or countries and will try making a major company out of the business
4) Draws the attention that loans will not be given at once, but in parts depending on how much is needed to start the business and keep it going and if the money taken from the loan is not made group will be forgiven for the loan until the business passes and makes the money
5) Emphasizes that if the group of people do not use the first part of the loan for the business they will not take the other parts of the loan and will immediately be considered out off the organization and any spare materials that were bought will be taken away
6) Supports that this organization will help improve many lives and will start many helpful small businesses to the country
7) Calls upon all countries that are willing to support branches in Africa to join the organization and help the people of Africa and improve their living conditions
Honorable delegates, most distinguished chairs,
As people eat our tasty pizza, enjoy our wonderful sea, as people drive our Ferraris and wear elegant Gucci, as people drink our fine wine, and explore our beauty other people in Africa live horribly and millions starve to death. People in Africa need people to help them fight poverty and live. That is why we all gathered here today to try to solve five main problems of the world, including the living conditions of Africa. Imagine yourself without a home, without food and water and with less than one dollar to try to live everyday. No one in the world would ever want to live that way. In this conference, we will try to help raise the economy of Africa. Italy believes that small businesses and small amounts of money can help raise the economy of Africa and help improve thousands of lives. Italy wishes that every country will help discover such a perfect resolution to help Africa. As every country should keep in mind that this issue does not only concern Italy, but concerns a big part of the world.
And may God Help us all, Bless Italy and bless the world.