Mexico

Student: Khaled Al-Mutawa

Event: Pearl-MUN 2006



 

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The Mexican National Anthem


HIMNO NACIONAL MEXICANO

Francisco Gonza'lez Bocanegra and Jaime Nuno'-

Mexicanos, al grito de guerra
El acero aprestad y el bridon;
y retiemble en sus centros la tierra
Al sonoro rugir del canon.

Cina -oh patria! tus sienes de olivo
De la Paz el arcangel divino,
Que en el cielo tu eterno destino
Por el dedo de Dios se escribio.
Mas si osare un extrano enemigo
Profanar con su planta tu suelo,
Piensa -oh patria querida! que el cielo
Un soldado en cada hijo te dio.
CORO

-Guerra, guerra sin tregua al que intente
De la patria manchar los blasones!
-Guerra, guerra! Los patrios pendones
En las olas de sangre empapad.
-Guerra, guerra! En el monte, en el valle
Los canones horrisonos truenen
Y los ecos sonoros resuenen
Con las voces de -Union! -Libertad!
CORO

Antes, patria, que inermes tus hijos
Bajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen,
Tus campinas con sangre se rieguen,
Sobre sangre se estampe su pie.
Y tus templos, palacios y torres
Se derrumben con horrido estruendo,
Y sus ruinas existan diciendo:
De mil heroes la patria aqui fue.
CORO

-Patria! -patria! Tus hijos te juran
Exhalar en tus aras su aliento,
Si el clarin con su belico acento
Los convoca a lidiar con valor.
-Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva!
-Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria!
-Un laurel para ti de victoria!
-Un sepulcro para ellos de honor!
CORO:

English:

CHORUS Mexicans, at the cry of battle
lend your swords and bridle;
and let the earth tremble at its center
upon the roar of the cannon.

Your forehead shall be girded, oh fatherland, with olive garlands
by the divine archangel of peace,
For in heaven your eternal destiny
has been written by the hand of God.
But should a foreign enemy
Profane your land with his sole,
Think, beloved fatherland, that heaven
gave you a soldier in each son.
CHORUS

War, war without truce against who would attempt
to blemish the honor of the fatherland!
War, war! The patriotic banners
saturate in waves of blood.
War, war! On the mount, in the vale
The terrifying cannon thunder
and the echoes nobly resound
to the cries of union! liberty!
CHORUS

Fatherland, before your children become unarmed
Beneath the yoke their necks in sway,
May your countryside be watered with blood,
On blood their feet trample.
And may your temples, palaces and towers
crumble in horrid crash,
and their ruins exist saying:
The fatherland was made of one thousand heroes here.
CHORUS

Fatherland, fatherland, your children swear
to exhale their breath in your cause,
If the bugle in its belligerent tone
should call upon them to struggle with bravery.
For you the olive garlands!
For them a memory of glory!
For you a laurel of victory!
For them a tomb of honor!



Mexico






Country Profile


Political Structure:

The full name of the federal republic is The United Mexican States; and for short Mexico as you all know. The capital is Mexico. Mexico has 31 states and one federal district (Distrito Federal). The states are Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz-Llave, Yucatan, Zacatecas. Mexico's independence started in 16 September , 1810, from Spain. The beginning of Mexico's constitution is 5 February , 1917. it is an assortment of the constitutional laws of the United States of America. Mexico has one national holiday ( independence day) September 16, (1810). Mexico has suffered for 18 years, universal compulsory, but it has not been forced.

Mexico's president, also chief of state, and head of government, President Vicente FOX Quesada. He was elected since December1, 2000. And the cabinet of The United Mexican States is also appointed by the president. The elections are held every six years, the election race began at July 2, 2000. The results were Vicente FOX Quesada (PAN) 42.52%, Francisco LABASTIDA Ochoa (PRI) 36.1%, Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano (PRD) 16.64%, other 4.74%. The Bicameral National Congress has 128 seats. 96 seats are elected by the number of votes, and are to serve for six years. And the rest which are 32 seats; are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote. And the Federal Chamber has 500 hundred seats. Three-hundred seats are directly elected by votes of poopularty; and are in their seats for three years. The remaining two-hundred seats are also allocated by the basis of each party's votes. And they will fill their seats also for three years. The judicial branch is called The supreme court of justice. Justice is appointed by the president which is now Vicente FOX Quesada. In Mexico the political parties and leaders are: Convergence for Democracy or CD [Dante DELGADO Ranauro]; Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI [Mariano PALACIOS Alcocer]; Mexican Green Ecological Party or PVEM [Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Martinez]; National Action Party or PAN [Manuel ESPINO Barrientos]; Party of the Democratic Revolution or PRD [Leonel COTA Montano]; Workers Party or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez].

 

Geography:

The location of Mexico is in Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the US and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the US. Also the geographic coordinates are 23 00 North, 102 00 West. The total area of Mexico is 1,972,550 sq. km. the land: 1,923,040 sq. km; and the water: 49,510 sq. km. and to compare Mexico's size to another part of the world. Mexico is slightly three times less than the state of Texas. The total size of Mexico's borders is total: 4,353 km. and the countries that are on the border are: Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,141 km. The coastline is 9,330 km. The Maritimes claims are: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin. Mexico has two different climate types: tropical and desert.

The terrain of Mexico is high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; and also desert. The elevation levels are: the lowest point Laguna Salada -10 m; the highest point is Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m. And as stated above the natural resources are: Petroleum, natural gas, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc and timber. The usage of land in Mexico goes as follows: arable land: 12.99%
permanent crops: 1.31% other: 85.7%. Irrigated land area is: 65,000 sq. km. The water is a dangerous enemy for Mexico for many natural hazards occur in it. Like tsunamis along the Pacific coast, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts. Also the land is a bit dangerous with its volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south. Mexico has a lot of environmental agreements which are mostly international. The agreements are: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling, it is signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements.

 

Natural Resources:

Mexico is a country with many natural resources, but sadly not many Mexicans are very rich. But still Mexico is one of the most powerful republics in the world. In change off subject for now, let's talk about one of Mexico's many resources. Petroleum is very important for Mexico; it is the most used recourse in the country. The oil production rate is 3.42 million bbl/day. And the oil consumption is 1.752 million bbl/day. Oil exports are 1.863 million bbl/day/; and oil imports are 205,000 bbl/day. Oil - proved reserves: 46.79 billion bbl. Silver, copper, gold, zinc, lead, and timber are all important resources for Mexico. But not as important as Natural GAS. The natural gas production is 47.3 billion cu m, and the natural gas consumption is 55.1 billion cu m. Sadly the natural gas exports is 0 cu m, and the imports are 7.85 billion cu m. Natural gas proved reserves : 420 billion cu m.

Mexico has a lot of trading history, with many countries. Mexico has made a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with two countries. The United States of America, and Canada in 1992. The Mexican leader at the time decided that Mexico's future laid with trading. He was very wrong, Mexico suffered a lot from that decision. The people of Mexico paid the price in 1994 when the unemployment rate exceeded1. Now let's talk about Mexico's chief trading partners: the United States of America, Canada, Germany, Japan, Spain, Chile, and Brazil. Most of the traded things also known as the goods, are supplied and imported mostly by these countries: the United States of America, Japan, Germany, Canada, China, South Korea, and Taiwan.

 

Cultural Factors:

Many religions are found in Mexico, and all the rituals and traditions are different. The first and most known religion in Mexico is the Nominally Roman Catholic which takes up about 89% of the population in Mexico. Another religion in Mexico is called Protestant which takes 6%. And other religions take up the 5 remaining percents. The languages that are mainly spoken in Mexico are. Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages. It all started in the Aztec time.

The Virgin of Guadalupe has long been a symbol enshrining the major aspirations of Mexican society. According to anthropologist Eric R. Wolf, the Guadalupe symbol links family, politics, and religion; the colonial past and the independent present; and the indigenous and the Mexican. Judaism, on the other hand has been a religion in Mexico for centuries. And there are estimated to be more than 45,000 Jews in Mexico today. Islam is mainly practiced by members of the Arab, Turkish, and other expatriate communities, though there is a very small number of the indigenous population in Chiapas State that practice Islam.

 

Economy:

Mexico's economy has recently entered the trillion dollar class and the GDP purchasing power parity is $1.066 trillion. The official GDP exchange rate is $717 billion. The real growth rate of the GDP is 3%. GDP per capita which means purchasing power parity, which is $10,000. The GDP composition by sector is agriculture: 4% industry: 26.5% services: 69.5%. The labor force is 37.38 million. The labor force by occupation is agriculture 18%, industry 24%, services 58%. The unemployment rate is 3.6%; perhaps the underemployment rate is 25%. Sadly the population below the poverty line is 40%.

The household income is lowest 10%: 1.6% highest 10%: 35.6%. the inflation rate, by the consumer's prices is 4.1%. investment rates are 21.1% of the GDP. The budget of Mexico is revenues: $173.2 billion expenditures: $175.4 billion, including capital expenditures of the NA. The public debt is 21.2% of the GDP. The agriculture products are: corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products. And the industries are food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism. The industrial growth rate is 2.5%. The electricity production is 209.2 billion kWh. The electricity consumption is 193.9 billion kWh.

 

Defense:

Mexico is a good defending country that can easily defend itself. But also needs a little bit of the beloved allies of Mexico which are: The United States of America, and central America. There are two branches in the army. The Secretariat of National Defense (Sedena): Army and Air Force (FAM). And the Secretariat of the Navy (Semar): Mexican Naval Air and Marines. To be in the military you have to be at least 18 years old. Also to be a volunteer you have to be at least 16. And the age rates to be in the army are from 18 years to 49 years old. Right now there is 24,488,008 available males to join the army. The men that do get into the army are estimated to be about 1,063,233. the amount of American dollars the army spends is $6.043 billion.

 

View on World Problems:

Mexico is a peaceful nation , yet a lot is going on in the world nowadays. Iraq is on the brink of a civil war and Iran is close to assuring nuclear weapons to what level has the world reached in which they low terrorists nations such as Iran and North Korea you have Nuclear weapons and Nuclear Programs. The world is dangerous as it is now, why so we need to increase the health , political chances of the world as we know it. If something goes wrong with any of the Irani weapons it may mean that the whole middle east may be affected, including the eradication of Kuwait, Syria , Iraq, KSA, Afghanistan, and all the neighbors.

After knowing the Mexican point of view n various world problems the reader can establish the point at Mexico Is a peaceful nation and is against the Irani Nuclear program considering the factious and damages. The Iraqi situation will become hopeless if the situation does not get any better, and by getting better Mexico thinks that the US must get its act together and start to shape up. Innocent lives being lost is something that must be controlled as soon as possible. Mexico's point of view towards Iraq and Iran is clearly shown in the relationship with the USA. Obviously the politicians in the nation are doing what's the best for the nation.

 

History:

Moreover, in the past 15 years change has accelerated. The economy has gone from being state-dominated and protectionist to being one of the most open in Latin America. Mexico is the worldís eighth-largest exporter (counting the European Union as one) and the United Statesí second-biggest trading partner after Canada. After a quarter-century of economic crises it has stabilised, and other Latin American countries look at its economic performance with envy. Growth is heading for around 7% this year, inflation will be well below its 10% target (and on course for the longer-term aim of matching inflation in the United States by 2003), and the current-account deficit will amount to about 3% of GDP. Earlier this year Moodyís, one of the big credit-risk agencies, gave Mexico an investment-grade rating for the first time in history.

In 1989, the Revolutionary Democratic Party (PRD) was formed. Thanks to the political stability of the accelerated economic and social development which Mexico has experienced during the first half of the twentieth century, the country has gone from being at the turn of the century a principally agricultural economy to become the 13th most important economy in the world. Various recent changes in the economic policies have had a great impact in the process of modernization of the national economy; in 1986 Mexico entered the GATT and in 1994 signed with the United States and Canada the North American Free Trade Agreement. The former has been accompanied by a wide program of structural reforms, privatization and deregulations. With Free Trade Agreements policies, Mexico is looking for modernization, but at the same time wishes to preserve its cultural heritage. Today, many of the motifs and themes of the Mexican culture are simply modern interpretations of the ancient traditions. They are prized because of the feeling, and the soul that the Mexican artist puts into each piece his hands create. Traditional arts and crafts such as pottery, silverware, lacquers, woodcrafts and masks shown up roots that go back to Pre-Colombian times.

 

 

 

Policy statements


1. The Question of Detention without a trial in the war on terrorism:

The United Nations is planning upon many things for this issue. Like arresting anyone who does this crime. They will immediately be sent to jail. And the convicted suspect will be allegedly held until his/her trial. And still the UN is still trying to stop this problem but simply cant. The UN is trying itís very best to find a solution but as stated it is fast to find a solution. Many nations in the world today are detention people without a trial, which is not only unfair, but illegal. Almost all of the countries of this globe are members of the UN, and to be a member of the UN u has to abide by the rules and regulations. Because to violate a human being's rights is a crime.

Mexico is a peaceful nation that has no prisoners detained illegally. Being one of the world's best police departments not a single prisoner is illegal. And if Mexico could inspect every prison in the world to check the legality we would. Not one suspect, convict, or criminal would be detained and charged unfairly. And if an officer is caught doing a crime like this in Mexico he would be executed. Mexico is trying to bring peace to the world. And by that in being just to also the wrong. No one is treated badly without a cause in Mexico.

 

2. Improving the living conditions in Africa:

The United Nations is trying itís very best to help Africa. As you know Africa is the poorest content in the world. The poverty rate is uncountable from the mass numbers. The United Nations is donating food, and first aid kits to poor countries. Also the UN is also planning to build shelters in every poor country in the world that would hold thousands of people. And even though the shelters wont hold everybody, but would relive a lot of people just as stated above.

Unlike most countries Mexico is willing to help in any way reliable, or useful. The reason Mexico's love of help of the poor is because 41% of the population is disadvantaged. Poor, homeless, it doesnít matter. That is why President Vicente FOX Quesada has decided to step in. Mexico is going to build just as the UN shelters, but better and bigger. And are going to send every day helicopters filled with food, water, vitamins, first aid kits, and all the home appliances needed.

 

3. The Control and guidance on the media:

To control the media is a tough job. The United Nations is trying again it's very best to control the media. Because if for example a terrorist attack happens and government doesnít want anyone to know. If a news channel reports on the attack; the news will spread in a matter of seconds. The toughest job is controlling the media. The UN will arrest the person who reports anything like that to the media. And will try to shut down the network, which reported the news. Severe consequences will be made including sending life in jail. And when the UN wants the media to report on something. If they donít report on it truly; the same consequences will be made.

For Mexico controlling the media is also hard. To provide an example for Mexico's media is not hard. Recent events were the capture of Mexican drug dealers was all over world news. And the accident that killed of a 100 people. Both of them made headline news. Mexico is having real problems just because of the news. But the reporters were hung to death. And the network building was burned to the ground. And is trying to control other media countries near by. So in conclusion if anything that includes the media, and does something wrong. The same consequences happen to them.

 

4. Towards eliminating Arms Proliferation:

The whole purpose of the United Nations is to stop wars from happening. But No, North Korea declares war, Iran builds nuclear weapons. What's happening it's like world war three is going to happen. The UN still can't control the countries that want to either declare war or want to weaponry it self. So if a country lets say like Iraq tries to build nuclear weapons. And if the UN finds out about this matter. It will go into immediate action to stop the country. And will do it by any means necessary. They will force the country to sign a treaty to never try to do it again. And if the country refuses then things go nasty. The country will be kicked out of the United Nations. And might even go into war with other countries.

Mexico is a peaceful country, and trying to bring peace to the world. Even though Mexico is not one of the strongest countries in the world. But we take action if something like this happens. Mexico obeys the laws of other countries and it's own. Even so. If a country is only accruing normal weapons that only to make its defense stronger. Then ok fine with Mexico. And if the weapons were nuclear thatís a different and completely different story. If a country is allowed to build chemical weapons illegally. Mexico would be offended, having a strong army and not allowed to have weapons of mass destruction; and a country with poor people like Iran easily builds weapons. Mexico is now trying to acquire chemical weapons itself. And as stated. Mexico is trying to stop the wars by any way possible.

 

5. Integration of Women Development:

Of course The United Nations wants women to integrate. Especially to come and work in the UN. The women of the world have lost their right for so long, it can't be counted. Surely women like Margaret Thatcher, was one of histories greatest women. And the Kuwaiti Assrar Al Gabandi. They were both and would have made great leaders. And now there even should be a new lady American president. Or new leaders that are women. And the UN is supporting all those women who did, do, or will doe great things to the world.

This year is the Mexican presidency election year. And hopefully a lady will try to run for president. Women rights are very powerful in Mexico. They are treated with utmost respect that they deserve. But still Mexico is not a racist country. Not only do we treat women with respect. Men too, and all the men. Not just the white, but the black, and Latinos too. That is why Mexico is the land of opportunity. But that is not the issue at hand. The true issue is the integration of women just as stated before and above. Mexico will let all women do what ever they want. In a meaningful way of course; not prostitution. Mexico is against prostitution 100%. But in areas such as Tijuana, the former president of Mexico singed a document allowing the people do so. The new president Vicente FOX Quesada is trying to close down all of those places. And to replace them with women development agencies.

 

 

 

Resolution

Submitted By: Mexico
Delegate: Khalid Al Mutawa
Issue: Towards eliminating Arms Proliferation
:

Having Studied that many countries in the world right now are either acquiring or trying to acquire Weapons to either defend itself or start a war,

Alarmed by the fact that almost every country in the world is getting weapons illegally,

Expressing its appreciation towards the UN in trying to stop problems involving weapons of mass destruction. And it's gratitude towards countries like South Korea in obeying the rule of not acquiring weapons at all,

Deeply Disturbed that the UN still cant stop Iran from acquiring the weapons,

Believing that if the UN forms laws and Agencies against this issue; would really help into stopping wars,

Taking into full consideration that if laws and Agencies were to be formed; we would be one step closer to world peace,

Expressing its Satisfaction any problem should occur; must be reported to the base at Geneva; or secondary base in Mexico,

Hating to repeat that anything could be used as weapon; and that terrorists like Osama Bin laden didnít use WMD to create a war,

1) Confirms the signing of a treaty:
A. That will stop any country from producing any weapons that could start a war,
B. A country will be given two weeks to shut down the weapon plant,
C. Highly qualified experts in weapons will be provided by the UN; and sent to check what use are the weapons for,
D. Will evade the laws of national sovereignty if any country starts developing nuclear weapons, but only to stop the formation the weapons;

2) Calls upon the creation of a the united nations against arms proliferation agency (UNAAPA) which will in effect take on the task of :
A. First of all will be established in every country possible of acquiring weapons of mass destruction,
B. Every branch will be responsible for it's country in providing:
1. Evidence if a country is trying to build weapons,
2. Monthly inspections, on random dates,
3. The right to close down any suspicious area,
4. And the responsibility of informing the base at Geneva as soon as possible, if anything such as the discovery of illegal weapon buying or selling occurs

3) Affirms that there should be new laws to stop arms Proliferation like:
A. National sovereignty will be broken immediately,
B. Try to stop the weapon building by any means necessary,
1. Send in sweeper teams
2. Air force,
3. Navy and Marines,
4. Tactical teams,
5. Other ways of attacks except WOMD
C. If the country does not comply, it will be suspended from the UN for 2 years,
D. The nearest country to the threat must send forces to stop the weapons;

4) Urges in order to make this agency a success; the base must be in Switzerland Geneva, since it is a neutral country, that is exact reason Mexico chose Geneva, and the base must:
A. Help with enforcing the rules, that stop arms proliferation,
B. Take leadership, in controlling the agency,
C. The base will be in the Geneva,
D. Constant communication between every branch that discovers something;

5) Notes that these laws, agency, and treaty will: A. Solve many world problems,
B. Lessen the risk of wars,
C. Every country will have more allies;

6) Draws full attention that most countries in the present time is using most of it's economy just to buy weapons;

7) Proclaims that in order for a nearby country to send troops must:
A. Be allies with the country producing the weapons,
B. Have to be a peace lover,
C. Have enough money
D. Be able to defend itself;

8) Resolves if any country that does not comply to any of the rules the leader, or person who made the weapons will be captured and held for trial in Mexico.

 

 

 

Opening Speech