Yemen

Teacher: Anada Prabhan

Event: Pearl-MUN 2006


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The Yemeni National Anthem





Yemen





Country Profile



General Information

Official name: Republic of Yemen (al-Yumhuriyah al Yamaniah)
Capital: Sana
Population: 21,456,188 (July 2006 est.)
Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, Between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Area: total 527,970 sq. km
Language: Arabic
Religion: Islam (Sunni and Shia)

 

Political Background

Head of State: President
Head of Governement: Prime Minister

Nature of Government: Multiparty republic. The president is the head of state and is elected by popular vote for a seven-year term. The bicameral national legislature consists of the House of Representatives, with 301 members who are popularly elected to six-year terms, and the Shura Council, with 111 members who are appointed by the president.

The main political parties are the General People's Congress and the Islamic Reform Grouping or Isiah party. Chief of state: President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of North Yemen, assumed office upon the merger of North and South Yemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI (since 3 October 1994)

The head of government: Prime Minister Abd al-Qadir BA JAMAL; Deputy Prime Ministers Rashid Muhammad al-ALAMI, Alawi Salah al-SALAMI, Ahmad Muhammad Abdallah al-SUFAN cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister elections: president elected by direct, popular vote for a seven-year term (recently extended from a five-year term by constitutional amendment); election last held 23 September 1999 (next to be held September 2006); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of vote Ali Abdallah SALIH 96.3%, Najib Qahtan AL-SHABI 3.7%

Legislative branch: a new constitutional amendment ratified on 20 February 2001 created a bicameral legislature consisting of a Shura Council (111 seats; members appointed by the president) and a House of Representatives (301 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) elections: last held 27 April 2003 (next to be held in April 2009) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GPC 228, Islah 47, YSP 7, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party 2, independents 14

Administrative divisions: 19 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah), Abyan, 'Adan, Ad Dali', Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, 'Amran, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib, Sa'dah, San'a', Shabwah, Ta'izz. Note: for electoral and administrative purposes, the capital city of Sanaa is treated as an additional governorate.

Legal system: based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local tribal customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 

Economy -

Yemen, one of the poorest countries in the Arab world, has reported meager growth since 2000. Its economic fortunes depend mostly on oil. Oil revenues increased in 2005 due to higher prices.

Yemen was on an IMF-supported structural adjustment program designed to modernize and streamline the economy, which led to substantial foreign debt relief and restructuring.

N Yemen produces grain, fruits, vegetables, khat (a stimulant-containing shrub), cotton, coffee, and livestock but is dependent on imports for most of its essential needs.

Terraced agriculture, dating from ancient times, is still practiced. S Yemen is one of the poorest areas of the Arabian Peninsula. The climate is arid, and only a fraction of the land is arable. Pastoralism is prevalent in the south, and the greatest amount of industry is located in Aden. Manufacturing, including food processing and the production of cotton textiles, leather goods, cement, and aluminum products, has increased but provides little real revenue.

The country produces and refines petroleum, and oil export revenues have boosted the economy since the late 1980s. Yemen's GDP is also supplemented by remittances from Yemenis working abroad and by large amounts of foreign aid.

 

Independence:

On the 22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note previously North Yemen had become independent in November of 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South Yemen had become independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)