Organization: The IAEC
Student: Yvette Ohanion
Event: Qatar MUN, Alternative AssignmentLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the Model UN 2005-2006 page
A. Brief Introduction:
Nuclear Weapons are explosive devices designed to release nuclear energy on a large scale, and are used largely in military applications. However, as technology is rapidly developing, it is becoming easier for nuclear technology to fall in the hands of corrupt governments and terrorist organizations. After the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and after many test explosions in the 1950s and early 1960s, the effects of nuclear weapons were carefully observed and studied. An exploding nuclear bomb has unique effect-it releases penetrating nuclear radiation. When the body absorbs nuclear radiation, it can cause serious injury. In Japan many individuals who were protected from blast and burns suffered later from radiation injury. A large-scale nuclear exchange between nations could feasibly have a catastrophic global effect on Earth's environment and climate. The ozone layer, which helps protect life on earth from the sunís ultraviolet radiation, might be harmfully affected. The sufficient prolonging of these results could pre-empt the virtual end of human civilization.
In the present day many countries and their leaders are becoming overwhelmingly avaricious, desperate for power. This greed causes nations to initiate Nuclear Weapons Programs. If these programs are not controlled, the long-term future of our world will become more and more unstable and uncertain.
The IAEA Secretariat is headquartered at the Vienna International Center in Vienna, Austria. Regional offices are located in Geneva, Switzerland; New York, USA; Toronto, Canada; and Tokyo, Japan. The IAEA runs or supports research centers and scientific laboratories in Vienna and Seibersdorf, Austria; Monaco; and Trieste, Italy.
The IAEA Secretariat is made up of a team of 2200 multi-disciplinary professional and support staff from more than 90 countries who come from scientific, technical, managerial, and professional disciplines.
IAEA's organizational framework consists of six major departments: management, nuclear sciences and applications, nuclear energy, nuclear safety and security, technical cooperation, and safeguards and verification.
Safeguards inspectors and analysts check and verify the whereabouts of sensitive nuclear material. Technical officers run projects that help countries bring fresh water to cities and richer harvests to farmers' fields. Others help scientists to better understand and protect the environment and medical doctors to prevent and treat diseases. Nuclear experts, radiation specialists, and engineers help countries to meet safety standards at nuclear plants, or to more safely manage and transport radioactive material.
The IAEA invites IAEA Member States with operating nuclear power plants and who are not members of the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) to participate, cost-free, in this project through the IAEA ISOE Technical Center.
The IAEA works for the safe, secure and peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology and prevent the further spread of nuclear weapons. Its main role is to contribute to international peace and security. The IAEA has three main objectives: Promoting Safeguards & Verification, Promoting Safety and Security, and Promoting Science & Technology.
The IAEA is the world's nuclear inspectorate, with more than four decades of verification experience. Inspectors work to verify that safeguarded nuclear material and activities are not used for military purposes. The Agency is additionally responsible for the nuclear file in Iraq as mandated by the UN Security Council. The IAEA inspects nuclear and related facilities under safeguards agreements with more than 140 States. Most agreements are with States that have internationally committed themselves not to possess nuclear weapons. Inspections are essential in this category to determine whether countries are abusing the use of nuclear technology.
In this category, The IAEA helps countries to upgrade nuclear safety and to prepare for and respond to emergencies. The main aim is to protect people and the environment from harmful radiation exposure. They cover nuclear installations, radioactive sources, radioactive materials in transport, and radioactive waste. They also cover nuclear and radioactive materials, as well as nuclear installations. The focus is on helping States prevent, detect, and respond to terrorist or other malicious acts - such as illegal possession, use, transfer, and trafficking - and to protect nuclear installations and transport against sabotage.
The IAEA is the world's focal point for scientific and technical cooperation in nuclear fields. The work contributes to fighting poverty, sickness, and pollution of the earth's environment. The IAEA works to mobilize peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology for critical needs in developing countries. The IAEA supports research and development on critical problems facing developing countries. Work targets food, health, water, and environmental areas where nuclear and radiation technologies can make a difference.
The IAEA Secretariat relies on the guidance and leadership of its Director General and six Deputy Directors General who head the major departments. The incumbent IAEA Director General is Dr. Mohammed ElBaradei of Egypt. He has held this post since 1 December 1997.
The Deputy Directors Generals are:1. Werner Burkart Head of Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications 2. Ana Maria Cetto Head of Department of Technical cooperation 3. Olli Heinonen Head of the Department of Safeguards 4. Yuri Sokolov Head of the Department of Nuclear Energy 5. Tomihiro Taniguchi, Head of Department of Nuclear Safety and Security 6. David Waller, Head of the Department of Management.
In response to the deep fears and expectations resulting from the discovery of nuclear energy, The IAEA was created in 1957. The Agency's genesis was US President Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" address to the General Assembly of the United Nations on 8 December 1953. These ideas helped to shape the IAEA Statute, which 81 nations unanimously approved in October 1956.
In 1961 the IAEA opened its Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria, creating a channel for cooperative global nuclear research. That year the IAEA studied the effects of radioactivity in the sea with the Oceanographic Institute. This eventually lead to the creation of the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory.
As more countries mastered nuclear technology, concern deepened that they would sooner or later acquire nuclear weapons, particularly since two additional nations had "joined the club", France in 1960 and China in 1964. This found regional expression in 1968, with the approval of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The NPT essentially freezes the number of declared nuclear weapon States at five (USA, Russia, UK, France and China). Other States are required to forswear the nuclear weapons option and to conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA on their nuclear materials. The prospects for nuclear power improved dramatically. The technology had matured and was commercially available, and the oil crisis of 1973 enhanced the attraction of the nuclear energy option. The IAEA's functions became distinctly more important.
In 1988 the IAEA and UN Food and Agricultural Organization joined forces with other agencies to eradicate New World Screwworm-which spreads a deadly livestock disease. In 1991, the discovery of Iraq's weapon program introduced doubts about the capability of IAEA safeguards, but also led to steps to strengthen them, some of which were put to the test when the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) became the second country that was discovered violating its NPT safeguards agreement. In 1995, the NPT was made permanent and in 1996 the UN General Assembly approved and opened for signature a comprehensive test ban treaty.
In recent years, the Agency's work has taken on some urgent added dimensions. Among them are countermeasures against the threat of nuclear terrorism.
E. Strengths and Weaknesses:
One of the IAEA's key strengths is its universality. The agency has 138 members, including virtually every major country in the world. The rare instances in which the IAEA board passes a strongly worded resolution, therefore, do carry the weight of global opinion. Most recently, on September 24, 2005, the board decided, in principle, to refer Iran to the Security Council for the country's "many breaches of its obligation to comply with its Safeguards Agreement." While no concrete date for referral was specified, the resolution was still the IAEA's most direct and pointed statement on Iran.
There are acknowledged weaknesses in IAEA's performance as well as future difficulties and uncertainties in implementing improved safeguards measures. The existing situation does not prevent the development of a nuclear weapons program from a state that wishes to do so. It only makes it a bit more difficult. The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) was originally signed on July 1, 1968. Up to this date, it has been signed by 181 nuclear and non-nuclear states including Greece, Turkey, North Korea, Iraq and Iran. Article III of the Non-Proliferation Treaty prevents a non-nuclear weapon State Party to the Treaty from diverting nuclear energy from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. In addition, Article II prevents a non-nuclear weapon State Party to the Treaty from developing or acquiring nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.
International events that occurred over the last years demonstrate that several countries have not honored these terms and relevant secret activities have gone undetected by the IAEA. The full extend of the problem is currently unknown. One such example is Iran. In response to these developments, the international community, under the leadership of the USA, started an intensive effort to create a program of enhanced safeguards measures to be implemented by the IAEA.
Khidhir Hamza, a senior Iraqi scientist who defected from Iraq and presently lives in the USA, recently identified another example of the weakness of the IAEA to implement nuclear non-proliferation safeguards. According to his article "Inside Saddam's Secret Nuclear Program," Mr. Hamza describes how, in his decades-long efforts to build nuclear weapons, Saddam Hussein deceived the IAEA using different techniques (Iraq signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1968). One of the techniques was the appointment of the Iraqi Minister of Higher Education to the Board of the IAEA and the creation of a position of scientific attaches at the embassy in Vienna.
On July 1998 a report of the USA General Accounting Office (GAO) entitled, "Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Uncertainties in the Implementation of an Enhanced Safeguards Program by the International Atomic Energy Agency" identifies problems that IAEA faces in the performance of its responsibilities. Problems include the lack of long-term planning and the lack of funds for its implementation. In conclusion, the outlined problems, difficulties and uncertainties in the operations of the IAEA facilitate the countries that aspire to acquire nuclear weapons in their aspirations.
F. Budget Considerations:
The IAEA spends some US $100 million annually on safeguards operations. The IAEA's safeguards budget is US$ 65 million. IAEA financial resources include the regular budget and voluntary contributions. The Regular Budget for 2004 amounts to US $268.5 million. The target for voluntary contributions to the Technical Co-operation Fund for 2004 is US $74.75 million.
G. Key Political Allies:
IAEA's most cooperative and supportive allies are, the US, UK, France, and Germany. The British, French and German foreign ministers have persuaded the Iranians to meet the IAEA's demands for fuller disclosure of their nuclear program.
1. The United Nations should enforce decisions made by the IAEA, on countries that are reluctant to comply with their requests. a. Strict economic sanctions will be put in place by the Security Council. b. Financial aid will be frozen c. Military agreements will be nullified
2. Closer negotiation and cooperation should be initiated between the IAEA and officials of countries where there is insufficient control over black market sale networks of nuclear weapons.
3. Export controls and an increase in inspections on all sensitive nuclear technological sites across the globe must be tightened to prevent rogue states from developing atomic weapons.
Nuclear Weapons are explosive devices designed to release nuclear energy on a large scale, and are used largely in military applications. However, as technology is rapidly developing, it is becoming easier for nuclear technology to fall in the hands of corrupt governments and terrorist organizations. The recent revelation of an international black market in nuclear weapons technology emanating from Pakistan has raised great concern around the world. The nuclear black market used by Pakistan's top atomic scientist to sell nuclear technology to Iran, Libya and North Korea may be far greater than initially feared. Iran's latest decision to break the IAEA seals on their Uranium Enrichment Program demonstrates how difficult it is to force countries that are not compliant with Committee decisions. Now that technology has advanced at such a rapid pace, and the availability of nuclear materials has drastically increased, the threat of a terrorist group building and detonating a nuclear bomb is very real.
The IAEA serves as a watchdog against the spread of nuclear weapons and yet, nuclear proliferation still occurs. If nuclear programs are not controlled, and nuclear proliferation is not curtailed, the long-term future of our world will become more and more unstable and uncertain.