Country: An American Policymakers
Guide to Iraq

Qatar MUN 2006

Student: Abdulaziz Al-Qatami

US Ambassador to Iraq



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The American National Anthem



The Star Spangled Banner

Oh, say! can you see by the dawn's early light
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming;
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there:
Oh, say! does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In fully glory reflected now shines in the stream:
'Tis the star-spangled banner! Oh, long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion
A home and a country should leave us no more?
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution!
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

Oh, thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved home and the war's desolation!
Blest with victory and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: "In God is our trust":
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.


The United States of America





An American Policymakers Guide to Iraq



The Republic of Iraq




The Iraqi National Anthem


Land of Two Rivers

Latin Transliteration

Watanun Mede Alalufqui
Janaha Warteda Majdalkadarati
Wishaha Burikat Ardulfurataini
Watan Abqariyyalmajd Azmen
Wa Samaha Wataha

Hathihilardu Lehibun Wa Sana
Wa Shumukhum La Tudanini Sama
Jabalun Yesmu Ala Hamilduna
Wa Suhulun Jassadat Finaliba
Babilun Fina Wa Ashourun Lena
Wa Binaltarikhu Yakhdallu Dia
Nahnu Finnasi Jamana Wahduna
Ghadbat Assayfi Wa Hilm Alanbiya.

Ya Saraya Albathi Ya Usdelarin
Ya Shumukh Alizzi Walmajd Ittalid
Izahafi Kalhawli Linnasrilmubin
Wab Athi Fi Ardina Ahdarrashid
Nahnu Jeelulbathl: Fajrulkadihin
Ya Rihab Almajd Udna Min Jadid
Ummatun Nabni Bi Azmin La Yalim
Wa Shahidun Yaqatfi Khatwa Shahid.
Shatunaljabbar Zahwun Wantilaq
Wa Qila Alizzi Yebniba Alrifag
Dumta Liburbi Malathan Ya Iraq
Wa Shumusan Tajalullayla Sabaha.



English:

A homeland that extended its wings over the horizon,
And wore the glory of civilization as a garment--
Blessed be the land of the two rivers,
A homeland of glorious determination and tolerance.

This homeland is made of flame and splendour
And pride unequaled by the high heavens.
It is a mountain that rises above the tops of the world
And a plain that embodies our pride.

Babylon is inherent in us and Assyria is ours,
And because of the glory of our background
History itself radiates with light,
And it is we alone who possess the anger of the sword
And the patience of the prophets.

Oh company of al-Ba'th, you pride of lions,
Oh pinnacle of pride and of inherited glory,
Advance, bringing terror, to a certain victory
And resurrect the time of al-Rashid in our land!

We are a generation who give all and toil to the utmost.
Oh expanse of glory, we have returned anew
To a nation that we build with unyielding determination.
And each martyr follows in the footsteps of a former martyr.

Our mighty nation is filled with pride and vigour
And the comrades build the fortresses of glory.
Oh Iraq, may you remain forever a refuge for all the Arabs





Country: An American Policymaker's
Guide to Iraq



Political Structure:

After the invasion in 2003 and the collapse of Saddam’s regime, the United States of America began the process of establishing a temporary Iraqi government. The US.-led coalition established the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA), which was headed by US. administrator L. Paul Bremer III. The CPA selected 25-members from the Iraqi Governing Council. The Iraqi Governing Council approved a temporary Iraqi constitution, which is known as the transitional administrative law in March 2004. The constitution consisted of Bills of Right, which had freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and other personal freedoms. This constitution regarded Islam as the dominant religion in Iraq.

Later Also, Iraq was governed for a year by the (CPA) Coalition Provisional Authority led by the United States and the United Kingdom. Iraq has the most power in this new constitution. To prove this according to Article 5, the Iraqi Armed Forces shall be subject to the civilian control of the Iraqi Transitional Government. Also, according to Article 4, the system of government in Iraq shall be republican, federal, democratic, and pluralistic, and powers shall be shared between the federal government and the regional governments, governorates, municipalities, and local administrations. Also, according to Article 6, the Iraqi Transitional Government shall take effective steps to end the vestiges of the oppressive acts of the previous regime arising from forced displacement, deprivation of citizenship, expropriation of financial assets and property, and dismissal from government employment for political, racial, or sectarian reasons.

On April 5, 2005, the Iraqi National Assembly made Jalal Talabani president, Adel Abdulmehdi and Ghazi Al- Yawar vice presidents, Ibrahim Al- Jaafari the Prime Minister. Iraq also has a Supreme Court, which is appointed by the Prime Minister. Ali Sistani is an important person in Iraq. He has played a very important political role in Iraq, to prove this Sistani increased political activism since 2003 and called for the formation of a constitutional convention.

On June 2004, the Iraqi Governing Council announced the establishment of a new Iraqi government, which was led by a Prime Minister and a president. The Iraqi Governing Council and the CPA selected the new government members. A deputy Prime Minister, two vice presidents, and a cabinet supported the leaders of the government. On June 28, the CPA transferred sovereignty to the new Iraqi short-term government. In January 2005, general elections were held to select a transitional National Assembly.

Kurdish leader Jalal Talabani is named president of Iraq, becoming the first non-Arab president of an Arab country. The national assembly ended two months when it elected Talabani to the largely ceremonial post.

Iraq had several political parties. But one of the most important parties was called the Arab Baath Socialist Party. The Iraqi Communist Party (ICP), the Kurdistân Democratic Party (KDP), the Patriotic Union of Kurdistân (PUK) were some of the political parties in Iraq.

The two Shia opposition parties were the Da‘wa Islamic Party and the Supreme Assembly of the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI). After the US invasion to Iraq, several parties formed a coalition called the Iraqi National Congress, which soon emerged as an important political force.

Kurdistan Democratic Party is one of the political parties in Iraq that was formed by a military group in Iraq’s northern border with Turkey. This part was founded by Mustafa Barzani. This political pary was considered the Iraqi anti- Saddam group. There are other Kurdistan Parties, such as the Kurdistan Communist Party, Kurdistan Democratic Socialist Party, Kurdistan Democratic National Party, and the Kurdistani Islamic Union. The Kurdistan Communist Party, a Kurdish splinter Party of the Iraqi Communist Party, was established in 1993.

The Islamic Dawa Party, an Iraqi political organization, is one of the main Shias political parties in Iraq. The party is headeby by a doctor called Ibrahim Al- Jaafari. The party was formed in the late 1950s by a group of Shia leaders, such as Mohammed Baqr Al- Sadr. It was created to combat communism, Baathist Arab socialism, and secularism.

The Jund al-Imam is a Shi'a grouping that was established in 1969. It was reconstituted in 1979, and is now led by Sa'd Jawad.

The Iraqi Islamic Party is a Sunni political party in Iraq. The party was founded in 1960. Its main goal was to evolve out the Muslim Brotherhood movement. The party was concealed during the regime of former President Saddam Hussein. Many of its members were forced to flee the country. The party returned to public life after coalition forces occupied Iraq. The Muslim Ulema Organization includes a group of Ulema and Sunni mosque imams. The Higher Secretariat for Fatwa and Islamic Teaching, Research, and Sufism includes a large group of Sunnis. Al-Hawza Al-Ilmia is a powerful Shi'a movement in Baghdad. Its elders are regarded as the final authority on religious and political matters for Shi'a worldwide.

The Iraqi Homeland Party was founded in Jordan in 1995, as a Sunni grouping with proclaimed liberal credentials. It is led by Mish'an al-Jaburi.

Sunni and Shi'a political parties have conflicting visions about the role of their communities in the country's past and in its future. There seems to be little that unites the followers of the two main branches of Islam in Iraq.

The Iraqi National Accord was created in late 1990 and it is largely made up of former Ba’athists and military officers who opposed Saddam Hussein's leadership. Their main constituency is Sunni Arabs in central Iraq and its secretary general is Dr. Iyad Alawi.

The Iraqi Homeland Party was founded in Jordan in 1995, as a Sunni grouping with proclaimed liberal credentials. It is led by Mish'an al-Jaburi.

The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan is the second major Kurdish ethnic party seeks an independent state for Kurds in Northern Iraq. It was based in Damascus, and aligned itself closely with the Syrian government, which trained and armed it along side Iran.

The Assyrian National Congress took up armed struggle against the Iraqi regime from 1982 under the leadership of Gewargis Khoshaba.

The Kurdistan Socialist Democratic Party is a splinter group from the KDP led by Muhammad Haji Mahmoud and it receives support from the PUK and Iran, and has bad relations with the KDP. Its executive council is based in Sulaymaniyya, where they participate in the PUK-led government.

The SCIRI is an Iraqi political party, which is supported by the Shia community. Its prior was on August 2003. It was led by Ayatollah Sayed Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim. The party was founded in 1982 after the failed assassination of Saddam Hussein. It was largely based in Tehran and during the Iran-Iraq War the Iranians recognized the SCIRI as the government of the Islamic Republic of Iraq. The party leaders toned down many of party beliefs and committed it to democracy and peaceful cooperation. SCIRI's power base is in the Shi'a-majority southern Iraq. The SCIRI are funded by Iran.

 

Geography:

Iraq has been one of the biggest and most powerful Arab states of the Middle East. In ancient times Iraq was called Mesopotamia, a Greek word meaning, "land between the rivers." This Middle Eastern country lies partly between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, a fertile area often regarded as the cradle of civilization. Its history dates back some 5,000 years.

Turkey on the north, Iran on the east, the Persian Gulf on the southeast, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia on the south, and Jordan and Syria on the west, border Iraq. The country has an area of 167,975 square miles. Its geographic coordinates are 33 00 N and 44 00 E. The country consists primarily of lowlands that seldom exceed 300 feet (90 meters) in elevation. The hills in northeastern Iraq rise into the Zagros Mountains, which extend along the border with Iran and reach an elevation of 12,001 feet (3,658 meters) at Rawanduz.

To the south and southwest, Iraq shares desert steppe with Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan. Part of the Syrian Desert extends into the country in the northwest. A region unique to Iraq is the marshy lowlands that surround the Shatt al 'Arab waterway and the union of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers just below Al Qurna. Palm trees and reed marshes cover the land here. The climate varies widely, according to region. Most of the climate is a desert climate with cold or dry winds. The northern mountains have a very cold climate.

The dispute over the Shatt-al-Arab waterway dates back in 1847 when a treaty called the Ezerum treaty was established. This waterway formed a boundary between the Ottoman and Persian empires. This waterway caused the Iraqi-Irani war (1980-1988). This waterway was very important to Iraq because the Shatt-al-Arab is Iraq’s only outlet to the gulf. The Shatt-al-Arab was also economically valuable to Iran as a route to export oil from Abadan. In March 1975, both Iraq and Iran signed a treaty called the Algiers Accord.

The dispute of the Kuwaiti-Iraqi border dates back in the 1960s, when Iraq never recognized Kuwait’s sovereignty. During the 1980s, Iraq accused Kuwait of slant drilling in Iraqi field oils. Iraq regarded Kuwait a natural part of Iraq that was taken off by the British Imperialism. In 1988 the boundary with Kuwait was outstanding problem. The problem was first fixed when a treaty between the Ottoman Empire and British officials was established.

There is another dispute (Saudi Arabia- Iraq). In 1922 the two countries decided to create a diamond-shaped Neutral Zone of approximately 7,500 square kilometers adjacent to the western tip of Kuwait. In this zone, neither Iraq nor Saudi Arabia would build permanent dwellings or installations In April 1975, an agreement signed in Baghdad fixed the borders of the countries. In Spite all of these disputes, Iraq didn’t have any of these territories (Kuwait- Shatt Al- Arab).

 

Natural Resources:

Iraq is the most beautiful country in the Middle East; therefore it has lots of natural resources. Iraq has more than 25 million date trees. Two vegetable plants, colocynth and licorice, grow naturally in Iraq, and the people have traditionally used licorice for fuel. Crops include barley, wheat, watermelons, tomatoes, dates, grapes, cucumbers, and oranges. Since Iraq is a very poor country, it can’t feed its people right now. This is due to the war that happened in Iraq in 2003. According to the IRIN (Integrated Regional Information Network), Iraq has poor security and a shortage of medical equipment. Also, according to Premiere Urgence (PU), the security in Iraq is considered the biggest impediment to delivering health care to needy Iraqis.

Wild animals of Iraq include gazelles, pigs, jackals, foxes, and rabbits. Among the many varieties of birds are ducks, partridges, and snipes as well as herons and others native to the marshes. Various species of water buffalo are bred in the marshlands, and rural people raise sheep, goats, and cattle. Iraq also has lots of petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, and sulfur.

Iraq has the world’s second largest oil reserves; it has more than 115 billion barrels of oil. Also, Iraq has at least 110 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Most of the oil is concentrated in southern Iraq (65%). However, fuel oil reinjection has increased oil thickness at Kirkuk, making it more difficult and expensive to get the oil out of the ground. Also, according to Tariq Shafiq, the Vice President of the Iraq National Oil Company (INOC), Iraq's oil development and production costs are among the lowest in the world. Also, Iraq doesn’t have access to the latest, state-of-the-art oil industry technology (3D seismic, directional or deep drilling, gas injection), sufficient spare parts, and investment.

According to (cia.gov), the population in Iraq is about 26,074,906. The Iraqis are considered the best-educated people in the Middle East. In our recent years (2005), the literacy rate is about 40.4%, and 95% of them are men. The Shias are sitting on the oil since most of the Shia lives in Southern Iraq. Also, according to this website: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/08/08/iraq/main634639.shtml, most of the oil is located in Southern Iraq. The rest of the oil is in Kurdistan, that’s why both the Shia and Kurds would not mind cutting up Iraq.

 

Cultural Factors:

The Iraqi culture is very INFLUENTIAL and HAS BEEN considered one of the most powerful countries in the Mediterranean region. Iraq had a population of more than 19 million in 1993, of whom about 77 percent were Arabs and 19 percent Kurds. A small percentage was Turkmen, Persians, and Assyrians. In July 2005, Iraq’s population was 26,074,906. Its population growth rate is 2.7% (2005). According to cia.gov, more than 40.4 % of the total population of Iraq is considered literate. Also, 95% of the Iraqis live in river valleys (Tigris and Euphrates).

Almost all Iraqis are Muslims; about 62 percent are followers of Shi'ah Islam and 34 percent follow Sunnah Islam. About 3 percent are Christians. The majority of Iraqis live in urban areas, including Baghdad, the capital, and by far the largest city. In recent years many rural people have moved to the larger urban centers, straining the government's ability to provide social services and causing unemployment, particularly among men 20 to 25 years old.

The Kurds, who inhabit the area north and northwest of Mosul, are followers of Islam and share a similar cultural heritage with the Arab population of Iraq. They have a distinctive history, however, and speak Kurdish, a member of the Indo-Iranian, rather than Semitic, family of languages. They have tried to assert their national identity and have demanded cultural and political autonomy, but the government has put down their protests with brutal force.

Until the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, Jewish merchants directed a major part of the trade in Basra and Baghdad, often in partnership with local Muslim merchants. Today, however, most of the Jews have gone to Israel, the United States, or Europe, and few Jews remain in Iraq.

Rural Iraqis have a tribal heritage dating back two or three generations. Most of them have farmed the land or raised livestock in one place all their lives. The number of nomads who migrate to different grazing lands with their flocks in spring and fall has decreased greatly, largely as a result of social welfare programs started by the government since 1958. Traditional Arab-Muslim values predominate in the rural areas, but people in the cities and towns lead lives similar to those in the West. Islam plays a major role in the lives of most Iraqis, both rural and urban. They visit the mosque on Friday for the weekly reading of the Koran and prayers, and they observe religious holidays.

The ethnic groups in Iraq are: Arab (75%-80%), Kurdish (15%-20%), and Assyrian and Turkoman (5%). The religions in Iraq are Islam (97%), and Christianity and Kurdish (3%). Iraqis mainly speck the following languages: Arabic, Kurdish, Assyrian, and Armenian.

The Sunni Arabs account 20% of Iraq’s population, while the Shias account 65% of Iraq’s population. Shia Arabs have made attempts to contain their religious identity to the framework of the Iraqi state. From the late 1940s to the mid-1950s, the Shia made up the majority of the membership of the Iraqi Communist Party (ICP). The Iraqi Shia also became supporters of the al-Dawa and al-Mujahidin parties. The Shias live mostly in central and southern Iraq, and the Sunnis live principally in the north. The Assyrians are a non-Arab and Christian people whose ancestral homeland is in Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. They constitute some 3 to 5 percent of the Iraqi population. Also, a very large number of Assyrians joined the Iraqi Communist Party.

Although the Shias had little representatives to run the government during the monarchy period, they made significant progress in the educational, business, and legal fields. Shias practice differs from that of the Sunnis concerning both divorce and inheritance in that it is more favorable to women. Also, the Shias continued to make good progress in the economic field as well during the 1980s. The conflict between the Shias and the Sunnis dates back between 687-692, when a civil war occurred.

Christians of Iraq trace their ancestry to the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians. They are known by various names such as Assyrians or the Chaldeans. Christians in Iraq are estimated to be about 3 to 5 percent of the population. During Saddam's wars with the Kurds, hundreds of Assyrian villages were destroyed. Their inhabitants were caused to be homeless. They were also driven out of their historic homeland, and scattered as refugees in large cities or the neighboring countries. Dozens of ancient churches some dating to the early centuries of Christianity were bombed and destroyed. Assyrians were forced to give their children Arabic names in an effort to undermine their true identity. The Persians, Mongols, Turks, and Arabs have oppressed the Assyrians over the last several centuries. Nearly two thirds of the Assyrian population has died in the last 50 years. Another 1.8 million Assyrians live outside of Iraq in Iran, Syria, the US., Australia, and Europe.

The Sunnis are traditionally dominated in Iraq. For many years Arab Sunnis who tended to come from a restricted area around Baghdad, Mosul, and Ar Rutbah ruled Iraq. In the 1980s, not only was President Saddam Husayn a Sunni, but he was the vice chairman of the ruling Baath Party. One of the deputy prime ministers and the defense minister were also Sunnis. The traditional strategy of Sunni leaders throughout history was to make the Shia fight each other and triumph due to their unity.

 

Defense:

The Iraqis are capable of forming a very strong army. Some of the most popular Iraqi military branches are Iraqi Regular Army (includes Iraqi Special Operations Force, Iraqi Intervention Force), Iraqi Navy (former Iraqi Coastal Defense Force), and Iraqi Air Force (former Iraqi Army Air Corps). The military service age in Iraq is 18 years old and its an obligation to male citizens,

The Iraqi Interim Government is creating a new professional Iraqi military force of men aged 18 to 40 to defend Iraq from external threats and the current insurgency. All the military consists of males. The military manpower availability is males between 18 to 49 years old and they are altogether about 5,870,640 (armed forces 429,000 active and 650,000 reserves, air force 35,000, and navy 2,000). The military manpower fit for service is also males between ages 18 to 49 years old and they are altogether about 4,930,074. Manpower reaching military service age annually is 298,518 males. The military expenditures dollar figure (military budget) is about $1.3 billion.

The Iraqi regular army of 350,000 soldiers was made up of five army corps, including 17 divisions (3 armored, 3 mechanized and 11 infantry). Before the Gulf war of 1991 the Iraqi air force had about 750 Russian and French-made aircraft, but it lost most of them in the war and more than 130 aircraft were flown to Iran to avoid being destroyed by coalition forces. The Iraqi air defense forces had almost 17,000 people. In the last 12 years it sustained heavy losses because of continued American and British attacks and sanctions imposed on Iraq. Manpower available for military service in Iraq is 5,870,640 (the age of 18-49)- (2005 est.).

Because of the problems that Iraq is facing right now like the terrorist attacks and the death of many innocent people, it is going to be hard for Iraq to form a stable army. During Iraq’s old times, Saddam had pointed out certain Iraqi leaders that trained the army, but now no one is training them and the US is busy training there own army. The US claims that they are trying to organize Iraq as a whole and then leave Iraq train there military by themselves, well it is proven by many countries that Iraq has the ability and the energy to do this but this wouldn’t happened until the US leave Iraq. Training a big army could be accomplished in less than five years since the US is claiming that they will leave Iraq as soon as possible.

Many western countries believe that Iraq is still keeping some nuclear and biological weapons. According to the UN and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports, Iraq does not have any nuclear nor biological weapons. Biological weapons were used in the past during Saddam’s leadership by Iraq against the Kurds and neighboring countries, but they don’t have them any more.

The Iraq Coalition troops are the non-US troops in Iraq. The size and capabilities of the Coalition forces involved in operations in Iraq has been a subject of much debate, confusion, and at times exaggeration. As of July 1, 2005, there were 26 non-US. military forces participating in the coalition and contributing to the ongoing stability operations throughout Iraq. These countries were: Albania, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, El Salvador, Estonia, Georgia, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, United Kingdom, and Ukraine. These troops are protecting a big part of Iraq, and if they left tomorrow Iraq wouldn’t survive with the US troops alone.

On average, 22 percent of all US. servicemen were stationed on foreign soil during 1950-2000. In 2003, 27 percent were deployed. There have been an average of 2.33 million military personnel on active duty per year from 1950-2000. During the past 50 years, 54 different countries have hosted 1,000 or more US. troops at one point. During the typical year, 20 countries hosted more than 1000 US. soldiers. Britain's armed forces could struggle to respond to a sudden emergency because of recent commitments around the world (according to bbc.co.uk). The current level of troop commitments has an impact on soldiers being ready for more operations. British troop deployments currently include Kosovo, Bosnia, Iraq and the Gulf region, and Sierra Leone.

 

Enemies of the coalition:

1. Pro-Saddam loyalists:

A group of Saddam Hussein loyalists calling itself al Awda, formed an alliance with Islamist militants linked to al Qaeda for a full-scale uprising against the US. The Islamists have indicated they are willing to join forces to battle the Americans, even though they dislike Saddam and the Ba'ath Party ideology. Al Awda is well financed. When the Baath Party has been banned it affected nearly 15,000 and 30,000 Saddam Hussein loyalists. This is the majority (70%) of the opposition, but in American speeches they very rarely mention these people. They want to make it seem the opposition is also Al-Qaeda members and their allies. They don’t want to make it seem like a national revolt against foreign occupation (which it is to most of these people).

 

2. “Foreign” fighters:

Hundreds of foreign fighters who died in Iraq over the last two years reveals that a majority came from the same country as most of the 9/11 hijackers which is Saudi Arabia. They are among more than 400 militants from 21 countries who died in Iraq for the past two years. The US. military also says Saudi Arabia and Syria are the leading sources of insurgents. However, some countries are providing them such as: Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, the Palestinian territories, Sudan, Tunisia, and Yemen. All of these foreign fighters are religiously motivated since most of these fighters come from Saudi Arabia.

 

3. Possible enemies and armed militias:

1. The Sadr Army:

An army known as the Mahdi or Jaish al Mahdi is a militia force formed in June 2003 by an Irai Shia called Muqtada al-Sadr. The Islamist militants rose to international prominence on April 4, 2004 when it spearheaded the first major armed confrontation against the U.S-led occupation forces in Iraq. The group is armed with AK-47 Kalashnikov assault rifles, rocket propelled grenades, mortars, and other light weapons. Since August, the army and al-Sadr have not challenged coalition troops on a very wide scale. The coalition has made no actions to arrest al-Sadr. They have not challenged the Army's de facto control over a number of areas in southern Iraq. The Army continues to provide security in a number of southern cities. The US and Iraq has essentially left an armed militia in place. This is for obvious practical reasons: they can’t spare the troops to control it.

 

2. SCIRI (Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq):

An Iraqi political party, which is supported by the Shia community. Its prior was on August 2003. It was led by Ayatollah Sayed Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim. The party was founded in 1982 after the failed assassination of Saddam Hussein. It was largely based in Tehran and during the Iran-Iraq War the Iranians recognized the SCIRI as the government of the Islamic Republic of Iraq. The party leaders toned down many of party beliefs and committed it to democracy and peaceful cooperation. SCIRI's power base is in the Shi'a-majority southern Iraq. *The SCIRI are funded by Iran.

 

Economy:

While Iraq had a vibrant a fairly diverse socialist economy prior to the 1980s, wars with Iran, Kuwait, and the subsequent embargo destroyed much of this economy. The first commercial oil field in Iraq was developed in Kirkuk in 1927 by the Iraq Petroleum Company. This largely British-owned firm obtained an exploration agreement from the Iraqi government for the provinces of Mosul and Baghdad. Other companies obtained similar agreements, and Iraq became one of the major petroleum-producing countries of the Middle East. The industry was fully nationalized by 1975. Exports of crude oil have been supplemented in recent years by the production of natural gas, and refineries have been built for oil used locally. Manufacturing was extremely important in Iraq during the mid 1970’s. It received assistance from many countries, including the Soviet Union. However, manufacturing in Iraq now is very little. To prove this, in 1986, the manufacturing in Iraq accounted 6% of its GDP.

Other major manufactures that Iraq exports include dates and cement, which go mainly to Arab and European countries. These shipments help balance Iraq's expenditures for foods, consumer goods, and other imports. The Persian Gulf War of 1991 and the trade sanctions that lasted long after the war upset Iraq’s trade balance. Since the 1990s, however, revenues have been severely reduced due to economic sanctions imposed by the international community in response to Iraq’s continued military aggression.

In May 1996 the United Nations and Iraq reached an agreement that would allow Iraq to sell 1 billion dollars' worth of oil every 90 days, with most of the proceeds going to purchase food and medicine for the civilian population suffering the effects of the continuing sanctions. One third of the money earned by the oil sales was to go into a fund to compensate victims of Iraq's August 1990 invasion and subsequent occupation of Kuwait.

In December 1999, the United Nations asked Iraq to export as much oil it has to meet the humanitarian needs. In 2001, Iraq’s GDP dropped suddenly due to the low oil prices. After the invasion in Iraq (2003), the economy in Iraq was destroyed due to the damage of the war.

Oil production accounts 95% of the economy in Iraq. According to cia.gov, (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html), manufacturing plays an important role in Iraq’s economy. Iraq’s industries produce petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, and food processing. Iraq’s agricultural products are wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton, cattle, and sheep. Iraq’s total export is $15.8 billion and its total import is $11 billion. Iraq’s export partners are US 46.2%, Italy 12.2%, France 9.6%, and Spain 8.6%. Iraq’s import partners are France 22.5%, Australia 22%, China 5.8%, and Russia 5.8%. In 2004, Iraq’s GDP was $54.4 billion and its GDP real growth rate is 52.3%.

According to cia.gov, Iraq has lots of industries that produces products other than oil. Its products are petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication and metal processing.

In 1976, agriculture contributed about 8 percent of Iraq's total GDP, and it employed more than half the total labor force. Also, in 1986, agriculture continued to employ a significant portion--about 30 percent--of Iraq's total labor force. In spite all of this; the agricultural share of GDP remained small due to the overwhelming expansion of the oil sector. In the late 1950s, Iraq was self-sufficient in agricultural production, but in the 1960s it imported about 15 percent of its food supplies, and by the 1970s it imported about 33 percent of its food. In 1984, food imports consisted about 22 percent of total imports, which was due to the restrictions on water supplies caused by Syrian and Turkish dam building on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

Modern farming methods and irrigation have greatly increased Iraq’s agricultural production. Barley and wheat are the chief cereal grains. Rice is grown in the south, where water for irrigation is abundant. Iraq is the world’s largest producer of dates, the chief export crop. Cotton, sugarcane, and sugar beets also have significant commercial value. Livestock are also an important part of Iraq’s agricultural economy. Camels, sheep, and goats are raised in many parts of the country. Cattle are grazed in irrigated areas. Wool and animal hides are exported, and milk and meat are produced for local consumption.

Although Iraq's unemployment rate remains 30%, the Iraqi economy appears to be recovering rapidly from its condition just after the war due to the US. and international reconstruction aid. According to (www.osti.gov), the increase in the non-OPEC oil production was increased by the increase of oil prices on world markets.

According to cnn.com, the amount of money that the US gave Iraq since 2003 was $127 billion. However, The Bush administration formally canceled Iraq's $4.1 billion debt to the United States on 2004. The Iraqi Interim Government (IG) has founded the institutions needed to implement economic policy.

Traditionally, most Iraqis earned their livelihood by farming or raising livestock. Farmers lived in villages, usually in houses made of sun-dried mud brick. Most produced only enough to meet their own families' needs. Wheat and other cereal grains, fruits and vegetables, and milk made up the typical diet. Iraqis are also considered very hardworking people. Although farming is still the single most-important occupation, less than one third of Iraq’s labor force is now engaged in farm work. The government provides all citizens with free medical care, education, and other benefits. Iraqi women, unlike women in many Muslim countries, can hold jobs, own land, and inherit property.

The United States Treasury Department says hundreds of millions of dollars in held Iraqi property previously unaccounted for by the US-led occupying force in Iraq were used to pay the country's civil servants, hire a police force and buy security equipment. Many countries in the world think that the US is responsible for pushing Iraq to privatize its economy and, before that, for confiscating billions of dollars in Iraqi assets worldwide. The CPA has been accused lacking transparency, saying that it did not publicly account for the $4 billion that came from seized Iraqi assets in the US and from oil revenues generated since May. The US paid $232,321,604,177 to Iraq from 2003- 2006 (the amount is increasing every second, to see it, here is the source.

According to (cnn.com), the total exports in Iraq are about $10.1 billion and its imports are $9.9 billion. * With the fall of Saddam Hussein and the Ba'ath regime, Iraq has taken steps toward re-engagement on the international stage. Iraq has established diplomatic relations with over 60 countries and organizations.

With the destroyed economy, most people live off the oil industry either through checks from the government or employment. This is rather like Kuwait, but Iraq was not like Kuwait before the Kuwaiti War and the sanctions. It had agriculture and industry. Now it must divide its oil money among a large population. When the US disbanded Saddam’s army, a quarter million armed men lost their jobs. Most of them have joined the rebels that are why they had little to live for.

 

Views of World Problems:

The relations between Iraq and the US and UK is much more of what they call a benefit relationship. The US and the UK are both sending troops claiming that they want to reorganize Iraq while they are taking an advantage in getting some of the oil products.

Syria has been on the US. list of state sponsors of terrorism since the list's inception in 1979. Because of its continuing support and safe haven for terrorist organizations, Syria are subject to legislatively mandated penalties, including export sanctions and ineligibility to receive most forms of US. aid or to purchase US. military equipment. In 1986, the US. withdrew its ambassador and imposed additional administrative sanctions on Syria in response to evidence of direct Syrian involvement in an attempt to blow up an Israeli airplane. However, relations since the February 2005 assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Hariri have considerably deteriorated. In February 2005, in the wake of the Hariri assassination, the US. recalled its Ambassador to Washington for consultations. Every day 100s of Islamic fighters cross the Syrian border into Iraq. The US army just launched a major offensive to stop this. Syria is encouraging to do this because its letting foreign fighters to enter Iraq and fight with the US army. The key point to all of this is that Syria is letting the fighters to enter Iraq and kill as most American troops as they can.

Iraq is a member of many different international organizations and they are ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), WToO.

The international disputes in Iraq is that the coalition forces assist Iraqis in monitoring boundary security; Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq.

Because of both the Iranian-Iraqi War and the Arabian Gulf War, relations between Iraq and the world spoiled. There were bad relations with Iraq’s neighbor Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, but the both relationships after the USA has entered Iraq became much better politically and economically. The Kuwaiti borders with Iraq opened and economical trade with cars and many different things are being sold in Iraq. The Iraqi’s relations with Turkey were hostile because of the Tigris and the Euphrates, but everything after Saddam’s execution is being better. Syria is one of Iraq’s closest allies.

Because of the wars that Saddam caused during the past years, Iraq is still in debt with many countries. Some of these countries are Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Both countries loaned Iraq money and military power during the Iranian war, but Iraq never returned them.

It was proven that the UN is not using all the money taken from the oil sold from Iraq’s territories to develop Iraq. In fact, they were using the money to solve some other issues in the UN. So this is currently an issue Iraq is facing, and by using the money from Iraq’s products correctly, Iraq will for sure be able to solve all of there issues with the help and the aid of the UN and the rest of the nations.

If we look to the EU (European Union) relations with Iraq, we could see that the EU had no political or contractual relations with Iraq. its role was limited to implementing UN Security Council sanctions. However, the EU was an important actor in the humanitarian field. From 1992 onwards, the Community was the largest single donor of humanitarian assistance to Iraq after the UN. The EU has certain objectives in Iraq and some are: the development of a secure, stable and democratic Iraq, the establishment of an open, stable, sustainable and diversified market economy, and Iraq’s political and economic integration into its region and the international system.

 

History:

Iraq covers the land previously known as Mesopotamia. The history of Mesopotamia began with the civilization of the Sumerians, who emigrated from the highlands of Iran and northern Anatolia in about 3000 BC. There are many ruins and archaeological sites, including those of Ur and Babylon.

Muslim Arabs conquered Mesopotamia in the 7Th. century AD and Iraq became a major center for Islamic scholarship. Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 16Th. century until World War I.

At the end of the war, the League of Nations gave Great Britain a mandate to administer Iraq until it established its own government. Many Iraqis resented the British, and tribal rebellions broke out in northern Iraq in 1920. The British reacted by placing a member of the Hashemite family, 'Ali ibn Husayn, on the throne as King Faisal I in 1921. The Kingdom of Jordan is one of the countries that have The Hashemite Monastery. Therefore, Britain created a monarchy, but this was overthrown in 1958 when Iraq became a republic. Iraq gained independence in 1932, though certain special agreements with Great Britain for internal administration and foreign trade remained in effect. In 1945 Iraq became a founding member of the United Nations and the Arab League. As an independent nation, Iraq was a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system until 1958, when a group of army officers led a revolt that overthrew the government. The young Hashemite monarch, King Faisal II, and the regent, Crown Prince 'Abd al-Ilah, were both assassinated. Its new leader, Brigadier Abdul Karim Kassem, then declared Iraq a republic.

Other members of the group that had led the coup also sought power. A new organization, the Arab Socialist Resurrection Party, known as the Ba'th party, persuaded the army that Kassem should be overthrown. In 1963 the leader of the Ba'th party, Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr, overthrew Kassem and established the rule of the National Council for Revolutionary Command with a non-Ba'thist president, 'Abd as-Salam 'Arif. Kassem was then executed.

In 1965 a conflict broke out between opposing groups of Ba'thists in the council. One group wanted a union with Egypt, and the other favored an alliance with Syria. An attempted plot against 'Arif failed, but he later died in a helicopter accident. The National Defense Council then elected his brother, 'Abd ar-Rahman 'Arif, president. Struggles between Ba'th government officials and the pro-Egyptian Unionists continued until 1968 when Bakr took over the presidency in a coup.

In 1974 the Iraqi army decided to move into the northern province against the Kurdish rebels, who wanted to overthrow the new Iraqi regime. In March 1975 Iraq reached an agreement with Iran to settle the conflict. Many Kurds fled to Iran. Bakr's regime strengthened Iraq's ties with the Soviet Union, which had provided assistance in the war against the Kurds.

Relations with Iran remained strained, however. When the shah was overthrown in the 1979 revolution in Iran, Iraq at first supported the new regime, but the two countries went to war in 1980 after Iraq voided a treaty giving Iran passage rights in the Shatt al 'Arab waterway. Much discord also resulted from Iran's desire to extend its Islamic revolution to Iraq.

Bakr resigned as president of Iraq in 1979, and Saddam Hussein at-Takriti immediately succeeded him. Saddam seized power from 1979-2003. Saddam Hussein instituted the first legislative elections since the overthrow of the Hashemites in 1958. Despite the efforts of mediators, the war between Iraq and Iran escalated in the 1980s, and Iraq bombed several Iranian cities with missiles and chemical weapons. A cease-fire was declared in August 1988.

In July 1990 Iraq accused Kuwait of overproducing and stealing petroleum from a disputed oil field. After talks failed in early August, Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait, stormed the capital, overthrew the government, and annexed the country. The United Nations Security Council imposed a ban on all trade with Iraq, and a massive buildup of troops and weapons began in Saudi Arabia, as a coalition of nations, led by the United States, prepared to defend Saudi Arabia if needed.

Tensions between Iraq and the West over the ongoing economic sanctions continued through late 1997 and early 1998. In January 1998, a standoff over the issue of weapons inspections brought Iraq and the UN to the brink of warfare. The 1998 standoff began after Iraqi officials barred UN inspectors from conducting mandatory weapons inspections of several government compounds. United Nations officials argued that the Iraqi government had blocked the weapons inspection teams in order to conceal an ongoing program to create and store chemical, biological, and possibly nuclear weapons, a clear violation of the 1991 peace accord that ended the Gulf War.

In November 2002, Iraq accepted a UN resolution ordering the immediate return of weapons inspectors to Iraq. In 2003, it was reported that Iraq was not in full compliance with UN Security Council resolutions. The United States and the United Kingdom formed a military army to make a war against Iraq. In March 2003, the United States of America led the army to Iraq, which had these goals: removing Saddam Hussein and destroying the weapons of mass destruction. In December, the military army found Saddam Hussein in Tikrit.

On January 30, 2005, the Iraqis voted 275 members to run the Transitional National Assembly. In October 15, 2005, the Iraqis approved a new constitution called the Constitution of Iraq. This constitution received a 79% yes vote, however, the Sunni Arab Iraqis opposed it. In December 15, 2005, the Iraqis voted for their National Assembly under the Constitution of Iraq.

 

The Ba’ath History (The rise of the Baath Party and the US involvement with Iraq):

From its earliest days, the Iraqi Baath Party relied upon and recruited college and high school students, as well as intellectuals and professionals. Most recruits were of urban Iraqi Arab origins. The party cell or circle was composed of three to seven members. It constituted the basic organizational unit of the party. The Baath Party remained underground during the 1950s. Members had little choice, since their call for the overthrow of the Iraqi monarchy and Syrian government meant they were liable to be arrested. The party promoted its ideology of pan-Arab secular nationalism with socialist leanings. In early 1988, the Baath Party began calling for parallelism between regional (qutri) and national (qawmi) goals. The Baath party embraced the principles of unity, freedom, and socialism. Although the party's efforts to create a unified Arab nation faced many problems, it did not abandon its goal of Arab unity. In addition, the United States became concerned at Qasim's ties to the Soviet Union. The US Central Intelligence Agency is believed to have backed the plot to assassinate him.

The party was again forced underground, and internal dissension over which tactics to use to achieve their political objectives rose among its members. The second attempt to overthrow Qasim in February 1963 was successful, and brought the Baathists to power for the first time. It was not until 1965 that the Baath overcame its ideological and personal rivalries. The party then reorganized under the direction of General al-Baqir as secretary general with Saddam Hussein as his deputy. Both men were determined to return the Baath to power. In July 1968, the Baath finally staged a successful coup, and al-Baqir became first Baathist president of Iraq. The Baath attempted to create a strong and unified Iraq, using political campaigns to eliminate what it called a harmful pre-revolutionary values and practices. The party concentrated on social inequality, fighting exploitation, apathy, lack of civil spirit, and sectarian loyalties. The Iraqi Baath Regional Command Council (RCC) was supposed to be the body, which makes decisions regarding party policy based on consensus. In practice, however, the party Secretary General Saddam Hussein, who since 1979 was party RCC chairman and president of the republic, made all decisions. Following the US-British occupation of Iraq, the Baath party was dissolved along with its affiliate organizations.

The United States of America came to Iraq to make it a democratic nation to improve its economy by rebuilding the infrastructure. The United States of American provided nearly $270,000,000,000 so far to Iraq since March 20, 2003 (note: the amount is increasing $1000 every second). The US main goal to enter Iraq is to remove Saddam Hussein regime and remove the Baath’s rule in Iraq since the Baath party killed lots of people including members in the party. After the removal of Saddam Hussein, the United States of America called for the establishment of a new government, which was called the Iraqi Governing Council. Saddam Hussein was captured by the American troops and he is serving his trial in Iraq for killing nearly millions of Iraqis.

The US relation and involvement with Iraq dated a very long time. However, these relations got stronger when the coalition forces from the US, UK, and other countries, invaded Iraq to spread peace in Iraq and stop Saddam Hussein regime. The United States has been a great friend to Iraq. It provided nearly $127 billion to Iraq. Also, the United States of America canceled $4 billion (Iraq’s debt to the US). Nearly more than two thousands soldiers were killed in Iraq since the invasion in 2003. The US military forces don’t only spread peace in Iraq, but it also provides aids including food and especially water to the Iraqi people.

 

 

 

Policy Statements



Issue #1: Infrastructure Repair

Before the invasion of Iraq in March 20, 2003, the Bush administration had considerable plans to help rebuild Iraq. According to (www.opensecrets.org), the US. Agency for International Development asked six US. companies to submit a $900 million contract to repair and reconstruct roads, water systems, schools, bridges, and hospitals in Iraq. The Six Companies* are:
1) Bechtel Group Inc.
2) Fluor Corp.
3) Halliburton Co. subsidiary Kellogg.
4) Brown & Root.
5) Louis Berger Group Inc.
6) Corp. and Washington Group International Inc.

According to (www.rebuilding-iraq.net), the Iraq Project and Contracting Office mission is to serve the people of the United States and Iraq by contracting delivering services, supplies, and infrastructure identified within the Iraqi Relief and Reconstruction Fund, a total $18.4 billion in resources allocated by the US. Congress on behalf of the American taxpayers for rebuilding Iraq. The Iraq Project and Contracting Office (PCO) manages approximately $13 billion of the $18.4 billion appropriated by the US. Congress to support the reconstruction of Iraqi infrastructure. This office is also responsible for all activities associated with program, project, asset, construction, and financial management of that portion of the reconstruction effort undertaken by the US. The PCO uses an interesting management structure where US. government employees, along with some representation from Iraq and other nations represent the "owner's" interest in the activity. The Project and Contracting Office announced in 2004 at Pentagon press briefing it has started more than 1,000 construction projects this year in Iraq. Also its is believed that by the end of 2004, 1,200 projects are finished. Over 140,000 Iraqis are working on Project Contracting Office projects. The office is responsible for rebuilding Iraq's infrastructure, which was damaged by war or neglect under the regime of Saddam Hussein. Schools have been a prime beneficiary of the project, with 31,100 already being renovated and work is progressing on 364. Fire stations, police stations, hospitals, health care clinics, roadways, and work on power grids are some of the areas the funds have been spent on. More than $2 billion has already been disbursed and more than $14 billion is committed to the project. The monies are part of the $18.4 billion allocated by the United States Congress as part of the Iraqi Relief and Reconstruction Fund for the rebuilding of Iraq. According to resolution # 1472, it gave the permission to administer, facilitate, and establish alternative locations, inside and outside Iraq, for the delivery of humanitarian supplies and equipment contracted by the Iraqi government. The resolution gave the Secretary General the authority to take necessary coordination as the situation in Iraq stabilizes and the program resumes. The council also stressed the right of the Iraqi people to determine their own political future and natural resources.

The USAID (United States Agency for International Development) helps Iraqis in reconstructing their country by working with Iraq's interim government. USAID programs are implemented in coordination with the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Coalition country partners, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and private sector partners. The USAID Mission in Iraq carries out programs in education, health care, food security, infrastructure reconstruction, airport and seaport management, economic growth, community development, local governance, and transition initiatives. Since 2003, USAID’s agriculture program has restored veterinary clinics, introduced improved cereal grain varieties, and repaired agricultural equipment, and trained farmers and ministry staff. USAID programs are helping expand production of wheat. In 2004 alone, the USAID program imported 4,000 tons of certified wheat seed, greatly improving crops on over 30,000 hectares. By 2004, USAID had rebuilt a series of crucial bridges, reconnecting Iraqi cities and provinces while reestablishing key commercial links to neighboring countries. USAID completed 36 detailed assessments and demolished irreparable bridge sections in the rebuilding of three key bridges: the Al Mat Bridge, the Khazir Bridge, and the Tikrit Bridge. USAID also assisted with the construction of 72 kilometers of new track and rail facilities between the Port of Umm Qasr and Shuaiba Junction, located west of Basrah, and connecting to the Baghdad trunk lines. USAID’s Infrastructure Reconstruction program restored two of Iraq’s most important international airports. USAID helped airports meet international standards necessary to handle commercial traffic.

The United States of America has provided billions of dollars to Iraq to rebuild its infrastructure after the invasion in March 2003. President Bush highlighted examples of how services are being rebuilt in Iraq and how the society and economy is moving ahead, following on the November 30 release of the White House's "National Strategy for Victory in Iraq." The United States Congress also passed the “Iraq Liberation Act” in October 1998, which provided $97 million for Iraqi democratic opposition organizations in order to establish a program to support a transition to democracy in Iraq. The United States of America strongly believes that the security for the workers is the first step to rebuild Iraq’s infrastructure. The United States of America also believes that security is an essential key towards success. The United States also applauds to the Iraqis most workers are eager to return to work after experiencing life threat situations such as explosions. The United States of America thinks that there is no doubt or any factor that stops Iraq to rebuild its infrastructure. To prove this, the Council adopted resolution # 1483 on 22 May 2003 by a vote of 14 in favor (it was 14 because Syria didn’t participate in the voting). The resolution lifted civilian sanctions imposed on Iraq for the past 13 years. It also granted temporary governing powers to the United States and its led partners, along with a UN Special Representative, until the Iraqi people establish an “internationally recognized, representative government” and assume the responsibilities of the authority. According to the resolution, the UN Special Representative assumes several responsibilities, which include coordination of UN activities in Iraq. The Council also permitted the full continuation of oil sales, and extended the oil-for-food program for six months. The United States, which led the March 2003 invasion to topple former dictator, Saddam Hussein is the biggest contributor to efforts to rebuild the country. It also spends billions of dollars keeping some 160,000 troops on the ground. According to yahoo news, in 2004, the US Congress pledged $18.4 billion for projects in Iraq such as rebuilding power stations and hospitals. The economic purpose of infrastructure, roads, telephones, the Internet, an education system is that it aims to establish a better understanding of the links between infrastructure, sustainable development, and growth and to establish principles to guide government decision-making.

The purpose of the US invasion in Iraq in terms of economy is that it invaded Iraq to rebuild it economy after Saddam Hussein destroyed and devastated the Iraqi economy. The United States of America and other countries in the world expect Iraq to help and cooperate with the American troops and the coalition forces in Iraq. Given that 95% of the Iraqi economy comes from oil and that the price of oil in the US is extremely high, the United States of America thinks that repairing oil pipelines is a higher priority rather than fixing old electrical plants. The United States of American thinks that Iraq needs more security near the oil pipelines since insurgents are attacking now on the 100,000s of miles of pipeline other than on US tanks. The United States of American requests and urges all countries to help Iraq and strengthen its security. The United States of America thinks that if the Iraqi insurgents destroy a small section of the pipeline, the oil industry will immediately shut down, which will cause the devastation of the both the Iraqi and the US economy since both will lose billions of dollars. The United States of America thinks that by shutting the oil industry and by strengthening the security near the pipelines, the US will spend more money on the pipeline and they would spend less money on the infrastructure.




Issue #2: United States Occupation

The 2003 Iraqi invasion happened on March 20, when combined forces of the United States and the United Kingdom (both have a total of 98%) and other several nations invaded Iraq to remove Saddam Hussein regime. On May 1, 2003, George W. Bush declared the end of major combat operations after removing the Baath Party’s rule and removing Saddam Hussuein. United States military operations were conducted under the code name Operation Iraqi Freedom as quoted by George W. Bush on April 3, 2003. Approximately 100,000 Unites States soldiers and 26,000 British soliders entered Iraq by passing Kuwait. There have been 2,381 coalition deaths, and among them are 2,182 Americans in the War of Iraq since January 5, 2006 (wikepdia.com). A military occupation was established and run by the CPA (Coalition Provisional Authority), which later appointed and granted limited powers to an Iraq Governing Council. On Ocotober 11, 2002, President Bush's senior adviser on the Middle East, Zalmay Khalilzad, released U.S. government plans to establish an American-led military administration in Iraq. The United States has stated its plans to enter into what it calls a security agreement with the new Iraqi government and maintain military authority until a new Iraqi army is established.

The US policy towards the US occupation in Iraq has two points of view. In the United States of America, the Americans are divided in two groups; some reject and oppose the invasion of Iraq, while some support it. Mainly, the United States of America would like its troops to stay in Iraq, since it wants to ensure the security of the Iraqis. If the security in Iraq became better, a plan would be established by the US, and all the coalition forces will be divided into four groups and each group would exit Iraq into different directions. However, the United States of America thinks that if the coalition forces exit Iraq, then UN peacekeeping troops will enter Iraq and will also be placed near the borders to provide security to the Iraqis.

The United States of America thinks that if the coalition forces decide to exit Iraq, it has to do that as soon as possible without losing the massive potential economic benefits of Iraq's oil industry. The United States of America thinks that there should be contracts with the Iraqi oil industry between Iraq and the US since Iraq owns $123 billion (before it was $127 billion but the US canceled $4 billion of the debt). The United States of America also thinks that its troops left Iraq, there also should be foreign trade between these two countries. The United States of America thinks that UN troops will be sent to check on the government, to see if its violating the UN charter.

Nearly two years after the war in Iraq began, coalition forces continued to battle rebels. As recognized in UN. Security Council resolution 1546, the Coalition Provisional Authority will cease to exist on June 28th, at which point the occupation will end and the Iraqi interim government will assume and exercise full sovereign authority on behalf of the Iraqi people. Moreover, the UNSC has already endorsed the occupation of Iraq by a US-led “multinational force” through its unanimously adopted October 2003 Resolution 1511. According to the United Press International (UPI), the US military officials acknowledged there are an average of 26 attacks against coalition troops every day in Iraq. The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1546 in 2004 recognized the end of the occupation and the assumption of full responsibility and authority by a fully sovereign and independent Interim Government of Iraq.

American and allied forces have experienced gunfire and stone throwing while attempting to provide aid to Iraqis. The United States of America condemns terrorism in every way. It brings chaos, economy destruction, and most importantly the loss of innocent lives. Therefore, the United States of America the allied forces must stay in order to spread peace and harmony in Iraq. The United State of America would like to address to Iraq, that the Iraqis must stop the gunfire and stone throwing towards the soldiers since they (soldiers) risked their lives to establish a democratic government).

The United States of America thinks that all nations must help the US to establish and create a step-by-step plan to withdraw the allied forces out of Iraq. The United States of America was very shocked since lots of countries in the world opposed the idea of the invasion in Iraq. However, the United States of America wants to be clear that the coalition forces invaded Iraq, captured, and killed 200 wanted Iraqi leaders including the Saddam Hussein.

 

 

 

Resolution:

 

Student: Abdulaziz Al-Qatami
Forum: Iraqi Governing Council
Topic: US Occupation

Defining that according to dictionary.com, liberation is completely different from invasion, a liberation is the act or process of trying to achieve equal rights and status, while an invasion is the act of invading, especially the entrance of an armed force into a territory to conquer,

Keeping in Mind that the LIBERATION OF Iraq on March 20, 2003 brought peace to Iraq and made it a democratic country,

Bearing in Mind that according to wikipedia.org, there have been 2,381 coalition deaths since January 5, 2006,

Noting further that according to bbc.com, the regime of Saddam Hussein represented a direct threat because of its history of attacking neighbors, using chemical weapons, supporting terrorism, and continuously violating the Security Council’s resolutions,

Recognizing that the US “liberation” was just justified and the US may withdraw some troops in Iraq,

Taking Into Consideration that according to cnn.com, American and allied forces have experienced gunfire and stone throwing while attempting to provide aid to Iraqis,

Taking Into Account that according to cnn.com, the coalition forces captured and killed 200 wanted Iraqi leaders,

Deeply concerned that lots of countries in the world opposed the idea of the invasion in Iraq,

Keeping in Mind that 100,000 Unites States soldiers and 26,000 British soliders entered Iraq on March 20, 2003,

Taking Into Account that the United States purpose for staying in Iraq is to spread peace, liberty, and security to Iraq and the world,

Taking Into Consideration, according to wikipedia.org, oil industries and pipelines are being attacked in Iraq which causes both the US and Iraq’s economy to be destroyed immediately,

Keeping in Mind that according to cnn.com, the United States of America gave Iraq $127 billion and canceled $4 billion in debt,

Bearing in Mind that according to www.usaid.gov, the USAID (United States Agency for International Development) helps Iraqis in reconstructing their country; it also carried out many programs in education, health care, food security, infrastructure reconstruction, airport and seaport management, economic growth, community development, local governance, and transition initiatives,

Having Studied that according to yahoo news, in 2004, the US Congress pledged $18.4 billion for rebuilding power stations and hospitals,

Having considered that according to bbc.com, the economic purpose of infrastructure, roads, telephones, the Internet, an education system is that it aims to establish a better understanding of the links between infrastructure, sustainable development, and growth and to establish principles to guide government decision-making,

Bearing in Mind since the US troops will leave Iraq, a plan must be developed to withdraw the coalition forces,

Keeping in Mind that Iraq is improving since its liberation, which means that the American and the coalition forces can go home soon,

Having studied that according to cnn.com, Iraq is a democratic nation, therefore the US and the coalition forces can now leave Iraq,

Having Considered according to bbc.com, the elections that were made in Iraq during 2005 made Iraq a democratic nation, and the fact that Saddam Hussein’s regime and the Baath Party rule fell, the US troops can go home soon,

1) Resolves the sending of 40,000 Iraqi soldiers and these troops will:
A. Be located in five directions:
i.North,
ii. South,
iii. East,
iv. West,
v. Center,
B. Be equipped with weapons, such as guns, which will be provided by the Iraqi government,
C. Be chosen by the Iraqi Ministry of Defense according to their military knowledge,
D. Control the security by:
i. Monitoring targeted areas,
ii. Arresting rebels that makes actions against the Iraqi government,
iii. Reporting suspicious activities to the Iraqi government;

2) Resolves sending a letter to George W. Bush to:
A. Train 50,000 Iraqi soldiers by making them live in military camps for 2 years, they will be trained similar to clause 2, sub-clause b and they will:
i. Be chosen by the Iraqi president,
ii. Be equipped with guns and other military weapons,
iii. Be taught by US military experts, and the:
a. number of experts will be decided by the Iraqi Ministry of Defense,
b. will be chosen by the US,
B. Train 5,000 SCIRI militia troops and train 2,000 Sadr militia troops, and their weapons will be kept to themselves, but their weapons will be taken away by the Iraqi government if they perform actions against the government, and the SCIRI and the Sadr militia troops will:
i. Be trained by:
a. Using military camps provided by the Iraqi government, the location of the military camps will be determined after the resolution passes by the Iraqi government,
b. Being taught weapon lessons and survival lessons,
c. Using US military experts, and the number will be decided by the Iraqi Ministry of Defense,
ii. Be equipped with guns,
iii. Monitor the Iraqi citizens and streets during the night,
iv. Get their payments monthly by the Iraqi government;

3) Resolves the sending of 50,000 Iraqi soldiers after they are well trained, these soldiers are the same in clause 2, and after the US and the coalition forces are sent away from Iraq who will BE:
A. located in targeted areas (in oil industries and oil pipelines), and all the army will be located in the South,
B. monitoring and report activities to the Iraqi government, the soldiers will also report any violations made by the government to the SC and necessary actions will be performed by the SC,
C. Swearing a promise that he or she will not hurt the Iraqis or the government,
D. Equipped with adequate equipment such as guns, shields, helmets, and etc., and these guns will be provided by the Iraqi government,
E. Provided with metal detectors, satellites, cameras, and other security devices near oil pipelines to ensure that there is no attacks,
F. Turning their weapons if they once opposed the Iraqi government and involved in an operation against the new government, however, the Iraqi soldiers will regain their weapons back if they didn’t oppose or harm an Iraqi citizen,
G. Exit targeted areas and oil pipelines, when peace and security is ensured;
H. Have their payments coming from the Iraqi government, and the soldiers will receive their payments monthly;

4) Notes that a program would be established and its name will be the USIP (United States Iraqi Program), and the program will:
A. Assign George W. Bush (senior) as head of the program,
B. Set a date and time in which the US troops leave Iraq, and the US will withdraw its troops which will be determined by the events in Iraq,
C. Provide a list of 24 experts in oil industries and oil pipelines and they will:
i. Come from around the world (4 in North America, 4 in South America, 4 in Europe, 4 in Asia, 4 in Africa, and 4 in Australia),
ii. Be chosen by the country’s government according to their knowledge,
iii. Check on oil industries and pipelines that were attacked and destroyed,
iv. Fix the damages of oil pipelines and oil industries by using equipment and kits that will be provided by the UN,
v. Send a special report explaining the situation to the UN and the Iraqi government,
vi. Be sent to Iraq immediately when the resolution passes,
vii. Be located in oil industries and oil pipelines, mainly will be located in the South,
D. Appoint Iraqi economic experts and number of the experts will be determined by Iraq, these experts will study the economy in Iraq after the US and the coalitions forces leave Iraq,
E. Monitor the movement of the aid (example: money, food, and etc.…) by checking these aids every 5 months;

5) Further Reminds those countries who participate in the program and provide these experts, will receive incentives such as:
A. Money (financial aid), which will be provided by the US, the US will ask the World Bank to provide ADDITIONAL money,
B. Medical Aids, which will be provided by the WHO (World Health Organization), which will include bandages, inoculations, medicines, and etc.;

6) Notes that all of the Iraqi troops (the soldiers, Sadr, and the SCIRI) will:
A. Be trained together in the same military camps,
B. Start working during the same time,
C. Monitor together in targeted areas and streets,
D. Have the same payments;

7) Urges the Iraqi people to cooperate fully with the US troops since it’s impossible to exit the US troops all at once;

 

 

 

Opening Speech:

Honorable Chair Fellow Delegates,

President Bush once said, “"If someone committed a crime, they will no longer work in my administration."  - 7/18/05 and I want justice...There's an old poster out West, as I recall, that said, 'Wanted: Dead or Alive,'" -9/17/01. The United States of America is a country whose main goal is to spread peace, joy, security, liberty, happiness, pleasure, and harmony throughout the world. The United States of America aided lots of countries.

The United States of America helped Iraq to become a democratic country after removing Saddam Hussein’s regime.

The world is facing lots of problems such as humanitarian crisis, wars, and natural disasters. YET The situation in Iraq is improving greatly and every day due to the help of the coalition forces and the friendly Iraqis.

The United States of America knows that thousands of American lives have been lost, but these soldiers made a very important task which was spreading peace in Iraq and ensuring the safety of Iraqis. Therefore, the US can begin the process of withdrawing its troops.

The United States of America also thinks that the Iraqi army must be trained in military camps and must be well equipped with necessary supplies. After they are equipped and trained, then the US and the coalition forces will exit Iraq. These soldiers must be placed in oil industries and pipelines since lots of explosions happen there which causes the economy of Iraq and the US to be destroyed. The US thinks that chaos would happen if all the US troops exit in one direction since there are more than 100,000 US troop present in Iraq. Therefore the US would like to request the help and the cooperation of the Iraqis with the US troops. We are here to solve problems, ladies and gentleman, not to create them.

Thank You,