Country: Brazil


Event: AMMUN 2006

Students:
Abdulaziz Al-Mutawa, Security Council and Ambassador
Dalal Al-Jassim, General Assembly A
Sara Al-Sayer, ECOSOC



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The Brazilian National Anthem



Brazil

Ouviram do Ipiranga às margens plácidas
De um povo heróico o brado retumbante,
E o sol da liberdade, em raios fúlgidos,
Brilhou no céu da Pátria nesse instante.

Se o penhor dessa igualdade
Conseguimos conquistar com braço forte,
Em teu seio ó liberdade,
Desafia o nosso peito a própria morte!

Ó Pátria amada
Idolatrada
Salve! Salve!

Brasil de um sonho intenso, um raio vívido,
De amor e de esperança à terra desce
Se em teu formoso céu risonho e límpido
A imagem do Cruzeiro resplandece

Gigante pela própria natureza
És belo, és forte, impávido colosso,
E o teu futuro espelha essa grandeza,

Terra adorada!
Entre outras mil
És tu, Brasil,
Ó Pátria amada

Dos filhos deste solo és mãe gentil,
Pátria amada
Brasil!

Deitado eternamente em berço esplêndido,
ao som do mar e à luz do céu profundo,
Fulguras, ó Brasil, florão da América,
Iluminado ao sol do Novo Mundo!

Do que a terra mais garrida

Teus risonhos lindos campos tem mais flores,
"Nossos bosques tem mais vida"
"Nossa vida" no teu seio "mais amores"

Ó Pátria amada
Idolatrada
Salve! Salve!

Brasil, de amor eterno seja símbolo
O lábaro que ostentas estrelado,
E diga o verde-louro dessa flâmula
- paz no futuro e glória no passado
Mas se ergues da justiça a clava forte,

Verás que um filho teu não foge à luta,
Nem teme, quem te adora, a própria morte,

Terra adorada!
Entre outras mil
És tu, Brasil,
Ó Pátria amada
Dos filhos deste solo és mãe gentil

Pátria amada
Brasil!


English:

The peaceful banks of the Ipiranga
Heard the resounding cry of an heroic people,
And the dazzling rays of the sun of Liberty
Bathed our country in their brilliant light.

If with strong arm we have succeeded
In winning a pledge of equality,
In thy bosom, O Liberty,
Our hearts will defy death itself!

O adored Fatherland,
Cherished and revered,
All hail! All Hail!

Brazil, a dream sublime,
vivid ray of love and hope to earth descends,
Where in your clear, pure, beauteous skies
The image of the Southern Cross shines forth.

O country vast by nature,
Fair and strong, brave and colossus,
Thy future mirrors this thy greatness.

O land adored
Above all others,
'Tis thee Brazil,
Beloved Fatherland!

Thou art the gentle mother of the
children of this soil,
Beloved land,
Brazil!

Laid out eternally in the splendor of nature,
In the sound of the sea and the light of heaven,
may thou shine, O Brazil, flower of America,
Illumined by the sun of the New World!

More flowers put forth in thy fair, smiling fields
Than the in the most gorgeously reputed lands;
"More life is to be found in the groves",
"More love in our lives" in thy embrace.

O adored Fatherland,
Cherished and revered,
All Hail!
All Hail!

May the star-scattered banner flown by thee,
Brazil, become the symbol of eternal love,
And may the green-gold flag proclaim always
- Peace in the future and glory in the past -

But if the mighty sword of justice drawn forth,
You will perceive your children, who adore you,
neither fear to fight,
nor flee from death itself.

O land adored
Above all others,
'Tis thee Brazil,
Beloved Fatherland!

Thou art the gentle mother of
the children of this soil,
Beloved land,
Brazil!


Brazil


 

 

Country Profile

 

Political Structure (aziz)

Brazil took its independence from Portugal on the 7Th. of September 1882 to form a Federal Republic. The constitution followed today was set on the 5Th. of October 1998. Brazil constitutes of 26 states and one federal district. The legal system in Brazil is based on Roman codes. Voting is voluntary between the ages of 16 and 18 and for those above 70. Otherwise, it is compulsory to vote. Those who are serving in the military do not vote.

The president is both the chief of state and the head of government. Currently, the chief of state is President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); and the Vice President is Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003).

The president and the vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; the last election was held on the 6Th. of October 2002 (next to be held 1 October 2006). The president appoints the Cabinet.

Bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members from each state and federal district elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a four-year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

There are many political active parties in Brazil, to name some: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB; Democratic Labor Party or PDT; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD.

Federalism, is a colorful topic in Brazil. Brazilians are not very proud of the whole federalist idea. Although federalism does have a role in organizing the country, the people are simply not ready for such order. A person can say that the 3 branches exist, but are 25 % efficient only. The executive branch is doing all of the work meaning the president and some of the cabinet. The judiciary is only used in major crimes, and the legislative was used 30 years ago when the laws were made. The whole system of checks and balances has been renamed checks only, where the president checks up on his cabinet only. The biggest province in Brazil la Amazons actually covers 70 % of the country does have some supporters of the federalist government while it houses many people who are against the concept of federalism. However considering South American history to know that some kind of government exists does better that know that a terrible government exists.

Despite the fact that the Amazon is the biggest province in Brazil its governor of this area does have the right to a lot of power however some progress has been made. Compared to other large areas in the world such as Siberia, there's is some percent of a difference in power ability. The governor of Siberia is only a figure or a puppet however the one in the Amazon is a puppet without strings or in other words he is free to do what ever he wants BUT with very uptight limits.

 

Geography

The first that comes to mind when a person thinks Brazil, is Trees. Brazil has Forests, and jungles, Rivers, banks, the whole fairy tale. Sadly deforestation is destroying all the remaining greenery in the nation. Brazil is characterized by the extensive low-lying Amazon Rain forest in the north and a more open terrain of hills and low mountains to the south - home to most of the Brazilian population and its agricultural base. Along the Atlantic seacoast are also found several mountain ranges, reaching roughly 2,900 meters (9,500 ft) high. The highest peak is the Pico da Neblina (Myst's Peak) reckoning 3,014 meters (9,735 ft) of altitude, in Guyana's highlands. Major rivers include the Amazon, the largest river in the world in flowing water volume, and the second-longest in the world; the Paraná and its major tributary, the Iguaçu River, where the impressive Iguaçu falls are located; the Negro, São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira and the Tapajós rivers.

Located mainly within the tropics, Brazil's climate has little seasonal variation. In southern most Brazil, however, there is subtropical temperate weather, occasionally experiencing frost and snow in the higher regions. Precipitation is abundant in the humid Amazon Basin, but more arid landscapes are found as well, particularly in the northeast.

With its expansive territory, Brazil occupies most of the eastern part of the South American continent and its geographic heartland, as well as various islands in the Atlantic Ocean. The only countries in the world that are larger are Russia, Canada, China, and the United States (including Alaska). The national territory extends 4,395 kilometers from north to south and 4,319 kilometers from east to west. It spans four time zones, the westernmost of which, in Acre State, is the same as Eastern Standard Time in the United States. The time zone of the capital (Brasilia) and of the most populated part of Brazil along the east coast is two hours ahead of Eastern Standard Time, except when it is on its own daylight savings time, from October to February. The Atlantic islands are in the easternmost time zone.

On Brazil's East Coast, the Atlantic coastline extends 7,367 kilometers. In the west, in clockwise order from the south, Brazil has 15,719 kilometers of borders with Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guyana. The only South American countries with which Brazil does not share borders are Chile and Ecuador. A few short sections are in question, but there are no major boundary controversies with any of the neighboring countries.

Although 90 percent of the country is within the tropical zone, the climate of Brazil varies considerably from the mostly tropical North (the equator traverses the mouth of the Amazon) to temperate zones below the Tropic of Capricorn. Which crosses the country at the latitude of the city of Sao Paulo. Brazil has five climatic regions--equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, and subtropical.

 

Natural Resources (AZIZ)

When you start your research about the Natural Resources you will find Brazil very rich in several resources. But the first that comes to mind when a person thinks Brazil, is Trees. Brazil has Forests, and jungles, Rivers, banks, the whole fairy tale. Sadly deforestation is destroying all the remaining greenery in the nation. Bauxite, or Aluminum Ore, is the raw material most widely used in the production of aluminum on a commercial scale. It is available in large quantities in Brazil. Although it would require new facilities and technology, Al2O3 from these nonbauxitic materials could satisfy the demand for primary metal, refractors, aluminum chemicals, and abrasives.

Another Mineral that Brazil is rich is GOLD, as every reader knows gold, is considered to be the most precious mineral in the present world. Gold is a highly prized precious metal that for millennia has been used as money, a store of value and in jewelry. The metal occurs as nuggets or grains in rocks and in alluvial deposits and is one of the coinage metals. Modern industrial uses include dentistry and electronics. Gold forms the basis for a monetary standard used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). Its ISO currency code is XAU. Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark gray to rusty red. IT is usually found during heavy courses of mining, and / or by normal mountain mines. 220 Million Tons was the estimated production rate of iron ore in Brazil for the Year 2004. Estimated iron ore production in million tons for 2004, according to US. Geological Survey. Manganese is a gray-white metal, resembling iron. It is a hard metal and is very brittle, fusible with difficulty. Manganese is essential to iron and steel production by virtue of its sulfur fixing, deoxidizing, and alloying properties. Steelmaking, including its iron making component, has accounted for most manganese demand, presently in the range of 85% to 90% of the total demand. Among a variety of other uses, manganese is a key component of low-cost stainless steel formulations and certain widely used aluminum alloys. Another important mineral is Nickel is a silvery white metal that takes on a high polish. It belongs to the iron group, and is hard, malleable, and ductile. It is essential for the production in some jewelry products, as well as some fiber optics. An expensive metal that exists in Brazil is Platinum. Platinum is used in Jewelry, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts, dentistry, and automobile emissions control devices.

A mineral that has been the hot topic in the world recently is Uranium. Especially in the Iranian situation. Luckily Brazil has one of the largest uranium reserves worldwide, which cover the supply of domestic needs on the long run and oversupply will be available for the international market. In July/2001 the Country registered the sixth largest uranium geological reserve in the world. With circa 309.000t of U3O8 in the States of Bahia, Cear, Paran and Minas Gerais, among other locations.

An additional Luxury mineral that Brazil is proud to have is Petroleum! The fast-growing requirements of petroleum and petroleum by-products were met initially by imports. However, foreign-exchange difficulties, coupled with strategic considerations, led to efforts to reduce the country's dependence on imports. In the early 1950s, the government granted a near monopoly of the exploration, production, refining, and transportation of oil to the Brazilian Petroleum Corporation (Petróleo Brasileiro S.A.--Petrobrás), the state-owned oil company, and made resources available for investments. Emphasis was placed on the expansion of a domestic refining capacity because world oil prices were low and no problems were envisaged with oil supply. Thus, an important refining sector developed gradually.

In Brazil, ethanol fuel is produced from sugar cane which is a more efficient source of fermentable carbohydrates than corn as well as much easier to grow and process. Brazil has the largest sugarcane crop in the world, which, besides ethanol, also yields sugar, electricity, industrial heating and cachaça. Sugar cane growing requires little labor, and government tax and pricing policies have made ethanol production a very lucrative business for big farms. As a consequence, over the last 25 years sugarcane has become one of the main crops grown in the country.

Well, the obvious fact about Brazil is that it is green, but does anyone know anything about the greenery in Brazil? TIMBER! Timber contributes up to 27 % of the Brazilian market every year. Also many people seem to believe that the timber industry is just the cover for the underworld of drugs growing, Sadly to report due to the fertility of the Brazilian lands, many farmers are involved in the business of planting illegal drugs. The main point here is that Timber does generate immense amounts of money, but let us not forget the fact that while timber is being used, the forest is shrinking. Deforestration is literally killing the wildlife. 100 trees are being taken down every minute and 10 replace them! Brazil’s rain forest produces 70% of the world’s oxygen. They’re cutting down rain forests and planting to produce Alcool.

The question that every nation is discussing is " Can Brazil Support Nuclear industries?" Well Despite the fact that Brazil is the largest country in South America, the government sees no harm in investing in nuclear programs. Not that it would be illegal or anything, but a gesture of defense. Neighboring countries are constantly threatening nations such as the USA with weapons, and other issues; it is time for our government to take action. The government on its own is able to support the nuclear industry issue, however the budgets do not cover the program for many years. The nation is in need of funds for other programs, but as vital as this may seem, Brazil can support Nuclear programs, with the good intention that is.

 

Cultural Factors ( DALAL)

Brazil is known to be a country filled with rich culture and arts, differing in its ethnic groups, religions, original culture, languages, and so on.

Let’s start with the ethnic groups in Brazil. Culturally, Brazilian slaves are black, and the masters were white. 53.7% of Brazil’s different tribal/ethnic groups are whites. The mulattos (which are a mixture of a black and white culture) make up 38.5% of the general culture. Blacks make up 6.2% of the groups, and other tribes which include Japanese, and Amerindian make up approximately 0.9% of the culture in Brazil. Moreover, Brazil’s ethnic groups contain unspecified groups which only make up about 0.7% of all the groups.

Not only does Brazil have a wide variety of ethnic groups, but the religions also differ. The following are the religions found in this culture-rich country: Roman Catholics (73.6%), Spiritualists (1.3%), Protestants (15.4%), Bantus/voodoo beliefs (0.3%), other religions (1.8%), unspecified religions (0.2%), and people with no religion (7.4%). However, Roman Catholic is the original religion in Brazil, which is basically Christianity.

In fact, Brazil is the largest country in the world whose predominant religion is Roman Catholicism. When African black slaves were first brought to Brazil, they believed in their own gods, called Orixas, Voduns or Inkices. These cults were persecuted throughout most of Brazilian history, largely because they were believed to be pagan or even satanic. However, the Brazilian republican government legalized all of them on the grounds of the necessary separation between the State and the Church. So a lot of them became catholics. In conclusion, a very heavy dose of African culture in Brazil are catholic as well as caucasian peoples.

Moving on the origin of Brazil, the Portuguese were the first European settlers to arrive in the area. The Portuguese reportedly found native Indians numbering around seven million. Cultural life appears to have been richly developed from these natives, although tribal warfare was everywhere. The Portuguese who settled in Brazil also frequently intermarried with both the Indians and the African slaves. Because of this, Brazil has its unique and intermingled population, which isn’t found in other nations.

Most Brazilians possess some combination of European, African, Amerindian, Asian, and Middle Eastern ancestry, and this variety of cultural factors is a notable feature of current Brazilian culture. Sadly, however, this feature is somehow destroyed by the difference between the rich and the poor in Brazil. The culture is based on a free economy, which is the same as saying "let the rich be rich, and let the poor be poor". Brazil is based on capitalism, and so forbids the poor from forming such a revolution that would lead to communism, which can in fact destroy Brazil’s economy.

Next are the different languages, which are used on a daily basis in Brazil. These languages include the Portuguese, Spanish, English, and French language, Portuguese being the dominant language.

The high number of tribes in Brazil would be the cause for tribal wars, such as the Tamoio confederation, and the Portuguese followed as a result, sometimes with Indians siding with France, Portugal’s enemies, who also sometimes ally themselves to Portugal in their fights against other tribes.

Speaking of high numbers, let’s move on to Brazil’s great population. Brazil has the sixth largest population in the world- precisely 188,078,227 people -, which has doubled in the past 30 years. The population of indigenous peoples in Brazil has risen in the past 50 years to 300,000, grouped into about 200 tribes, because of changes made in the government policies, which managed to provide protection for these peoples.

Because of Brazil’s large population, crime throughout Brazil has reached very high levels, which affects the nation as a whole. Death rates rise, and the population decreases.

As mentioned in the natural resources, the richness of the Brazilian land caused many farmers to be involved in the business of planting illegal drugs, using the timber industry as a cover for the illegal growth of the drugs. Some drugs, which include cannabis and the Brazilian police and the Brazilian press report that the rate of crime continues to rise, especially in the major urban areas, though it is also spreading in rural areas. In 1992 Brazil's homicide rate of 37.5 per 100,000 residents surpassed that of the United States, with 22.76 per 100,000. Rates for other crimes are similarly high. For example, Rio de Janeiro registered 4,253 murders in 1993, up from 3,545 in 1992. Rio de Janeiro had seventy-two murders per 100,000 residents in 1993, compared with thirty per 100,000 in New York City. Meanwhile, Rio de Janeiro State spending on security dropped from 15 percent of the state budget in 1984 to 8 percent in 1994.However, the majority of crimes are not solved.

Lastly, we discuss the rich Brazilian celebrations. Traditional celebrations and Brazilian Folklore are among the richest and most expressive of the world, appearing in songs, legends, dances, beliefs, and literature.

The numerous traditions in Brazilian Folklore are so numerous that they sometimes interfere with the day to day life of the population! Some folklore traditions of Brazil spill out over the borders, attracting a large number of tourists from all over the world to visit.

The Brazilian culture also includes many historic events that occur throughout the year. In Pirenopolis, a historic city in the State of Goias, the celebration of the Holy Ghost, known as the Mounted Pilgrinage, is based on the historical conversion battles between the Christians and the Moors.

Brazilian folklore is present in theater, in popular skits, in music, with children's songs and lullabies, and in such traditional dances as Frevo, Maracatu, Maxixe, Folia de Reis and the Congada.

The largest and most popular celebration in Brazil is Carnival. For three days and nights, the country turns around the merrymaking of King Momo. The best known Carnival Celebration in the world is in Rio de Janeiro, with its dazzling, seemingly never ending parade of Samba schools. It’s a tradition that Brazil continues to celebrate to show its cultural factors and what Brazil is really all about.

 

Defense ( DALAL)

Since the Brazilian army hasn’t fought in a major war in over 150 years, you may assume that there’s no point to having an army. However, as mentioned earlier in the cultural factors, there is a major difference between the rich and the poor (the rich being SUPER rich, and the poor being SUPER poor). Because Brazil is based on a free economy, the poor can form a revolution and try to establish communism in the nation. When that happens, the Brazilian military will be ready to put down that revolt. This is because if the revolution is formed, and communism is established, the nation’s democracy and economy will be demolished, therefore having a negative effect on both the rich and the poor.

If you were to look at Brazil’s military branches, you would find that there are quite a few of them. First, there’s the Brazilian army, and second, there’s the Brazilian Navy (known as Marinha do Brasil-MB-) which includes three forces: 1. Naval Air 2. Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros NAvais) and 3. the Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira-FAB-).

From 1946 through 1985, the army was divided into four numbered armies: the First Army was centered in Rio de Janeiro, the Second Army in São Paulo, the Third Army in Porto Alegre, and the Fourth Army in Recife. On January 1, 1986, the army was restructured from four numbered armies and two military commands into seven military commands.

The Brazilian army has a high number of conscripts (125,000) even though the tour is pretty short (9 to 10 months). The army has served as a training ground for a large reserve force because of the need for literate and skilled young men to handle modern weapons. According to the 2005 estimate, the total amount of manpower available in the military for service of men aged 19-49 is 45,586,036 and women aged 19-49 total 45,728,704. The army is much smaller.

Let’s look at some rules and laws of the Brazilian military. First, the Brazilian army has strict retirement rules, developed in 1960s by President Castelo Branco. Colonels retire at the age of 59; and four-star generals retire at the age of 66, or after 12 years of being the general. The actual rules state that the internal command structure determines all promotions through the rank of colonel. This simply means that the president is involved in the promotions to general and that the president is one who chooses one candidate from a list of three names that are presented to him by the High Command.

Second, the Brazilian army also has strict age rules for different services. For example, men of 21 to 45 years of age can serve the military with its compulsory services. 17 to 45 year old men can apply for voluntary services in the army. However, an increasing percentage of the ranks would go to the "long-service" volunteer professionals. The Brazilian army was the first army in South America to accept women into their career ranks. They were allowed to serve in the armed forces in the early 1980s. They serve in the Women’s Reserve Corps in the Navy and Air Force.

Despite this system of rules, under President Jose Sarney (who lead Brazil during the time of great transition, both economic and political), generals began to occupy many positions that the colonels previously occupied. In 1991, there were 15 four-star, 43 three-star, and 110 two-star generals. As a conclusion, the army decided to reduce the number of active-duty generals in the mid-1990s.

Let us now discuss the weaponry and equipment availability for the Brazilian military. There are tanks, artillery, and missiles! Let’s start with tanks. The military owns 368 Leopard tanks, which is a German designed and produced main battle tank . It is known for its good cross-country speed. There are two types of Leopard tanks owned by the Brazilian military, the 1A1 and the 1A5. It also owns 91 M60 Patton tanks, from the US. Moving on to the recces, which are similar to tanks, there are 409 EE-9 Cascavel recces, a 6 x 6 armored car developed in the seventies by Engesa of Brazil . Moreover, the military holds 20 M-8s, 219 EE-11 Urutu (armored personnel carrier s), 20 M-59 s, and 584 M-113 s.

Putting Towed Arties, SP Arties, and Coast Arties together, the military totals a number of around 1,000 arties! Moreover, the military owns a number of missiles and rifles or different types, including the Cobra, the M-18A1, the Igla and the ERYX and the MILAN missiles. Some rifles include the FAL and the PARAFAL rifles.

 

Economy (AZIZ)

Characterized by large and strong agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is intensifying its presence in world markets. From 2001-03 real wages fell and Brazil's economy grew, on average only 2.2% per year, as the country immersed a series of domestic and international economic shocks. That Brazil absorbed these shocks without financial collapse is a mark of respect to the clarity, and honesty of the Brazilian economy and the economic program put in place by former President CARDOSO and strengthened by President LULA DA SILVA. In 2004, Brazil enjoyed more healthy growth that yielded increases in employment and real wages.

The three pillars of the economic program are a floating exchange rate, an inflation-targeting regime, and tight fiscal policy, all reinforced by a series of IMF programs.

To be more exact on the three pillars, the floating exchange rate or a flexible exchange rate is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currency's value is allowed to move up or down according to the foreign exchange market. So basically when a market allows a floating exchange rate, it is does not only benefit the consumers, but the government as well. In such ways that bring taxes and high exchange rates into action. The other "pillar" of the Brazilian economy the inflation-targeting regime that means the government as a whole seeks a time of "internal inflation" or inflation forever, because once again inflation has two groups, the winners or gainers and the losers. So if for example inflation existed all the time, real - estate investors will be able to sell their developments and the governments can gain money on user charges and the beaurocracy procedures.

The final " pillar" of this economy is maintaining a tight fiscal policy. Well Fiscal policy is the economic term, which describes the actions of a government in setting the level of private consumption, and how that consumption is funded. Which also means how the government keeps an eye on its people. Seeing the word "tight" in there makes a person think. When a government maintains a tight fiscal policy it has two meanings, it is either the government is just looking out for its people OR the government is hiding something and does not want anybody to find it. Either way the tight fiscal policy seems to be working Brazil. IT is what is keeping the people sane and preventing riots and revolutions. It has the symptoms of a communist economy, however if any sort of communism should ever start in Brazil tot chaos would break, and nothing will solve the situation tan restoring the tight fiscal policy and using its contractionary and expansionary types to restore order.

The currency depreciated sharply in 2001 and 2002, which contributed to a dramatic current account adjustment; in 2003 to 2005, Brazil ran record trade surpluses and recorded its first current account surpluses since 1992. Efficiency gains - particularly in agriculture - also contributed to the surge in exports, and Brazil in 2005 surpassed the previous year's record export level. While economic management has been good, there remain important economic vulnerabilities. The most significant are debt-related: the government's largely domestic debt increased steadily from 1994 to 2003 - straining government finances - before falling as a percentage of GDP in 2005, while Brazil's foreign debt (a mix of private and public debt) is large in relation to Brazil's small (but growing) export base. Another challenge is maintaining economic growth over a period of time to generate employment and make the government debt burden more manageable.

To speak out in the open a leftist president in Brazil will not change many policies. Due to the fact that any change in any economic policy in Brazil will start and uncontrollable chain of unwanted events. A president might be able to influence the already in action fiscal policy by allowing less money for a certain program, or more money for defense, but in the end the "elders" will take back the ball to their court, and by elders it is a referral to the people with money and power in the community. Now Brazil is looked at as a "third world" country, but Brazil does not believe in this system of rating countries any way created. Sure the president could change numerous policies and fall in the trap as numerous South American presidents did. The current president could raise government spending and increase Social services. However that happiness will not last long as it never does, all those beautiful increases will soon cause run-away inflation, and the people of brazil could not possibly loose more money that they do not have. They have lost enough money to unintended causes in the first place. What the president can do is increase some items to a certain limit where everybody is satisfied or almost everybody. By that he earns the love of the poor and the rich of all classes and area.

Sure there are better countries than other ones, but every country that is good in one aspect, might or for sure is bad in another one. Take the USA, for example, sure they have a "good" economy but are they doing well for crime rates? Or people in Jail? It is all connected financial, social, political views, everything is connected. So what if Brazil's economy does not compete with the American one, not to mention that almost half of the world despises America!

The Brazilian economy is gradually growing and poverty is slowly being taken care of, although the progress with the poverty rate is not that all good, but still there is a progress from year to year, to the good side that is. Despite the fact there have been some set backs, but because the people of Brazil are eager of change, poverty is decreasing all over the nation. South America is a very complicated Continent, there are many classes of people and within one class there are inner classes. The people are mostly poor and they are the people with the most election votes. The president must please all the people he can so that they will vote for him and possibly vote again. The current president may be the president with the most difficult job in today's world. It is true that Brazil is not in the news every day, however whenever its people decide to take action the whole world takes a step back and enjoys the show. The current president has to please the poor and all classes of the poor. Making his job a very difficult one, with not neglecting to please the super rich.

 

Views on World Problems (SARA)

The following the represent all the views of Brazil:

Since the UN Conference on Development was held in 1964, there has been an intense, difficult and largely frustrating dialogue about the bases of a new international economic order in parallel with a sequence of ambitious multilateral negotiations on major global issues, such as population, space and maritime rights. The perspective on the problems and the solutions proposed by developed countries have not always corresponded with the concerns of the developing countries, since rich nations have tended to focus their attention on a selective agenda of issues on which they wanted to take immediate action and on those claiming the full support, just as immediately, of the so-called Third World...The Brazilian Government continues to believe that development is an essential part of world security, but it is convinced that in an integrated global economy, no country is viable unless the body of nations grows significantly.

Traditionally, Brazilian foreign policy in relation to the Middle East has been guided according to the following premises:
1) The existence in Brazil of large Arab and Jewish communities;
2) An interest in the successful outcome of the Arab-Israeli peace process;
3) The strategic importance of the Persian Gulf, whose countries hold almost half of the world's oil reserve, constitute a large consumer and export market and are major international investors;
4) The relevance of the area, being a true international nerve center, for a country like Brazil. Brazil's political and diplomatic relations with the Near East have particularly strengthened since the Second World War, enabling during the 1970s, the deepening of Brazil's relationship with the rest of the Arab world and the guiding of Brazilian relations during the oil crisis. Meanwhile, the first oil crisis in 1973, following the new armed conflict between Arabs and Israeli - the Yom Kippur War - led Brazil to re-scale its relationship with the Middle East.

 

History (AZIZ)

Brazil’s history can be divided into three major parts: the colonial period from the arrival of the first Portuguese explorers in 1500 until independence in 1822, and the national period since independence from Portugal. And one cannot forget from the independence till this very day. The Brazilian Empire was theoretically a democracy in the British style, although in practice, the emperor-premier-parliament balance of power more closely resembled the autocratic Austrian Empire.

Brazil, the land of peace, and green is rich in culture, and what made that culture its juicy history. Brazil is thought to have been inhabited for at least 10,000 years by semi-nomadic populations before the first Portuguese explorers, led by Pedro Álvares Cabral, disembarked in 1500.

The very eventful history of Brazil begins with the arrival of the first Native Americans, over 10,000 years ago, into the present territory of that nation. By the end of the 15th century, all parts of those lands were inhabited by semi-nomadic tribes, who subsisted on a combination of fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.

Over the next three centuries, it was CONQUERED by the Portuguese and exploited mainly for brazilwood (Pau-Brasil) at first, followed by sugarcane (Cana-de-Açúcar) agriculture, coffee beans and gold mining. The colony's source of manpower was initially composed of enslaved Amerindians, and after 1550, mainly African.

In 1808, Queen Maria I of Portugal and her son and regent, the future João VI of Portugal, fleeing from the armies of Napoleon, relocated to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the royal family, nobility and government. This is the only recorded trans-continental relocation of a royal family. Then prince regent Dom Pedro I (later Pedro IV of Portugal) declared independence on 7 September 1822, establishing the independent Empire of Brazil. As the crown remained in the hands of the House of Bragança, this was more the severance of the Portuguese Empire in two, than an independence movement as seen elsewhere in the Americas.

During the colonial period Brazil became the first great plantation slave society in the Americas, producing sugar and later coffee on large agricultural estates worked by slaves. During the 1700s Brazil experienced the first major gold rush in the Americas after explorers discovered gold on frontier territory inland from the coast. After Brazil broke away from Portuguese rule in the 1820s, members of the Portuguese royal family ruled as emperors until 1889, in the only sustained monarchy in the Western Hemisphere. Since 1889 Brazil has been a republic, experiencing two periods of dictatorship: from 1937 to 1945 and from 1964 to 1985. The interaction of Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans in Brazil has produced one of the most racially mixed societies in the world, and one with enormous economic and social inequalities.

Slavery was abolished in 1888, through the "Golden Law", created by Princess Isabel, and intensive European immigration created the basis for industrialization. Pedro I was succeeded by his son, Pedro II - who in old age was caught by a political dispute between the Army and the Cabinet, a crisis arising from the Paraguay War. In order to avoid a civil war between Army and Navy, Pedro II renounced the throne on 15 November 1889, when a federal republic (officially, the Republic of the United States of Brazil) was established by Field Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Brazil attracted over 5 million European and Japanese immigrants. That period also saw Brazil industrialize, further colonize, and develop its interior. Brazilian democracy was replaced by dictatorships three times - 1930-1934 and 1937-1945 under Getúlio Vargas, and 1964-1985, under a succession of generals appointed by the military with the help of the US. Since 1985, Brazil has been internationally considered a democracy, specifically a presidential democracy; that status was affirmed in a 1993 plebiscite, in which voters were asked to choose between a presidential or parliamentary system; voters also decided not to restore the country's constitutional monarchy.

Through most of its independent history, the country's politics were dominated by agrarian oligarchies, at all levels of government. Their influence was lessened (but by no means abolished) after the revolution of 1930, when the state began to assert itself in the economy, drawing support from the emerging industrial sector and through control of industrial worker unions. Nevertheless, in spite of all changes of regime, Brazilian politics has continued to be dominated by the same relatively small elite. This oligarchic legacy, coupled with heavy state intervention in the economy, poor infrastructure, corruption, inadequate education levels and an insular trade policy have all conspired to hamper economic growth and create one of the most unequal income distributions in the Western world.

Oligarchies are often controlled by a few powerful families whose children are raised and mentored to be heirs of the power of the oligarchy, often at some sort of expense to those governed. Brazil has witnessed some oligarchial influences in the past years.

Brazil is today South America's largest economy, the world's ninth largest economy, and fifth most populous nation. In 1994 Fernando Henrique Cardoso embarked on the Real plan (a double entendre in Portuguese since "real" means both "real" and "royal") by launching a new currency, the real, and instituting a disciplined macroeconomic policy that sharply reduced inflation. The new currency backed by sound economic policies, proved a resounding success at taming the runaway inflation, which had plagued Brazil for decades.

The third distinctive period of history was that by the 1990s, more than one out of four Brazilians continued to survive on less than one dollar a day. These socio-economic contradictions helped elect Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2002. In the few months before the election, Lula’s campaign platform for social change, and his past identification with labor unions and leftist ideology scared investors. As his victory became more certain, the Brazilian currency weakened and Brazil's investment risk rating plummeted. After taking office, however, he embraced the same conservative economic policies of his predecessor, warning that social reforms would take years and that Brazil had no alternative but to extend fiscal austerity policies. Defying expectations, the Real and the nation's risk rating soon recovered.

 

 

 

Policy Statements

 

Security Council

Issue#1: International cooperation in border and immigration control.

Borders, lines, boundaries, all of these were ideas set up by unwanted people in this world, but since the like to think they control the world, let us play along: the problem at hand is nothing complicated, but it is the fact that some people cannot afford to fly commercial air lines or go on luxury busses to cross into another country, so what they do is enter the country illegally, and try to find a job. Most of these illegal travelers die on their journey. The world agrees that the issue of illegal immigrants must be controlled as soon as possible, but what about the actual people. The air fare prices are off the charts, and the only reason they are doing what they are doing, is that they cannot find a job at their own country. How can they feed their children if no income was available? But borders do cause a problem everywhere in the world. But people learn to live with the border issue. For example Israel allowing Palestinians to cross into Israel to work, again with the job issue. Spain and morocco face the same conflict. Libby and Italy. Kuwait an d Iraq. The whole Fertile Crescent and Israel. Mexico and the USA. Brazil and Bolivia, Argentina, Peru, and almost all of South America.

In today's world each country exists as if it is the only nation on the globe. Not recognizing its neighbors or other nations. Brazil's Aim in this solution is to increase international cooperation among nations in order to increase boarder control forces. About 1500 years ago boarders did not exist why make them be there today? Brazil is not aiming towards not having boarders, however if the current boarder system would be say like adjusted a better world would emerge. Cooperation between nations is extremely vital to Brazil, because unlike our far north neighbors we do care about our neighbors.

Sure a policy must be put in action however the essence of that policy must be in favor of increasing cooperation between nations. Illegal workers and immigrants must be dealt with as soon as possible weather to grant them citizenship or ban them from a country a choice must be made.

 

Issue#2. Permanent sovereignty of the Palestinian people in the occupied Palestinian territories over natural resources.

The Middle East is an unstable region filled with anti west hate and anti terrorism wars, and so and so. The constant battle between the West and Islam will never end.

Seen as the current leader of Roman catholic people as the Pope is the only living and surviving figure of religion of our time we believe that the Pope should be able to make an impact on the situation after all that is the land of the three major religions of the world Christianity Judaism and Islam.

Just like any other American operation they assume something is going on, invade the place, destroy and then make lame excuses about it. Brazil does not blame the American government for these irrational decisions since they are cowboys and they follow the honorable code of "shoot everybody Now, ask questions later." But then again, we cannot blame the cowboys completely because who can after 9/11. Every country must take very deep measures towards security. However Brazil's point of view is that if you want to ban something don’t ban it or condemn it all over the world mention a continent, an area, a country, anything. These irrational reasons have unintended consequences.

The Americans think that if they pass any worldwide legislation they will only fix the problem they intended to fix, however what they failed to fix is that every problem they fix causes 10 mote problems. When they pass anti-immigrant legislation or anti-travel laws they intended to deal with the middle east, however they are killing the main source of income to brazil and South America; Tourism. They are offending Brazil by passing such laws.

 

Issue#3. Measures to encourage rogue states to sign the Non Proliferation Treaty.

The "problem" is simple; the US does not want to allow Iran and North Korea to have Nuclear weapons. Or in other words the US does not want countries they are afraid off to develop. But the smart thing about it is that the US is using the NPT as cover. They are urging these hero states to sign the NPT so that the minute they sign, they can say " oops, you are violating the NPT rules" and send troops to these places legally and dig out the nuclear facilities. North Korea has proven its self worthy of the word rogue, and fired some missiles into their 12 mile open waters, it was only with the will of the North Korean Generals that the missiles were ordered down to the water, because they did not want to violate any international rules. But if it was a Live war situation these missiles would have went around the Globe twice. As For Iran, it is the brave one in the group. They desire to have the country classified as a first world country by producing nuclear energy and supplying to homes and plants.

Frankly Brazil couldn’t have cared more about this issue. But because the U.S is concerned with this issue we might as well pretend to be concerned. The wrong people designed the NPT to begin with, as long as it mandates that the signed party shall not own or utilize nuclear weaponry, Israel will never sign. So long as it orders the signed party to not develop nuclear weaponry Iran will never sign. And as long as it clarifies that a signed country shall not use its nuclear powers to develop harmful objects, North Korea will never sign it.

After watching the news very carefully these past several years, Brazil has noticed that every country that has some extra cash lying around starts developing nuclear capabilities. Iran as an example is not the biggest country in Asia, is not the most populated country in Asia, and is not a world super power. Yet they are given an opportunity to produce nuclear facilities. Despite the fact that some nations have tried to talk to the Iranian officials and stop this event, however Brazilian officials have concluded that Iran will never stop its nuclear activities until half of its population die from a nuclear accident. Therefore speaking as the biggest country in South America in both land and population, as the most influential nation in South America; Brazil also will start announcing to the world the ruination of the Nuclear dream. We believe that Brazil has the priority in producing nuclear capabilities than Iran. Brazil can proudly say that will try to develop nuclear energy in immense amounts. Brazil is also considering to withdraw from the NPT it seems that the only way that a country is heard these days is if it has nuclear energy sources. Brazil's wishes towards the Nuclear energy idea is merely an idea that Brazil will look into. However some sort of development is underway that will prove the fact that Brazil may or may not produce nuclear energy plants. Former Defense Minister José Viegas Said in a public news conference " Brazil has plans to invest in alternative energy sources in the near future" and in another news conference: " The price of oil is ridiculously off the charts an alternative energy source must be found."

 

 

General Assembly: Dalal Al-Jassim

 

Issue # 1. The use of security and defense as a means of justifying racial discrimination and intolerance.

Brazil would like to recall the death of an innocent Brazilian engineer in London. The police suspected him of the train bombing and so shot him down! Brazilian Jean Charles de Menezes, 27, was shot seven times in the head and once in the shoulder, at Stockwell Tube station, south London! Security sources claimed that Mr. Menezes had an out-of-date visa, but his family denied this. Mr. Menezes' cousin, Alex Pereira, who is based in London, said: "They just kill the first person they see, that's what they did. They killed my cousin, they could kill anyone." The British police had no right to kill the man. When a man is suspected as a terrorist, he is searched, and watched, not shot at eight times! London Mayor Ken Livingstone described Mr. Menezes as a "victim of the terrorist attacks". However, Brazil believes that Mr. Menezes was a victim of the British Police in this case! They cannot go around shooting foreign citizens because they had "suspected them". Brazil wants people to be able to walk around in peace, without fear, around the streets. Brazil believes the UN should have a policy stating that nations are not to make foreign people more liable to security checks or suspicion just because of their nationality or color!

The Brazilian government released a statement expressing its shock at the killing, saying that it looked forward "to receiving the necessary explanation from the British authorities on the circumstances, which led to this tragedy." The reaction of the Brazilian public was overwhelmingly negative. Protests and demonstrations were held in Brazil, and some Brazilian commentators noted that incidents such as Menezes' killing are more typical of a developing country such as Brazil than a developed nation like the UK. The level of Brazilian protestation raised criticism with some British commentators who noted that extra-judicial executions by the police in Brazil are far from rare. An Amnesty International report published in 2004 pointed out that official figures show that in 2003 police shot dead 915 people in São Paulo alone, while 1,195 were killed by police in Rio de Janeiro. Amnesty also reported that such deaths were rarely investigated. Brazil is deeply disturbed by this sequence of events in London, in conclusion.

In Article 2 of the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, it states that "No State shall encourage, advocate or lend its support, through police action or otherwise, to any discrimination based on race, color or ethnic origin by any group, institution or individual". However, countries such as the US have violated this rule when made Muslims in America more liable to security checks after what happened in 9/11.

After the 9/11 terrorist attack on the US in 2001, there were many effects on the Muslim world. Political relations had been changed, like in Pakistan, and Muslim citizens in the US were given a hard time. According to the San Francisco Chronicle, Yusuf, a Muslim leader in Santa Clara, and Wahhaj, a Muslim leader in Brooklyn, who is an African American, had a hard time. Both of them spend a lot of time in airports and a lot of time being searched. "On virtually every airline I've gone on over the past year, they have searched me," said Wahhaj, the imam at Masjid Al-Taqwa in Brooklyn. "But being profiled is a small price to pay. The prophets received tremendous suffering. We must be patient."

Brazil discourages what the US has been doing and would like to encourage other countries to respect the different religions and not make Muslims more liable to security checks just because of their religion.

 

Issue# 2. Governmental measures to be taken on an international level to restrict the possible outbreak of a pandemic.

A pandemic is a dangerous disease that spreads easily among living things (particularly humans). According to the 2005 July article in Foreign Affairs, "If an influenza pandemic struck today, borders would close, the global economy would shut down, international vaccine supplies and health-care systems would be overwhelmed, and panic would reign." Over the past 300 years, ten influenza pandemics have occurred among humans. The most recent came in 1957-1958 and 1968-1969, and although several tens of thousands of Americans died in each one, these were considered mild compared to others. The 1918-19 pandemic was not. According to recent analysis, it killed 50 to 100 million people globally. Today, with a population of 6.5 billion, more than three times than the one in 1918, even a "mild" pandemic could kill many millions of people.

Brazil's large size (more than 8.5 million km2 and 150 million population) and inadequate public health communications pose a considerable challenge in judging the status of emerging infectious diseases. Under the current system, most infectious diseases are not noticeable in Brazil.

Brazil believes influenza-vaccine production deserves special attention. A project to provide vaccine for the entire world must be developed, with a well-defined schedule to ensure progress. It is commendable that countries such as the United States and Vietnam are pursuing programs with long-term goals to develop and produce H5N1 vaccine for their respective populations. But if the rest of the world lacks supplies, even the vaccinated will be devastated when the global economy comes to a sudden stop. This is why Brazil suggests both the United States and Vietnam to produce enough vaccine for the world. Brazil also encourages countries to further research the outbreak of the influenza by cooperating with the World Health Organization (WHO) and develops plans for the future of many populations. In other words, Brazil believes that with the aid of the WHO, vaccines will be equally distributed in countries with a certain disease, which might be deadly. Brazil emphasizes on the word "equally" to show that the vaccine should be distributed among the POOR who do not have to money to buy the vaccine or have it ordered from other countries. Unlike the rich, who have financial advantages, the poor should be given their rights to be healthy as well.

 

Issue # 3. Adverse effects of illicit movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes on people’s rights to secure environment.

We face a great and major issue in out world today, and that is the dumping of toxic wastes on people’s rights to a secure environment. Recalling the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, a plume of radioactive fallout drifted over parts of the western Soviet Union, Eastern and Western Europe, Scandinavia, the British Isles, and eastern North America, killing 31 people (28 of them died from acute radiation exposure) and 200 people were hospitalized immediately. In our modern world, developed countries are dumping their wastes in developing and poor countries! This is violotating their rights to a secure environment. For example, the United States plans to dump around 400 ships loaded with toxic wastes in developing countries such as India in the next few years. However, it is simply logical that developing and poor countries already have issues other than the toxic waste dumping, which also effect their nation in many ways. When you look again at the reason as to WHY the US is doing this is because logic is not a word that is often associated with the US government these days.

Basically, Brazil believes the solution to be quite simple: give the poor some money to build nuclear waste facilities in order to prevent pollution and total destruction in forests and deforestation. Countries such as America claim that their encouragement for Brazil to stop cutting down its forests and dumping nuclear wastes is for the betterment of the environment. However, since timber contributes up to 27 % of the Brazilian market every year, Brazil does not find it helpful for its economy in any way to stop cutting down the forest and making use of it! If developed countries were to stop dumping their wastes on poor countries and build their own nuclear waste facility, then perhaps the level of deforestation and pollution will decrease.

Since Brazil has forests cover the largest portion (66%) of its territory, there’s been a lot of pollution of pesticides and problems with clearing the land. However, the clearing is a major factor in Brazil’s large economy today. America asks Brazil to stop clearing the land while America itself has cut down its forests 100 years ago. Brazil needs the money. If America is willing to pay for the economic loses because of not cutting down Brazil’s forests, and then Brazil will be willing to do so.

 

 

GA B (Sara)

 

Issue # 1. Assistance to survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda.

Genocide is the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group. The Rwandan Genocide was the massacre of an estimated 800,000 to 1,071,000 ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutus in Rwanda, mostly carried out by two extremist Hutu militia groups, the Interahamwe and the Impuzamugambi, during a period of 100 days from April 6th through mid-July 1994. Because of how inadequately United Nations (particularly, its Western members such as the United States, France and Britain) responded, the Rwandan Genocide stands out as significant, not only because of the sheer number of people murdered in such a short period of time. Most first-world countries including France, Belgium, the United States declined to intervene or speak out against the planned massacres, despite intelligence provided before the killing began, and international news media coverage reflecting the true scale of violence as the genocide unfolded.

UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda) was established by the United Nations in October 1993 "to help implement the Arusha Peace Agreement signed by the Rwandan parties on 4 August 1993"; its "mandate" ended in 1996 (UNAMIR official website). When Tutsi-dominated expatriate rebel movement known as the Rwandan Patriotic Front, led by Paul Kagame, overthrew the Hutu government and seized power, the genocide finally ended. Hundreds of thousands of Hutu and other refugees fled into eastern Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), fearing reprisals. The violence and its memory have continued to affect the country and the region. Ethnic hatreds that fueled the Rwandan Genocide quickly spilled over into Congo, continuing after it ended and fueling both the First and Second Congo Wars. Ethnic rivalry between Hutu and Tutsi tribal factions is also a major factor in the Burundi Civil War.

Brazil intends to propose a war-recovery organization that helps try to get the lives of the citizens as close as possible back to how they used to live pre-war. By re-building homes, supplying clean food and water, and offering the survivors a chance to rebuild their lives, hopefully they will be helped to the maximum. While death is not in our hands, the UN may offer a program in the organization that may help the survivors cope with the deaths of their beloved (therapy, group therapy, etc.) By establishing an organization (RWRO -Rwanda War Recovery Organization-) that specifically helps the survivors in those areas, it will be assured that all is being done in order to help these survivors.

 

Issue # 2: human organ trafficking

Human trafficking is what is known worldwide as "modern day slavery". It is when you are forced to do something or go somewhere against your will. Human Organ trafficking is when people are killed for their organs. Human organ trafficking happens all over the world in many different countries. It can happen to groups of people at a time. Many organizations target poor countries and lure families away with false promises of jobs abroad they then kill the poor families mutilating them and taking their organs to sell.

It happens a lot in India but especially in China. All over China people are killing and mutilating convicts in jails for their organs. Not only is it adults but children too. Although many people are being tricked many poor civilians are willingly giving up their organs for money.  Not only is this against the law but it is sad and wrong and these people don’t deserve to be killed but nowadays the thirst for money and power is more important to people than doing what’s right and lawful. People don’t care anymore about humanity all that matters is that they have money and that their place in society is rising. Now it just survival for the fittest no matter who gets hurt in the process. We can only hope that what we are doing to stop this is working and that one day people will realize what is going on and try to put a stop to it.

There is not much society can do to stop organ trafficking, many laws have been passed but this has only led this to organizations taking it underground. In Countries like Brazil and India they made it illegal but left loopholes so people could do it anyway. Countries like Iran haven’t made it illegal but the organ transplants are not organized by the government but by two separate organizations.

 

 

 

Resolutions

GA A
Dalal Al Jassim 9E
General Assembly AMMAN, JORDAN
Submitted by: Brazil
Commission: General Assembly A
Issue of: Adverse effects of illicit movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes on people’s rights to secure environment

Defining the illicit movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes as a movement which constitutes a serious threat to the human rights to life and the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical health, particularly of individual developing countries that do not have the technologies to process them,

Recalling the Chernobyl disaster on April 26, 1986, where a plume of radioactive fallout drifted over parts of the western Soviet Union, Eastern and Western Europe, Scandinavia, and the British Isles, and Eastern North America, killing 31 people (28 of them died from acute radiation exposure), hospitalizing 200 people immediately, and causing 300,000 people to resettle,

Expressing its gratitude towards the UNDP (United Nations Development Program) which worked in cooperation with IAEA, WHO , UNEP , UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR , FAO and the World Bank as well as the authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the Chernobyl case and handing in reports about conditions after the disaster,

Deeply disturbed by the fact that environmental hazards are responsible for an estimated 25% of the total burden of diseases worldwide, and are a serious threat to the human health,

Further Alarmed by the fact that known as the "Rainforest Chernobyl" by remediation experts, the damage caused by Chevron Texaco’s deliberate dumping of roughly 18 billion gallons of toxic waste into more than 600 open-air pits has grown to span an area the size of Rhode Island and covers several major swamps and rivers that flow into Peru, which is only accepting the waste for money that it needs, according to the article titled "Chernobyl of the future,"

Noting that according to Blue Planet Biomes, about 20% of the world’s oxygen is produced in the Amazon (known as the "Lungs of Our Planet"), and with the dumping of toxic wastes and deforestation for land, the Amazon is losing more and more of its oxygen and land,

Disturbed by the fact that the United States plans to dump around 400 ships loaded with toxic wastes in developing countries such as India in the next few years, noting that developing countries already have issues other than the toxic waste dumping, but that logic is not a word that is often associated with the US government these days;

1. Requests the creation of the Nuclear Waste Demolition Treaty (NWDT) under the supervision of the World Bank, which states:
A. Poor countries with nuclear wastes are to get loans from the World Bank in order to:
i. Build their own underground nuclear waste facilities to get rid of their own wastes,
ii. De-contaminate polluted areas in water, land, or air (methods will be discussed at the opening meeting),
iii. Hire a team of experts to:
a. Research and create the best possible way of eliminating the wastes in the facility,
b. Run the facility, by running machines, high-tech machinery, etc.,
c. Form a security department, which watches and surveys the facility 24/7 in case something goes wrong;

2. Resolves that the underground nuclear facility will be built in an inhabited area in the country, in order to assure and guarantee a healthy environment for the people, and for environmental safety reasons,

3. Affirms that any nation who signs the NWDT will be known as a nation who:
A. Contributed to the betterment of our environment, and saving the ecosystem,
B. Believes that the world needs to take immediate action towards the act of dumping wastes in the open environment,
C. Helped save 20% of the world’s oxygen by helping Brazil get the money to build its own nuclear waste facility,
D. Helped lift a heavy burden of the poor countries’ backs with the waste dumping, knowing that the poor and some developing nations have other important issues;

4. Declares that there will be an opening meeting at the UN in Geneva, Switzerland to discuss this treaty and put it to action as well as organizing other annual meetings at the UN if the resolution passes to:
A. Discuss the progress of the issue,
B. Discuss annual reports handed in by each country and whether it has insufficient funds or not,
C. Discuss ways to pay back the loan to the World Bank,
D. Submit any amendments which make this treaty a very successful one that will save the poor people’s environment;

5. Re-Affirms that any nation who does NOT sign the NWDT will be:
A. On top of both the United Nations and Brazil’s shame list for not having given each poor country a chance to solve its own waste issue by getting rid of it in the nuclear waste facility,
B. Thought of as a nation, which does not have ambitions for a better and healthy future,
C. A nation who doesn’t give its best efforts in helping others in Brazil’s point of view;

6. Trusts that all poor nations with a big waste problem who agree to this treaty and take a loan from the World Bank will use the money for environmental reasons ONLY, and following this treaty when it states that the nation should build its own nuclear waste facility,

7. Urges all nations to sign this treaty of Nuclear Waste Demolition Treaty in order to prevent the following from occurring in the future:
A. The death and illness of many of our children because of toxic wastes in the open air,
B. The enlargement of the O-Zone layer and the increase of liability to cancer,
C. The demolition of useful lands and forests which can instead by use for economic and agricultural reasons,
D. The destruction of especially the Amazon, which supplies the world with 20% of its current oxygen,
E. Simple environmental chaos.

 

 

SC Clauses


Issue 1: Permanent sovereignty of the Palestinian people in the occupied Palestinian territories over natural resources.

1. Strongly Condemns the actions taken by Israel regarding the natural resources such as :the Wall and The Rivers

2.Declares the formation of the interrogation committee composed of Palestine officials, Israel officials, and UN officials
A. This committee will take on the responsibility of:
i. Examining the legality of the Israeli fence
ii. Reconsidering the ICJ decision and consider an appeal to the ICJ decision on the Wall,
iii. Examining the distribution of rivers resources
iv. This committee will act as the UN's eyes and ears in this distressed region by:
1.Sending direct reports to the General Assembly
2. Sending direct reports to the Security Council,
3.Offering advice on how to proceed;

 

Issue # 2: Measures to encourage rogue states to sign the Non Proliferation Treaty.

1. Declares the signing of a reprimand and rewards treaty amendment to the NPT which
A. Rebukes all countries that have not signed the NPT,
B. Use the UN's authority penalties imposed on these nations, such as sanctions, tariffs, fees, and embargoes
C Applies to all nations who are not members of the NPT,
D. Offers incentives to signed countries such as economic aid, health care packages, and low prices on energy for the UN pays for a percentage of the cost, free passing of cargo, and emergency aid;

 

 

 

Opening Speeches

 

Security Council

Hola Bom dia!

"I strongly believed he was trying to reconstitute his nuclear weapons program." George Bush 17/7/2004

A quote by a man that when asked what he has in common with Tony Blair he replied " We both use Colgate toothpaste." -after a reporter asked what he had in common with British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Camp David, Md., Feb. 23, 2001.

The USA has failed miserably in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Syria, Palestine but who's counting.

A quote by Mr. Juan Rodriguez a former Brazilian foreign affairs high official " We told him, but NO he simply will not listen to a developing country" 5/3/2003

Whenever we see children killed on TV in Palestine our hearts pound in agony, whenever we see houses being torn down by bulldozers in Palestine our hearts pump and pump more blood, whenever wee see women crying on TV in Palestine we cry with them. Where is the world's super power? Where is the best trained army on the globe? Where? I don’t know!

In Iraq the plan was to eradicate the al Baa'th party and clear out the WOMD's . Many thanks for taking care of the party. Where are the weapons? Why is the Oil being tampered with? Brazil finds it very strange that In Iraq there is more security around the oil fields than around the president's house. Brazil would also like to know when the US is leaving.

In Brazil meters measure the rain and the time is measured by months of rain, the constant rain in Brazil is famous around the world, why can't we see that water right here in the Middle East? , Why cant wee see it flow in the River of Jordan? Where is the clean water in the Tigris where is the sanitized water in the Euphrates? I don’t know.

We are all citizens of this free world let us all help with the process of healing other citizens as United we stand departed we fall.

Tchau!

 

 

GA A: Dalal Al-Jassim

 

Good morning fellow delegates, and honorable chairs,

Chairs, tables, wardrobes, desks, building material, furniture, pencils, papers! Where these basic living necessities come from, you may ask. Good question! They all come from the forests. Forests are the major resources for wood and timber. However, if you look at how forests are being treated these days, you would be extremely shocked! Forests, which were once beautiful havens for forest animals and plants, are now dumps for nuclear wastes! It’s like somebody decided to use the many acres of land as garbage can which we people use on a daily basis, only much worse! Pieces of wrappers and cans aren’t being put in the forests, but nuclear wastes are! Have you got any idea what this harmful poison does to the forest? Do you know how harsh the adverse effects of the dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes on people’s rights to secure environment are? Let me tell you this, ladies and gentlemen: it is VERY harsh!

Take the Chernobyl disaster on April 26, 1986, for example, where a plume radioactive fallout drifted over parts of the western Soviet Union, Eastern and Western Europe, Scandinavia, the British Isles, and eastern North America, killing 31 people (28 of them died from acute radiation exposure) and hospitalizing 200 people immediately. Those innocent people did not deserve to die! They had every right to remain healthy and to live in a secure environment! Over 300,000 people were resettled because of the accident; millions lived and continue to live in the contaminated area. This means that their FOOD, their WATER, and the very air they BREATH is contaminated with radioactive substances. These substances are not only a direct threat to the environment, but also to the lives of the innocent people living in that rural area! Children are born with birth defects because of this radioactivity. They suffer daily for the sharp, burning coughs and maybe even asthma attacks. The point Brazil would like to make today is that this issue calls in desperation to the United Nations, the sanctuary which nations rely on, the very meaning of unity and hope. Brazil hopes that immediate action will be taken towards this issue, for the betterment of the environment, and for the sake of the children of the future.

 

 

 

Statements of the Delegates


Dalal Al-Jassim, GA

Dear Mr. President,

I would first like to thank you for providing me with the chance of attending such a prestigious conference in Amman, Jordan. The 2006 MUN event was found to be of great experience! I would like to next report on some of my achievements in the General Assembly A throughout the conference. On the first day during lobbying and merging, I was able to submit a resolution regarding the illicit dumping of toxic wastes on the people’s rights to a secure environment. Signatory members were a great help, and I would like to express my gratitude towards those who took the time to work on the issue. I was also able to become a co-submitter for the unique delegation/honorable ambassador of Chad. Together we formed a solid resolution concerning the issue of racial discrimination, with many other signatory nations as well. On the second day of the event, the conference was held at the Hyatt Hotel in Amman. My resolution was to be debated first, and after a long and challenging debate, I, along with my allies, was able to successfully pass the resolution. For the rest of the day, I put forth my best efforts in passing or failing resolutions based on my country’s policy. On the second day, I was summoned to the Security Council to represent my ambassador. There, I was known as a very active member, and was able to pass a resolution as a co-submitter. A guest speaker showed up, and lectured the honorable delegates about the Palestinian/Israeli conflict. I left the Security Council, to return to the GAA one more on the third day. I took an active role in the final resolution being debate, and was then escorted to the airport. The conference was then over. Finally, I would once again like to thank you allowing me to take part in such a memorable conference, and hope my efforts will be put through in other conferences in the future.

Yours truly,

Dalal Al Jassim

 

Abdulaiz Al-Mutawa, Ambassador

We just came back from the AMMUN conference in Amman, Jordan. At the prestigious event I represented BRAZIL. I was the ambassador of Brazil and in charge of Dalal Al Jassim and Sarah Al Sayer. My forum was the Security Council. OH boy the SC has never seen this much sparks flying around since its establishment. To begin with my opening speech I dominated the council and demanded their attention with my up roaring speech, which gruesomely shredded the USA. I attacked the UK and their allies, and made my point about the NPT. The Security Council had 4 issues to debate. The president of the Security Council decided to have resolutions on 3 of the issues and leave the last issue on terrorism to be an Ad hoc debate. In my course of action I passed my first resolution and Brazil as he main submitter within the first hour of the event. My second resolution passed with an overwhelming majority. So far I have been the main submitter not once but twice. Also because my foreign policy and tactics, Brazil managed to coerce the USA to apologize 11 times during the event. The delegate of the USA was also suspended 5 times with 2 warnings. Brazil walked out of the event with 0 warnings and 1 apology with 0 suspensions. Brazil proudly passed its third resolution making me the main submitter 3 times on different topics. Both delegates of China and Russia were too eager to help so I influenced them both into vetoing all the American decisions and playing the cards in my favor. When the American resolution came along with 1 speech that Brazil, I, Made, it failed with 12 votes against it. Amman was a whole lot of fun and educating. I learned a lot about Brazil and other people around this globe. Sadly this was my last trip to AMMUN as a delegate I hope I will join the groups next year as a teacher assistant. Aziz Al-Mutawa, Ambassador.