Country: Republic of Chad
Event: AMMUN 2006Najeeba Hayat, General Assembly B and Ambassador Ala'a Al-Shamlan, General Assembly A Muneera Al-Jouan ECOSOC Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the Model UN 2006-2007 page
Political Structure (NJH)
The Republic of Chad became independent from France on August the 11th, 1960. Its administration is divided up into 14 prefectures. Chad's only national holiday is Independence Day, every August the 11th. The constitution was passed by referendum on 31st of March 1996 but a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits. The country's legal system is based on the Republic of Chad's customary law and the French legal system that they adopted in their period of colonization. The Republic of Chad has not accepted the ICJ jurisdiction which is compulsory of any country that is a part of the United Nations.
The executive branch of the government consists of the chief of state (President Gen. Lieutenant Idriss Deby since December 4, 1990, the head of government (Prime Minister Pascal Yoadminadji, since Feb 3.2005) and the cabinet, which consist of members recommended by the prime minister and officially appointed by the president (the Council of State). The president is elected by popular vote to serve for 5 consecutive year. If the candidate that received the majority of votes does not have 50% of the votes or more, there will be a second round of voting. The last elections took place on May the 3rd, 2006. The prime minister is appointed by the president.
The legislative branch is a bicameral one. It consists of the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly consists of 15 seats. The members are elected according to popular vote to serve for 4 consecutive years. The senate has an unspecified size and the members serve 6 year terms. One-third of the memberships are renewable every two years.
The judicial branch of the government includes the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, the Criminal Courts and the Magistrate Courts.
Geography (Alaa al Shamlan)
Chad is a central African country. Its neighbors are Niger, Libya, the Sudan, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, and Nigeria. Lake Chad, from which the country gets its name, lies on the western border with Niger and Nigeria. It is fed chiefly by the Chari and Logone rivers. In the north is a desert that runs into the Sahara. Chad's total area can be divided into 3 groups total: 1.284 million sq km, land: 1,259,200 sq km, water: 24,800 sq km.
Chad’s climate is tropical in south, desert in north. Chad gets hot, dry, dusty harmattan (which is) a dry dusty wind that blows along the northwest coast of Africa. Periodic droughts; locust plagues. It's really rich with petroleum, uranium, natron, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt.
2.86% of Chad's land is used for arable, 0.02% for permanent crops, 97.12% for others (according to 2001). The lowest point is Djourab/Bodele Depression at 160 m above sea level and the highest point is Emi Koussi 3,415 m.
Natural Resources (NJH)
Petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish from Lake Chad, salt, sand, gold, limestone and gravel. Huge developments are being made in the petroleum industry in Chad. There are big plans underway for the Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project.
It is expected that Chad has approximately 1 billion barrels of oil that can be drilled. It's potential cannot be compared with the oil-rich Gulf states such as Saudi Arabia, the Emirates or Kuwait but it certainly will grow considerably richer when the oil begins to be exported.
Defense (Alaa al Shamlan)
Many of Chad's economic, political, and social issues are closely tied to religious differences. Chad has two combat divisions, which is the Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale Tchadienne, ANT), Air Force, Gendarmerie (2004. In order to serve the army. For men, they must be 20 years old to go to the military which is only 3 years for them, yet no minimum age of volunteers. As for women, then are subject to one year of compulsory military. Manpower available for military service: males age 20-49: 1,527,580 females age 20-49: 1,629,510 Manpower fit for military service: males age 20-49: 794,988 females age 20-49: 849,500 Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 94,536 females age 20-49: 93,521 Military expenditures - dollar figure: $68.95 million (2005 est.) Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (2005 est.) Chad currently has good relations with France, the country to which it was formerly a colony.
Culture (Alaa al Shamlan)
Most of the people of Chad live in small villages and rural areas. The southern part of Chad is much more densely populated than the Saharan north. Overall, the population density is 18.1 persons per square mile.
Population is made up of many ethnic groups, each with its own language and culture. The main cultural difference is between the North African traveling stock herders of the north and the tropical African farmers of the south. The official languages are French and Arabic, but more than 100 other languages are spoken as well. Arabic is the main spoken language in northern Chad. In southern Chad the Sara is the largest ethnic group among Central Sudanese (Arabic) speakers, with more than 1 million people. Approximately 62 percent of adult men and 35 percent of adult women are educated.
Education is most widespread among the Sara. The University of Chad, which opened in 1972, is in N'Djamena, the capital. The Muslim religion is practiced by about 54 percent of the population and is particularly widespread in the north.
Another 35 percent of the people are Christians. Most of the Christians are Roman Catholics who live in towns and cities in the south and include many of the educated Sara elite. Southern farmers often hold traditional animist beliefs.
The 2005 estimate of the GDP purchasing power parity was 14.79 billion dollars (US), and it was 1500 dollars per capita.
The GDP growth rate had gone from 0.8% in 1999-2000 to 10% in 2002-2003 to 6% in 2005. It had increased drastically with the beginning of construction on the Exxon-Mobil pipeline to extract petroleum that rums through Chad and neighboring Cameroon. Billions of US dollars have been invested by the United States into the pipeline project as it id expected to produce well and stimulate economic growth for the poverty-stricken African nation.
80% of the Chadian population relies solely on livestock herding and subsistence farming for survival and the same percentage of the population lies below poverty level. Chad relies heavily on foreign aid from the European Union, the US, the African Development Bank, Taiwan, Libya, stc. Following political controversy and a partially reformed yet still corrupt government, many countries have expressed hesitation in investing heavily in Chad's big pipeline project. The money from the oil will most likely stay within the corrupt government circles.
Views on World Problems: (NJH)
Though Chad's government and current regime remains swathed in controversy, it maintains good ties with the United States and is a small but active participant in what George W Bush Jr. claims to be a "Global War on Terror". In April 2006, the World Bank froze Chad's oil revenue account declaring that President Idriss Deby did not keep to a previous that stated that the government must donate a percentage of it to development in the poor nation.
President Deby told France's Le Figaro newspaper that he was going to spend it on arms to continue the long-raging war between Chad and neighboring Sudan. Chad, being a small and very financially dependent country has no major impact on large conflicts, however, it does in this one.
Although Chad is a major player in the Darfur Conflict which has become a very large problem on the UN agenda as it aids anti-(Sudanese)government and anti-Janjiweed rebels. Chad also harbors many refugees that have fled Sudan, to escape the civil war/genocide, in refugee camps along the Chadian border.
History: (Muneera J)
Chad was first discovered when Sudanese adventurer, Rabih Al-Zubayr, conquered the kingdoms of Kanem-Bornum, Baguirmi, and Ouaddai in the late 19Th. century. In 1981, the French entered Chad and started their power and authority through military missions, especially against the Muslim kingdoms: Kanem-Bornum and Baguirmi.
The Kanem Empire rose in central Africa around 1200. Kanem was originally a union of black tribes, but by 1100, a group of tribes, called the Kanuri settled in Kanem. During the thirteenth century, the Kanuri began to conquer the surrounding areas. Their leader was Mai (King) Dunama Bibbalemi, who declared jihad, or "holy war" against surrounding tribes. At the height of the Kanem Empire, they controlled territory from the Fezzan region (Libya today) to Lake Chad to the Adamawa region (Cameroon today). The empire controlled strategic areas as all the commercial traffic through North Africa had to pass through Kanuri territory. In the late 1300’s, a civil conflict within the Kanuri territory began to seriously weaken the Kanem Empire. Therefore, by the early 1400’s, the Kanuri power transferred from Kanem to Bornu, a Kanuri kingdom south and west of Lake Chad. The new empire of Bornu grew very rapidly and the Kanuri grew powerful enough to unite the kingdom of Bornu with Kanem during the rule of Idris Alawma. Later, the empire began to decline as a result of administrative disorganization, regional particularism, and attacks by the militant Ouaddai Empire to the east. The decline continued until 1893, when Rabih az-Zubayr led an invading army from Eastern Sudan and conquered Bornu.
On April 22, 1900 at Kousséri, the battle for Chad was fought between the French Major Lamy and Rabih Al-Zubayr who were both killed during the battle. In 1905, Chad was a part of the French Equatorial Africa (AEF), whose capital was Brazzaville. The AEF had administrative responsibility for Chad. In 1920, Chad was placed under a lieutenant-governor stationed in Fort Lamy, which is N’Djamena today, were it received separate colonial status. During the colonial period, most of Chad was never governed effectively. The French military officers usually left the people alone in the Borkoueennedi-Tibesti Prefecture and the French rule in central Chad was a little more effective. In fact, the French only managed to rule the south of Chad effectively.
On August 26, 1940, during World War II, Chad was the first French colony to reenter the Allies after Germany’s victory over France. Under the government of France’s first black colonial governor, Félix Éboué, a military column led by Colonel Leclerc, and two battalions of Sara troops moved from Fort Lamy to engage Axis forces in Libya where they seized Kurfa along with the British Army’s Long Range Desert Group. Local parties began to develop in Chad after the war ended. The first was the conservative Chadian Democratic Union (UDT), which symbolized French commercial interests and a traditional bloc of leaders consisting of mostly Muslim and Ouaddaïan nobility. A more radical party was formed later, the Chadian Progressive Party (PPT). The two parties represented different regional identities. The UDT represented the Islamic north and the PPT represented the Christian and animist south. On September 28, 1958, after a referendum on territorial autonomy, the AEF was dissolved. Its four constituent countries: Gabon, Congo, the Central African Republic, and Chad became independent members of the French community.
Chad became an independent country on August 11, 1960 under Francois Tombalbaye, who became its first president. In 1965, Muslim dissatisfaction with Tombalbaye, who they thought was discriminating against them in favor of southerners resulted in a Civil War. This undermined Tombalbaye’s rule and led to the 1975 coup where the Tombalbaye was killed and replaced by a military junta led by the southerner Felix Malloum. However, the new military leader was not capable to maintain the popularity they got when they overthrew Tombalbaye. Malloum was incapable of dealing with the FROLINAT and decided that his only opportunity was to cooperate with some of the rebels. Therefore, in 1978, he allied himself with the rebel leader Hissene Habre, who became the prime minister.
Najeeba Haya GA A;
Issue 1: The use of security and defense as a means of justifying racial discrimination and intolerance
In these times, many a nation has used "national security" and "defense" as means of freely discriminating against races and exhibiting complete intolerance towards different peoples/cultures/religions.
Chad, being a diverse country with many different ethnic groups and with over 100 languages does not condone any act of discrimination or intolerance. However, Chad believes that the country comes first and any possible threat to national security and the smoothness of government processes must be eliminated in any way possible.
Chad has not done anything so far about this particular issue because 80% of its population is below poverty line, its government is run by a lunatic and so it is obvious that since Chad faces no such problems of its own, it is of no great concern to the country.
The United Nations is against all forms of discrimination and does not tolerate the discrimination against, or intolerance of, certain nations against the peoples of others. However, when these issues are paraded as a protection of "national security" or as a means of defense, it becomes difficult for the UN to draw the line and tell the difference between true acts of defense and those of racial/ethnic discrimination.
The UN has staged many conferences against these issues such as the World Conference against Racism, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance. The UN has also discussed issues such as the unacceptable, racist goings-on at the prisons and villages in Iraq, for example (the Abu-Ghraib prison scandal).
Chad suggests that the UN form committees aimed at combating this issue
Issue 2: Governmental measures to be taken on an International level to restrict the possible outbreak of a pandemic
A pandemic is a potentially fatal disease like the Avian Flu, HIV/AIDS or SARS. A pandemic must be potentially fatal, new to humans and must spread easily. Governments worldwide, to prevent it from entering their country, must take restrictions on everything from imports, immigration, travel, etc.
Chad is a country with 4.8% of its population afflicted with HIV/AIDS. Also, according to the World Fact book: degree of risk: very high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne disease: malaria water contact disease: schistosomiasis respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)
In the year 2004, there was an outbreak of cholera in Chad and approximately 4000 people were affected with over 160 reported deaths from the disease. The Global Task Force on Cholera Control worked with the Ministry of Health to combat its outbreak in other regions of the country and to suppress its proliferation where it is already present.
The World Bank has given the republic of Chad millions of US dollars to combat AIDS and "improve the lives of the rural poor" but since the dealings of the Chadian government have been suspect for some time, and they haven't given the WB any comprehensive reports on improvements, and since the Chadian government has changed the laws which formed the basis of their general agreement with the World Bank in the first place, the WB has suspended any further grants and funds (totaling approx. US $150), which may affect the combat of disease and purchase of necessary drugs, until the government "cleans up its act" so to speak.
The United Nations organization like WHO have reacted to the Avian Flu accordingly. "We must act as a global community. We must help develop comprehensive national preparedness plans, strengthen surveillance systems, and build laboratory networks," World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General Lee Jong-wook told the health ministers of the so-called G8 countries in Moscow. Director-General Lee Jong-wook also emphasized the important role the G8 countries and the EU play in controlling the outbreak of any pandemic. He applauded the efforts made on behalf of those working on the International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza. The steps this partnership will take are: 1. elevating the issue on national agendas; 2. coordinating efforts among donor and affected nations; 3. mobilizing and leveraging resources; 4. increasing transparency in disease reporting and surveillance; and 5. Building capacity to identify, contain and respond to a pandemic influenza.
Dr. Lee also stressed the importance of training the health workers in developing countries so that they are suitable to combat the spread of a pandemic in their assigned area and are up to par with international standards.
Issue # 3: Adverse effects of illicit movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and waste's of people's rights to a secure environment
Chad has thankfully had no such problems of its own, well, at least not on such a large scale or any reported by any of the United Nations news services. And, seeing as to how Chad currently has a healthily growing economic sector as a result of the Chad-Cameroon oil pipeline project, Chad is not so unfortunate as to have to take such desperate measures as to accept toxic waste onto its soil for the purpose of monetary gain.
It is the right of every person in the world to live in a secure environmental without the threat of man-made hazards like toxic waste and the dumping of dangerous products on or near their original area of habitation.
The United Nations has taken much action regarding this subject. The UNEP (United Nations Environmental Program) has been called on more than one occasion to investigate the supposedly illegal dumping of toxic waste in any one area. Such was the case in Cote d'Ivoire just recently where toxic waste has been dumped in various areas of the country leading to the reported deaths of 3 citizens and the injury of 3000 others. The cause of this crisis has been linked to a European ship illegally exporting toxic waste into the largely impoverished African country. There have been similar problems the UN has been trying to combat in fellow AU member Zambia. In Zambia, villagers have been affected by the contaminated beef import that had turned out to be radioactive.
Alaa al Shamlans: GA: B
Issue # 1: Assistance to the Survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda
A large number of people were killed in a short amount of time in the Rwanda genocide. Innocent people were being killed because of what tribe they belonged to. The Hutus overtook the Tutsis and the Tutsis came and got their retribution by reentering the country as the RPF and resulting in the genocide of approx. 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. Genocide is any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such 1. Killing members of the group; 2. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group 3. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; 4. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group. 5. Forcibly transferring children on the group to another group.
The United Nations established UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda), in October 1993 "to help implement a plan to help the citizens of Rwanda" The United Nations failed to prevent the Genocide. In the weeks prior to the attacks, the UN did not respond to reports of Hutu militias amassing weapons and rejected plans for a pre-emptive strike.
Chad, as a member of the African Union, believes that assistance in the form of economic aid, food and the deployment of UN peacekeepers should be provided to fellow Rwanda so that the long-raging internal conflicts can soon come to an end. Chad has good relations with Rwanda but seeing as to how Chad still has many similar problems of its own with Sudanese and Chadian rebel groups, it will seek to resolve those problems first.
Munira al Jouan: ECOSOC
Issue # 1. Steps taken towards combating money- laundering while protecting people's rights
Money-laundering is identified as ‘the practice of engaging in specific financial transactions in order to conceal the identity, the source and the destination of the money so that it appears to be legally acquired.’ Money-laundering is the main operation of the underground economy where not only legally prohibited commerce such as drugs are traded, but also includes trade in legal goods and services where the income is not reported and taxation is avoided through money-laundering. Therefore, money-laundering is thought to be practiced by individuals, small and large businesses, corrupt officials, members of organized crime such as the Mafia, drug dealers, and even intelligence agencies through a complicated network of shell corporations that are based in tax havens which are places where taxes are low or there are no taxes at all. A shell corporation is "a company that is incorporated but has no significant assets or operations." Shell corporations are a main part of the underground economy, specifically ones based in tax havens, usually they are formed for money laundering, to avoid taxes, and to conceal tax evasion schemes.
The most recent example involving money-laundering includes the Enron Corporation. The Enron Corporation suffered the biggest bankruptcy in US history and 4,000 employees lost their jobs. Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling, both whom have formerly served as chief executive officers of Enron, went on trial because of their part in the Enron scandal. Kenneth Lay was found guilty of all ten counts against him, while Jeffery Skilling was found guilty of 19 of the 28 counts against him.
Another example of a person involved with money-laundering is Augusto Punochet, who was the leader of the military dictatorship that governed Chile from 1973 to 1990 and has been blamed of corruption, selling illegal arms, and of torture.
The Republic of Chad is extremely alarmed by the effect that money-laundering has on people’s rights. Chad applauds the efforts of the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) for developing policies to fight money-laundering and to fight terrorist financing.
Issue # 2. Economic and social council event to consider the issue of transition from relief to development, while focusing on the role of empowerment and self sufficiency in guaranteeing sustainable development
A developing country is a country that has a low standard of living, undeveloped industrial base, and a medium to low Human Development Index (HDI). The Human Development Index is "a comparative measure of poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, childbirth, and other factors." A developed country is considered to be developed when it has a high Human Development Index.
First, the poverty line in the country should decrease; in Chad, 80% of the population lives under the poverty live. Poverty is an "economic condition of lacking both money and basic necessities needed to successfully live such as food, water, education, and shelter." In order for the poverty line to decrease, the literacy rate should go up.
Most African countries illiteracy rate is high; for example, in Chad only 47.5% of the population under 15 can read or write. That means that more than 50% of Chad’s population can’t read or write! Also, the health of the citizens should get better so the poverty line can decrease. The risk of getting infected by diseases is very common in Africa. In Chad, there is a VERY high risk of getting infected by diseases such as malaria, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, meningitis, and other infectious diseases. Moreover, about 4.8% of Chad’s population aged 15-49 live with AIDS. The life expectancy age of Chad’s population is 48 years. That is very low! For example, Japan’s life expectancy age 81 years old. The difference between the age Chad’s population is expected to live and the age the Japanese people are expected to live is about 33 years!
Chad believes in order for a country to get sustainable development, the UN, the World Bank, and the IMF should provide the government money to build schools in order for the people to get a free education. With the money given to the government, the government can also provide FREE medicine to the citizens that need it. Moreover, citizens should also get free immunizations and vaccinations so they can be protected from future diseases or infections. There should also be a law stating that all citizens have to get at least a middle school education. The money provided by the World Bank and IMF to help with this.
Issue # 3: Effects of economic reform policies and debt relief on the development of LDCs, with due consideration to the assistance of the poor segment of the society.
Most LDCs (Least Developed Countries), Chad included, suffer from "extreme poverty, ongoing and widespread conflicts, political corruption, and lack political and social stability." About fifty countries are considered to be LDCs, 34 of those countries are African countries. After the 1973 oil crisis, when the members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) raised the price of oil making the Arab countries very rich, those countries decided to put this money in large Western Banks. The Western Banks didn’t want all this money left around so they loaned the money to the third world countries.
The developing countries were loaned large amounts of money and the banks didn’t pay much attention to how the money would spent. They didn’t even consider that maybe some of the countries were not able to repay the amount they were loaned. Most of the money that was lent never reached the poor people of the country; however they either went to major development projects or to the dictator’s private bank accounts. Approximately one-fifth of the loaned money went to weapons and arms.
On July 2005, at the G8 summit that was held in Scotland, the G8 offered complete cancellation of the Debts owed by the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the African Development Bank. The debt cancellation had some positive impact on some countries such as Mozambique, who after it was given debt relief, offered all children free immunization. Also, in Uganda, 2.2 million people gained access to clean water because of the debt relief that was granted to Uganda. Moreover, in Tanzania, the government stopped issuing primary school fees, which led to a 66% increase in attendance also because of debt-relief. In addition to debt relief, the members of the G8 decided to given $50 billion in aid to developing countries. However, some say that instead of giving aid to the governments, the money should go to specific aid projects to ensure that they actually reach the poor people of the countries and help them.
The Republic of Chad believes that although debt-relief and economic reforms have an impact of the development of LDCs, they are not enough. The poverty level has to go down in order for the country to develop. Also, the people’s health has to improve. For that to happen, children should be educated. Illiteracy rates in Africa are very high. For example, in Chad, approximately 47.5% of the population over 15 years old can read and write. Studies show that if people are educated, there will be a less number of people affected by HIV. Furthermore, countries' NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS should give money to the government to do specific projects to help the poor of the country. Additionally medicine and food and water should be given directly to the people.
States that "The purposes of the United Nations are...to achieve international co-operation... in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language and religion . . .. " - Charter of the United Nations
Recalls That according to the UNDHR, "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights..." and that according to Fact Sheet # 12 from the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination from Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights, " [Creating] a world society free of racial segregation and discrimination, factors which create hatred and division, is a fundamental aim of the United Nations,"
Draws attention to the fact that according to the Washington based International Policy Institution (MPI) the US "rounded-up and detained more than 1,200 immigrants after the attacks on New York and Washington." and that these round-ups were "particularly abusive,"
Quotes a major report released by the MPI stating that "Dozens of detainees were subject to verbal and physical abuse by guards at the facility, where they were left to languish in unduly harsh conditions for months, some without access to family members or attorneys" and that the US administration, with no evidence or links with 9/11 imposed "harsh measures on Arab- and Muslim-American communities,"
Disgusted that an expose (published 2005) on the notorious Guantanamo Bay prison camp revealed the severe racial/religious discrimination displayed by all those working at the high-security prison camp and in particular a female Guantanamo interrogator who wiped fake menstrual blood on the face of a Saudi Muslim detainee and asking the prisoner if "Allah would like that,"
Further noting that according to a February Canada.com report, "Former US. vice-president Al Gore told an audience Sunday that the US. government committed 'terrible abuses' against Arabs after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks, and had been 'indiscriminately rounded up' and held in 'unforgivable conditions.'"
Applauds the United Nation's efforts to close down the US's Guantanamo prison camp,
1. Calls upon the formation of the United Nations Organization for the Protection of the Discriminated Against (UNOPDA) which will: a. Have its headquarters and stations in: i. Far East Asia: Beijing, China, ii. South East Asia: New Delhi, India, iii. Middle East: Amman, Jordan and Riyadh, KSA, iv. Europe: London, England and Lisbon, Portugal, v. USA: Boston, Massachusetts and Sacramento, California, vi. Canada: Vancouver, British Colombia, B. Each quarter will consist of: i. A Director General that oversees all the general functions of that specific branch of the organization, ii. Executive members who oversee the various departments in that specific headquarters, C. The departments will be: i. Law - A team of professional lawyers/attorneys that have a strong background in international law and are experts in the laws of the country/region they work in: ii. Tracking and Immigration/Detention Records department-, iii. Networking/Information department- this dept. will deal with receiving the most up-to-the-minute information on/about/in all of the UNOPDA headquarters worldwide, media coverage dealing with correlating topics, government actions/policies/updates on anything related, iv. Action department-which will take action on a case or discrimination or intolerance
2. Affirms that UNOPDA will: A. Protect the basic human rights of those who are discriminated against or in any way treated negatively by a government because of their race/ethnicity/background or religion by: i. Conducting studies and in-depth analyses on the detention of immigrants and racial minorities in countries worldwide, ii. Examining the policies of the country suspected of intolerant behavior concerning immigration, prisoner/detainee treatment and the handling/treatment of civilians in and out of tightened security conditions and how the treatment of people compares/contrasts to that, iii. Providing legal services to any person(s) who are mistreated based on their race/ethnicity with an excuse of "national security," iv. Putting any violator of these basic (innocent) human rights with the excuse of "defense" on the UNOPDA Black List. that will be compiled by the Information Department of every Headquarter and every time a country is placed on it and will be redistributed among all the UNOPDA quarters, B. Keep a blacklist of rights offenders under the following conditions; i. The First Time: the list will be distributed among all UNOPDA headquarters, on the website, in the global press and Human Rights organizations and watchdogs worldwide, ii. The Second Time: the list will be sent to the Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights and the country will be issued a warning, iii. The Third Time: the list will be sent to the United Nations Security Council to decide upon appropriate consequences that the country will face a result of its unacceptable behavior;
3. Resolves that the Director Generals and their Deputies of each headquarters will hold tri-annual conferences in a rotation of headquarters discussing: A. Techniques of improvement of discrimination tracking, B. New laws and "security" regulations, C. A general overview of the successes, failures, improvements and occurrences of the year, D. Countries that UNOPDA has had complications with and how to react/deal with those specific situations;
Preventing, combating and punishing trafficking of human organs Delegate: Ala'a Al-Shamlan Question of: Preventing, combating and punishing trafficking of human organs Delegation: Republic of Chad Commission: General Assembly B
Alarmed by the fact that human’s are being forced to sell organs from their body, and taking them away can be fatal,
Deeply saddened by the fact that, there are over 40,000 people waiting to be provided with a kidney,
Keeping in mind the World Medical Association and the World Health Organization (WHO) consider the sale of human organs as inhumane and unethical,
Taking note that 300,000 people receive organ transplants per year worldwide,
Country: Chad Committee: ECOSOC Issue: Effects of economic reform policies and debt relief on the development of LDCs, with due consideration to the assistance of the poor segment of the society.
Defining debt relief as "the partial or total forgiveness of debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth, owed by individuals, corporations, or nations,"
Recognizing the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative as "provide debt relief to the world's poorest and most heavily indebted countries, and thereby reduce the constraint on economic growth and poverty reduction imposed by the debt build-up in these countries" according to the World Bank,
Deeply Concerned that most Least Developed Countries (LDCs) suffer from "extreme poverty, ongoing and widespread conflict (including civil war or ethnic clashes), extensive political corruption, and lack political and social stability" according to wikipedia.org,
Expressing Its Appreciation to the members of the G8, who in the G8 summit on July 2005 offered complete cancellation of the debts owed by the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the African Development Bank,
Taking Into Consideration that the Secretary General, Kofi Anan, proposed that "developed countries should double the aid they provide to Africa and open their markets to more African goods" according to the UN,
Applauding the efforts of the African Development Bank whose purpose is promoting economic and social development in Africa,
Taking Into Consideration that, according to Wikipedia.org, because of debt relief countries such as Benin used the money saved through debt-relief has been spent on health, including on rural primary health care and HIV programs,
Taking Note that Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 26, clause one states that "Everyone has the right to education; education shall be free....; elementary education shall be compulsory,
Noting With Deep Concern that according to africa2015.org, only 57% of African children are enrolled in primary school and one of three children finish school,
Noting With Regret that illiteracy rates in Africa are very high, for example only 47.5% of the Chadian population over 15 years old can read and write,
1) Declares the establishment of the United Nations Least Developed Countries Committee (UNLDCC) , which will be established under United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and whose signatory members will include all LDCs,
2) Resolves that the UNLDCC will: A. Be composed of: i) Representatives from all LDCs and all other countries wishing to join, ii) Representatives from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), iii) Representatives from the African Union, iv) Representatives from the UNDP, which will include development experts v) Financial experts, B. Have its headquarters in New York City, New York, C. Have a president chosen by the UNDP Administrator, D. Have two branches, one in Asia and one in Africa, E. Each branch will have a head and as much staff members as needed;
3) Further Resolves that the UNLDCC will act under the following procedure: A. A country will officially contact the UNLDCC requesting help with their development, B. The country will make a proposal that will include the following: i. How they have spent previous and current loan money, ii. How they plan to spend a future loan, iii. Recent history, foreign attacks, natural disasters, wars, etc., iv. How they plan on helping their citizens after they get the loan, v. Percentages on where the money is going to be spent, vi. How they plan to pay the loan back, C. The UNLDCC will look up the country and see how they have been spending their previous loans and will either: i. Forgive their debt and pay off their current loan, ii. Accept their proposal for a new loan, iii. Reject their proposal for a new loan, D. The UNLDC will then send a group of UN investigators, with the permission of the country, to check if the country is actually spending the money on what the country has said they are going to spend it on, E. The UNLDC will also make quarterly visits to the country to check if the country has made any significant progress,
4) Affirms that all members of the UNLDCC will meet every six months in New York City, United States of America, as it is the headquarters of the UNDP, and will do the following: A. Discuss each LDCs development, B. Discuss how LDCs will be able to become developed countries and what steps are necessary to become a developed country so that the LDCs will be able to implement that, C. Hold emergency meetings, whenever there are any important issues that have to be discussed and resolved immediately.
5) Expresses Its Hope that all nations join the UNCDLDC in order to solve this issue.
Najeeba Hayat- Opening Speech
Honorable Chair, fellow delegates; greetings.
Chad, a land of the ancients. In Chad, fellow delegates, was found the oldest ever humanoid skull; dating back 7 million years! Rock carvings and rock art in our Ennedi region pre-dates the 7Th. millennium BC.!
Our country has gone through vast changes and turbulent conditions such as wars and the terrible experience of atrocities from neighboring countries like the torn Sudan. Yet, despite the fear, despite the emotional and physical scars of battle still emblazoned in the minds of our citizens; Chad surges forth. The Chadians are strong and united in pride, dignity and integrity. In this General Assembly, the representatives of our people in the honorable United Nations will work to our maximum potential to peacefully solve problems such as the illegal dumping of toxic wastes, the outbreak of pandemics and lastly, the use of "security" and "defense" as excuses to justify the ill treatment, and the racial/ethnic discrimination against human beings.
C...H...A…D... may mean, can have a destiny.
Words may not describe what Chad is going through today however, it's a great honor and pleasure for Chad to be part of this event. We are here today to help resolve some very critical topics that are in dire need of the UN's help. Chad would like to point out that each and every topic effects each and every single nation. From now on, Chad kindly requests nothing less than the full attention and effort from all present delegates today in hopes of resolving these very delicate topics that are raining terror on fragile and good-natured mother earth.
Dear Mr. President.
These 5 days I've spent in Jordan, weren't only amazing, they were fascinating. They were 5 days or work, and fun. In them, I had the best experience ever. I meet new people from Jordan and other countries. I realized that working with people different from your culture, and from you is amazing. Each one of us has his or her point of view; together we've joined them and made a great resolution. Although it might not be the best resolution ever, but only by putting your hands in them, you'd feel proud, and wouldn't mind defending it. That alone may be the best thing ever; working with people you don't know and because of that you get to know them. It seemed more serious, with the tables, tags, folders, and committing to wearing REALLY formal clothes. What also made it more special is that we spent those 5 days in the same hotel that we had the meeting in. Now, I feel I have more self confidence though maybe my points I'm stating might be so powerful, but still I feel like I now have the ability to speak in front of the audience. What also encouraged me is the delegates comments on my OPENING SPEECH. Sincerely, Ala'a Al Shamlan
Dear President Lt. Gen. Idriss Deby.
I believe this is the second time i have had to type up this report, but the people who have hacked my e-mail have evidently erased the previous. I suspect it was a Sudanese hacker! In the Amman General Assembly A, I believe I performed well as our noble country's representative. Although i was reprimanded unjustly for several misunderstood incidents that occurred in the duration of the conference, i believe that the spirit of our land Chad and the importance of representing a country in which you are the leader inspired me to hold my head high and surge forth. A great deal was accomplished. Many resolutions were passed that would bring big bucks to Chad and hopefully a few of those big bucks would find their well-earned ways into your and my pockets, no? I was a main submitter of an excellent resolution with an excess of signatures and was awarded most the passionate and enthusiastic delegate award. Sudan were made to look like the ignorant fools they truly are. I tell you sir, their true colors shone bright, or shall i say...dim? The evil traitor that was the ambassador of Sudan was put in her place by myself and she spoke not a single word after experiencing the humiliation of my opening speech to the assembly. Vivre to our noble Republic of Chad! I salute you, Ambassador of Chad to the UN General Assembly, Dr. Najeeba A. M Hayat- M.D.