Event: KITMUN 2006
Students: Ambassador: Reem AL Thekair (SC)
Vice Ambassador: Yasmeen Dashti (Social)
Dana Khader (Disarnament)
Sarah Shaheen (Human Rights)
Layla Arafe (Environment)
Ottoman Al Ottoman (SC history)
Student: Mariam Dashti
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2005-2006 Team page
Political Structure (Laila):
The Fifth Republic is France’s current republican constitution. It was introduced on October 1958. Charles de Gaulle was the founder of this constitution which was formed after the Algerian Crisis. Charles de Gaulle used the crisis as a chance to create a stronger office of president in a new French government. The Fifth republic replaced France’s parliamentary government with a semi-presidential system. So France’s government is currently a democracy, and is organized as a unitary semi-presidential republic. A semi-presidential system is a system of government when both the president and the PM take part in day to day actions, not only the PM. (Some countries that have a semi-presidential system include Algeria, Egypt, Finland, Lebanon, Lithuania, Mongolia, Pakistan, Romania, Russia, Sri Lanka, Ukraine, and Taiwan). This system forces politicians to be careful with their decisions and makes them work seriously for the benefit of the people otherwise the parliament will judge their performance and could dismiss them. The membership of the EU has greatly shaped the French foreign policy. The government of France is divided into an executive, a legislative, and a judicial branch.
The independent judiciary is based on a civil law system (which evolved from the Napoleonic code). It is divided into 2 branches: the judicial branch, and the administrative branch. The judicial branch deals with the civil and criminal law, and the administrative branch deals with requests against the government. Each branch has its own independent supreme court (courts of cessation).
The executive branch is headed by two officials: the President and the Prime Minister. The president is elected for a five-year term (was originally seven). He appoints the PM, heads the government (cabinet of ministers), commands the armed forces, and concludes treaties. He also has the right to dissolve the Parliament (National, Assembly). If the president’s party controls the majority of the parliament, then he appoints the PM and the ministers who will follow his ideas and agenda. However, if the opposition party controls the parliament, then the president has to appoint a PM and ministers from the opposition party that would oppose his agenda. The president can be from a different party than the PM; however, it would make the running of the government more difficult because their principles would be different. The current president is Jacques Chirac. He has been president since May 17, 1995. He was re-elected in 2002 for 5 more years. His current term expires in 2007.
The Parliament may criticize the government and could pass a motion of confidence that would force the government to resign. The government has to answer questions from parliament members in writing or verbally. The Ministers have to attend parliament meetings specially when discussing subjects referring to Ministers areas. However, the Parliament cannot make the president resign.
The Parliament of France makes up the legislative branch. It consists of two houses: the National Assembly (the principle body which consists of 577 members known as "deputies" elected for 5-year terms) and the Senate (chosen for 6-year terms, and half of the Senate is renewed every 3 years; there are currently 321 senators). Each year, Parliament meets for one 9-month session; however, the president can call an additional session under special circumstances. The National Assembly can still cause the government to fall if the absolute majority of the total Assembly membership votes to disapprove (even though parliamentary powers have been reduced from those existing under the Fourth Republic). The Senate’s legislative powers are limited. When there’s a disagreement between the two houses, the National Assembly has the last word. The Senate has always had a right-wing majority since the beginning of the Fifth Republic.
What’s special about this system is that the parliament makes the laws and can monitor the work of the government in implying these laws. In case the government didn’t do well, they can cast a motion of confidence. The system in Kuwait is similar to this one.
France is a big country that lies between and shares borders without a lot of countries. France lies in Eastern Europe and borders the Bay of Biscay and English Channel between Belgium and Spain. It is southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Italy and Spain. France shares borders with Andorra, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Monaca, Spain and Switzerland. By its area being 547,030 sq km, it is slightly less than twice the size of Colorado. France has natural frontiers with Switzerland and Italy.
France has very high points and different types of land year round. The highest point in France, the mountain range that runs across the border of France and Italy, is Mount Blanc at 15,771 feet. The lowest point is Rhone River delta at 2 m. France's longest river is Lorie River, which is 634 miles long. Mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west cover France. The remainder is mountainous. France usually has cool winters and mild summers however; along the Mediterranean Sea, it has mild winters and hot summers. Some of the natural hazards that threat France are floods, avalanches, midwinter windstorms, and drought and forest fires in the south.
Natural Resources (Sarah):
The natural resources of France are somewhat limited in quantity. France has some coal, iron ores, bauxite, and uranium. Iron ores are of a low grade, and the uranium ore is found only in small quantities. Other resources found in France are zinc, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, fluorospar, gypsum, timber and fish. There is very little petroleum in France. In addition, natural gas reserves discovered at Lacq in the Pyrenees (1951) are now nearly exhausted. Hydroelectric production, although well developed, does not meet France's needs.
However, because of France's high-quality soils that cover almost half the country's surface, France has an agricultural surplus that makes it an exporter of food. This is because France really cares about agriculture and to a certain extent, gives its farmers as much subsidies as needed.
Cultural Factors (Reem):
Since prehistoric times, France has been a crossroads of trade and travel. Three basic European ethnic stocks, Celtic, Latin, and Teutonic (Frankish), have blended over the centuries to make up its present population. France has played an important role for centuries as a cultural center, with Paris as a world center of high culture. The French maintain a strong gap between civilian life and religion.
Religion is considered as private as possible, and it is considered offensively inquisitive to enter religious discussions in most conditions. Islamic extremism is considered as a real threat for the stability of the French society. Reasons for tensions include the desire of certain imam or other Muslims not to abide by French laws, regulations and customs. Following cases of conflicts about Muslim girls breaching school dress regulations or refusing to attend certain classes, the French government adopted a statute prohibiting the wearing of religious symbols, such as veils, in public primary and secondary schools.
France has a population of 60,876,136 with a 0.35% growth rate. 120,000 people in France live with AIDS/HIV; with less than 1,000 deaths from AIDS/HIV. There are several ethnic groups in France, Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities. The main religions in France are Roman Catholic 83%-88%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 5%-10%, unaffiliated 4%. 99% of the population can read and write, which proves the importance of education in France .
France is noted for its cosmopolitan, civilized approach to life, combined with great concern for style, fashion and appearances. French people are sometimes perceived as taking a great pride in the national identity and positive achievements of France, although many French people would argue that people of all nations tend to do that.
France has one of the best militaries of the world. It consists of three branches: The army, which includes marines, the navy, which includes naval air, and the air force which includes air defense and the National Gendarmerie. After the United States , France is the greatest military spender, spending an approximate $46.5 billion on its military or 2.6% of its GDP (2000). As a result of that France has the 4th largest air force the 3rd largest naval force and the 12th largest army the political purpose of a large army is to protect themselves from every other country.
For the last few years France has been increasing its military spending; in 1997 the spending was $39.2 billion or 2.4% of its GDP. France is also interested in expanding it military aspirations, for France along with Germany proposed to create a military branch to the EU, though currently this issue is a very controversial issue. France is also a major exporter of weaponry and conventional arms. France exports an estimated $1,288 million in conventional arms. Even though France is the 3rd most exporter of arms in the world it has a very strict arms export control system.
France tested its first nuclear weapon in 1960. Today its nuclear arsenals, although in reduction, remains very significant. The French reason for owning them is to have the will and the capacity to deter an adversary. this force is insignificant in comparison to say Russia or the USA . Hence, they can neither claim to defend themselves nor attack a potential enemy.
France is such a loyal nation to all the protocols and treaties it has signed that since the end of the Cold War, France is the only nuclear weapon State having dismantled all its test site facilities and given independent international experts access to its nuclear test sites.
Currently France has only one modern (made in the last decade) aircraft carrier the "Charles De Gualle". However, France will increase its Navy power significantly until 2015 adding a total of 80 warships, 130 naval aircraft and five commandos units. The could defeat Germany and invade Iran and also beat up south African nations they can do all that because they have a large army.
They have a "force de frappe" even if they cannot "frappe" so that they can stay as a Strong country or keep their chair as one of the P5 countries so they need to keep the force even if they cant use it. This "Force de Frappe" is France's nuclear arsenal.
Until the early 20th century, France was still largely a nation of small farms and family-owned businesses. After World War II (1939-1945) the French government nationalized numerous business enterprises, especially in energy, finance, and manufacturing, and it introduced a series of development plans intended to modernize the economy.
Today, France is one of the world’s leading economic powers. France is home to the world’s fifth largest economy, behind the United States , Japan , Germany , and the United Kingdom . It is also the leading agricultural producer in Western Europe . In 2005, France 's GDP was $2.055. France is a member of the European Union (EU), a successor of the EC that promotes economic and political cooperation among European nations.
France has a real GDP growth rate of 1.4%. Its GDP is divided into three sectors: Agriculture 2.2%, Industry 21.4% and Services 76.4%. It has a labor force of 27.2 million; which is divided as follows: agriculture 4.1%, Industry 24.4% and Services 71.5%. With unemployment rate of 9.9% and a rate of 6.5% of population bellow poverty line. France has an inflation rate of 1.7%, investment 19.6% and a revenue budget worth $1.06 trillion and a expenditure budget of $ 1.144 trillion. Also, a public debt of 66.2% of GDP.
France 's Agriculture Products are wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes, beef, dairy products and fish. Industries machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing and tourism; with a growth rate of 0.2%. France exports machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages. It exports $443.4 billion worth of products. Its exporting partners are Germany 14.7%, Spain 9.6%, Italy 8.7%, UK 8.3%, US 7.2%, Belgium 7.1%. France imports machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals; $473.3 billion worth of products. Its importing partners are Germany 18.9%, Belgium 10.7%, Italy 8.2%, Spain 7%, Netherlands 6.5%, UK 5.9%, US 5.1%.
Germany’s industrial growth rate is 2.9%, with an industry among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles. On the other hand, France has an industrial growth rate of 0.2%, with the production of machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism. Germany’s GDP is composed by agriculture: 0.9% industry: 29.6% and services: 69.5%; while France’s GDP is composed by Agriculture 2.2%, Industry 21.4% and Services 76.4%.
Over the past half-dozen years or so, an expression has crept into the French language that sums up "all that is defiantly different about the country and its people and which sets it apart from its geographical peers and political allies". Such is the definition given by Andrew Jack of l'exception française (the French exception).
Views on World Problem (Yasmeen):
France is a well known country. A charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of the UN's specialized and related agencies. France supports everything the UN is doing about ongoing problems going on in the world.
Furthermore, France is involved in many worldwide activities. Such activities are related to the Middle East and Africa . France supports efforts to implement the Middle East Road Map. It supports the establishment of a Palestinian state and the withdrawal of Israel from all occupied territories. France also opposed to the use of force in Iraq and didn't join US coalition forces who entered Iraq and freed the people from the dictatorial rule of Saddam Hussein.
In Africa, France plays a significant role especially in its former colonies. It supports Africa through extensive aid programs, commercial activities, and military agreements.
Moreover, the French military doctrine is based on the concepts of national independence, nuclear avoidance and military sufficiency. It has actively participated in recent peacekeeping/coalition efforts in Africa, the Middle East and the Balkans.
Lastly, France is an active member in these organizations: EU (European Union), FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), OPCW (Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons), UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization), WHO (World Health Organization), IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IMF, Interpol, and much more.
Charlemagne is born in 742 till 814, he is also Charles the Great. He took his name tittle from Carolus Magnus 2. He was the King of the Franks during the years 768 to 814. He conquered Italy and took the Iron Crown of Lombardy in 774 and, on a visit to Rome in 800, was crowned imperator Romanorum ("Emperor of the Romans") by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day, presaging the revival of the Roman imperial tradition in the West in the form of the Holy Roman Empire. By his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define Western Europe and the Middle Ages. His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance, a revival of the arts and education in the West.
Starting with World War 1 in August 1914, France, Britain and Russia were allied against Germany and Austria. The Germans attacked France through southern Belgium aiming to capture Paris. The French Army stopped the Germans along the River Marne north of Paris helped by the British Expeditionary Force that rushed across the Channel.
During the years 1914-1918, France helped win an Allied victory. Alsace and Lorraine revert to France. So there were peace treaties made. That was the reason. Charles de Gaulle was the leader of Free France during World War II he fought in World War I and earned a reputation for valour. He was wounded three times and captured by the Germans at Verdun in 1916. At the end of World War 1, France won the war but 2653 French (mostly soldiers) were killed.
Continuing with World War 2 in 1938, France joined Great Britain in an attempt to appease Nazi aggression. France signed the Munich Pact and helped give Germany permission to invade the Sudeten territories of Czechoslovakia. It was soon clear that this attempt at appeasement (it means calming) failed.
After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, France declared war. France's war against Germany did not last long. On June 22, 1940, France surrendered to Germany. France was occupied by the Germans until 1944. June 6 of that year a massive Allied force invaded the beaches of Normandy.
Through the summer and fall, the Allies pushed eastward through France towards Germany. In August, Allied troops also landed in the South of France. By the end of the war, about 350,000 French soldiers had been killed, and almost a half million French civilians had died.
In the years 1980-88, a conflict was going on between Iran and Iraq. Iraq initiated the war, they were trying to take one of Iran’s lands that they claimed that it was their property. They used air force, and chemical weapons (poisonous gas) against each other, while all nations are sitting down watching. France felt that it was obligated to support Iraq. Saddan Hussien had some type of an agreement with France. So France kept shipping weapons of all kinds, specially machine guns, to Iraq until the conflict was solved in the year 1988.
Disarmament Issues: (Dana)
Issue # 1. The Arms race in space
The deployment of space weapons will destroy strategic balance and stability, undermine international and national security, and disrupt existing arms control instruments, in particular those related to nuclear weapons and missiles. These effects will inevitably lead to a new arms race. Space weaponization would seriously disrupt the arms control and disarmament process. The initiation of US. space-based missile defenses would likely cause Russia as well as the United States (in response to Russia ) to make smaller and smaller reductions of their nuclear arsenals. China would likely be forced to build more warheads to maintain its nuclear deterrent, which could in turn encourage India and then Pakistan to follow suit.
The treaties that are trying to stop this is NPT, CTBT, BWC, CWC, NWC, PAROS . In the coming weeks, President George W. Bush is expected to approve a radical departure from long-standing American policy toward space. Traditionally guided by self-restraint, states have avoided the weaponization of space. However, the forthcoming Bush space doctrine establishes a new American plan for space: war fighting.
As any country would do it would have a side on this issue, France has made few space arms control statements since 2002. Those it has made focus on establishing a work program for the stalled Conference on Disarmament to address how to prevent an arms race in outer space. In the area of missile defense, France was initially hostile to the US. withdrawal from the ABM treaty, but later accepted it, so long as a US. national missile defense system would not upset France's own nuclear deterrent. This position by the European Union corresponds to the approach followed by my country, which has participated actively in the work on this topic since the beginning of the 1980s in our forum in Geneva . Since the beginning of this debate, France has been in favor of the peaceful use of outer space. In June 2001, the French President stated that the non-militarization of space was an essential element. It had been maintained up to now despite all the temptations of the cold war and must be maintained. It would be in no one’s interest to open this new Pandora’s box. No one could maintain a monopoly in this area. The result would be a new arms race whose outcome would be disastrous for everyone.
Issue # 2) Controlling the development of arms in developing nations
Every year more than half a million people are killed through the misuse of small arms such as handguns, assault rifles and grenades. With poverty providing an ideal breeding ground for small arms proliferation, African countries are currently the worst hit by a global epidemic of armed violence that threatens the safety and well-being of people in developed and developing countries alike. The human costs of small arms misuse have social and economic consequences too, further affecting the opportunities and productivity of poor communities further still. From Latin America and the Caribbean to sub-Saharan Africa, South and South East Asia , research has shown how scarce household resources are being devoted to the treatment and care of the victims of violence, as well as to informal and unregulated forms of security - such as para-militarism and vigilantism. Small arms misuse is also strongly associated with the increasing lethality of criminality, forced migration, the deterioration of investment and trade, as well as the obstruction of aid delivery and assistance. Both directly and indirectly then, small arms misuse undermines the quality and quantity of development in poor countries.
France has no doubt that the world has a huge problem with the illicit trafficking of small arms.
Issue # 3. The illicit arms market and trade in the former USSR
Since the end of the Cold War, arms transfers have largely fallen off the policy and academic radar screen. Ballistic and, to a lesser extent, cruise missiles, are an exception because they are tied to weapons of mass destruction. Small arms and light weapons also receive considerable attention, driven primarily by NGOs and smaller governments. MANPADs, shoulder fired anti-aircraft weapons, have also been getting a lot of attention lately due to terrorism and concern about aircraft security.
The size of the international market today is about 50 to 60% of the peak it reached in the mid to late 1980s, driven by the Cold War and the Iran-Iraq war. The best estimate we have for the size of the market, from a recent Congressional Research Service report, puts 2004 worldwide arms transfer agreements at $37 billion, which is down from 2003, but still up from 2000. Small arms and light weapons make up as much as 15% of the total market. These estimates are based on sanitized US intelligence data. Good data on this subject are hard to get, especially given the demise of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and its annual World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers.
The current market is highly concentrated. The top ten importers account for 60-75% of developing country imports.
Latin American and African nations are not significant in dollar terms. The key point here is that this is a very competitive buyer's market. Buyers can demand more advanced technology as part of the conditions of sale. France’s solution on this is to stop the trade and make it as a crime so that also France wouldn’t have to buy to be able to stay strong.
Issue # 4. reformation of the NPT
France isn’t with reforming the NPT because the treaty effectively insures France ’s continuing importance by restricting the number of countries allowed to have nukes. Their reform that would prevent situations like that of Iran, India, and North Korea who WANT The nukes. France's tests in the S. Pacific must be researched or you'll sound extremely hypocritical talking about bans on testing development. You need an excuse for them.
1) Reducing the negative effects of fossil fuels
Fossil fuels are decayed plants and animals that are converted to crude oil, coal, natural gas, or heavy oils. They are used to provide energy by combustion. Some fossil fuels include petroleum, natural gas, and oil. 95% of the world's total energy comes from fossil fuels. With the expansion of the industrial revolution in the 20th and 21st centuries, more countries and industrial nations became thirsty for gasoline that is derived from fossil fuels, which caused major global conflicts. Industrial nations began searching for alternative energy to lessen their dependence on fossil fuels and to meet the increased demand of energy.
Burning fossil fuels causes the emission of carbon dioxide (which is one of the green house gases that contributes to global warming). Other gases are also produced from burning fossil fuels such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides. Different regulations were used to limit the pollution from fossil fuels. Countries issued regulations limiting the amount of pollution technologies use. They also gave tax and economical incentives to encourage industries to reduce the pollution.
However European nations offset the tax incentives given to those industries by subsidizing fossil fuel industries. France has signed the Kyoto protocol in April 29, 1998. The Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate change is "and amendment to the international treaty on climate assigning mandatory targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to signatory nations. Countries have to reduce their emissions of CO2 and 5 other greenhouse gases or take part in emissions trading if they increase or continue producing these gases. More than 160 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol, not including USA and Australia. It also covers 55% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. France is one of the leading industrial countries in the world. For that reason, it believes that the reduction of negative effects of fossil fuels is a priority among other issues. One suggestion for a solution would be to increase taxes on companies that produce high levels of pollution that comes from fossil fuels.
2) Creating a response towards the contamination of local water systems
Contamination of local water systems is the penetration of polluted materials into water networks and reservoirs. This may happen from factories, farms, and industries wastes. But that is not all; another source may be in people's homes. For example, incorrect plumbing could mean wastes are flushed directly into local rivers. Rivers and streams also get polluted due to misconnected pipes (especially in urban areas). One reason water gets polluted is because of pesticides that are used for agriculture. Pesticides are defined as "any substance or mixture of substance intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest" (according to the US Environmental Protection Agency – EPA). However, not so rich countries use cheaper, harmful pesticides, so that is one cause of water pollution. One destructive pesticide that increases agricultural yields is DDT, which has harmful effects on human beings. The US restricted the use of DDT.
France believes that there should be an organization that focuses on developing ways to reduce the causes of water contamination. This organization will have branches in each country that will take action quickly to water that gets contaminated. Instead of using destructive pesticides, there should be an alternative. Cheap pesticides should be banned, and countries that cannot afford buying good quality pesticides should find other ways to increase agricultural yields and to destroy/prevent pests.
Historical Security Council History (Othman)
Iran-Iraq Conflict (1988):
The Iran-Iraq war is also called the Imposed War, imposed means enforced. The war lasted for 8 years started from September 1980 to August 1988. It has been called the longest conventional war of the 20th century, and cost 1 million casualties and US$1.19 trillion. The war began when Iraq invaded Iran on 22 September 1980 following a long history of border disputes, demands for the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's regime, and secret encouragement by the US administration which was embroiled in a dispute with the new Islamic Republic of Iran. The conflict saw early successes by the Iraqis, since they were supplied by other countries especially the US with chemical weapons. There were extensive use of chemical weapons by the Iraqis.
Most countries with Moslem minorities feared an Iranian victory. For example, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and most Arabia gulf nations. They feared Iran’s victory because Iran has slightly different beliefs than Sunni Moslems. So most of Moslems countries fear was the Shias growing and occupying their countries.
It is true that France supplied Iraq with weapons, but didn’t supported any party in the war. Iraq still owes France (Saddam Hussein) 75% of the prices of the weapons. We believe that countries should not support Iraq with in any way so the issue would stop. France stopped selling weapons to Iraq since 1880, it was one big deal which was a big mistake. France never knew why Saddam wanted these weapons, they thought that it was for a countries personal safety. France will try its best ways to stop this issue. And after solving this issue, we will study why Iran is a threat on the rest of the Oslamic countries. France will try its best to make both parties satisfied with the resolution we reach.
Human Rights Issues (Sarah):
1) Issue # 1 Protecting the rights of women and children, regarding the abuse by soldiers in armed conflict
Woman and children, especially those born in countries where soldiers in armed conflict will abuse them do not get the protection they need. They should be protected more and should not be left to suffer and die. An estimated 300 million children worldwide are subjected to violence, exploitation and abuse including the worst forms of child labor in communities, schools and institutions; during armed conflict;
As article, 25 in the Human Rights Declaration Convention, says, "Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance". To give woman and children everything they need, the UN is doing many things. However, still more should be done. First, there is the UNICEF. UNICEF works on getting children and women their rights and protecting them from violence and anything in armed conflicts. With the threat of war looming in Iraq in March 2003, UNICEF provided special therapeutic food – high-protein biscuits - for over 400,000 malnourished children across the country in an urgent effort to bolster their chances of survival in the event of a conflict. Equipment and medicines were also sent to the woman and children of Iraq.
The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child is a charter that has been signed by many countries to protect children from armed conflicts in Africa. However, many countries, especially in Africa haven’t signed the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child and still use child soldiers. Some of the countries, which may include France's allies, are Algeria, Botswana, Central African Republic, Chad and Cote d' Ivoire. One of France's close allies uses children soldiers. This ally is the Intrahawe militia in DR Congo.
France believes in the special rights of woman and children. Children and women are greatly respected in France and deserve to be protected from the abuse by soldiers in armed conflict. Children and woman should get more protection from the governments and nations.
Others on the list for a third time are rebel groups or government-allied militias in Burundi, Nepal, the Philippines, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan and Uganda. Two French civilians employed by the Congo mission are being prosecuted on separate sex abuse charges in France.
Issue # 2) Human trafficking from Eastern Europe
From Himalayan villages to Eastern European cities, people - especially women and girls are attracted to well-paid jobs and advantages. Once they arrive to the country victims are placed in conditions controlled by traffickers while they are exploited to earn illicit revenues for them. Poverty, usually, can lead to any action, and that is why there are many traffickers. Traffickers that could do anything just to get some money.
Trafficking in human beings is a global issue, and should be regularly researched for any new issues or information. The UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) is one of the main organizations that focus on the human trafficking especially in Eastern Europe. It assists groups of people and refugees and offers them special aid. There may be traffickers that come from Eastern Europe in France itself, yet no one knows where they could always be found.
France is against human trafficking because first it is against any action taken against humans and second wants to make the world a better place.
Security Council: (Reem)
Issue # 1: The Question of reforming the UN Peacekeeping Operations:
Strengthening the UN's peacekeeping method has become more urgent as the number of operations has risen. Forty of the 53 peacekeeping missions undertaken by the UN since 1948 have begun in the last 12 years. Many missions have been deployed in civil conflicts, which are often more difficult to resolve than conflicts between states. Nowhere is the need for change in UN peacekeeping operations more apparent than in Africa , where one in five Africans live in countries disrupted by war and the UN has authorized deployment of over 25,000 peacekeeping troops. In a number of African missions, UN forces face a complex arrangement of local armed groups with unclear objectives and shifting alliances.
The US and other wealthy states will be asked for financial help as peacekeeping reform emerges in the months ahead. With estimates running as high as $100 million annually just for the expanded headquarters staff, additional training and equipment in the Brahimi report, the debate over financing may be as lively as the debate over the reforms themselves. As of 15 August, total US arrears to the UN stood at $1.87 billion, including almost $1.4 billion for peacekeeping.
France considers reformation and enhancement to be a key instrument for planning and acting on up to date problems. For that reason, the reform of the United Nations Peace keeping operations is necessary to enable the Organization to adapt to a changing world, to learn from past experiences, and to modernize international action. Ultimately, the goal is to strengthen the authority and legitimacy of the United Nations Peace keeping operations to make it more effective.
In the area of security, the Cold War years and the succeeding period of instability have placed heavy responsibilities on all the democratic nations, including France. Party to the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO), France also belongs to Western European Union (WEU), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Eurocorps, in which France has nearly 13,000 troops. As one of the five nuclear powers - alongside the United Kingdom, the United States, Russia and China - France is ensuring the maintenance of its deterrent force and its adaptation to the new strategic realities, taking into account the European dimension of its defense, while working towards a total ban on nuclear testing and committing itself to arms control and disarmament.
France is now the world’s second largest arms exporter, and the largest supplier of weapons to the developing world.
Issue # 2: The Rwandan Genocide
The Rwandan genocide of 1994 marked a "watershed" for French civil society, notably those Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and individuals who had been to the forefront in supporting humanitarianism as a defining component of their country’s foreign and development policy. France, uniquely in Europe, prides itself on having a global humanitarian mission, and evidence that this "homeland of human rights" was implicated in genocide through its military support until 1994 for the extremist regime in Rwanda shocked many who had applauded the declared pro-democracy, pro-humanitarian stance of President Mitterrand since 1981. Indeed, Mitterrand had been the first to appoint a Minister for Humanitarian Action in the person of Médecins sans frontières co-founder Bernard Kouchner, France’s most prominent advocate of the right or duty of humanitarian intervention
1. Improving the HIV/AIDS situation in North Africa and the Middle East
According to figures presented by WHO, the number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the Middle East has more than tripled over the last three years. Frances sees it is morally reprehensible, politically dangerous and economically meaningless that the virus continues to spread in the North more than in the South, destroying more than 3 million lives a year. So France has taken steps in resolving the issue. These steps include mobilizing governments and civic societies; making financial resources available in which it has increased tenfold since 2001; becoming the second largest contributor to the Global Fund who has become a major force in the fight against the pandemic; working with the World Trade Organization to enable access to generic medicines.
Even though France has contributed numerously to help put an end to the pandemic, still HIV/AIDS is increasing. France sees that the first priority is to increase resources which means increasing official development assistance (ODA) where France is going to raise its contribution to the Global Fund to 300 million euros. France sees that new financing mechanisms must be set up to raise the necessary resources when required. France proposes that the sums raised in that way could be allocated to an international drug purchasing facility to complement existing institutions and in particular the Global Fund. Also, France sees necessary the investment in research and new pharmaceutical production capacities which will ensure that poor countries have access to effective treatment.
Yasmeen, General Assembly
Honorable Chair, fellow delegates. Bonjour, Como Sava ?!
Welcome from the land of passions and dreams. From the land of art, fashion and romance. Welcome from France , home of the Louvre and Quasimodo.
To the world, France might seem perfect. However, to France , the world isn't. People are dying because of what has happened to out world. Iliteracy, disease, pollution, nuclear weapons are all factors that have affected us negatively. These factors should be wiped out.
Honorable delegates, this conference is neither a magic wand nor a recipe book to just conjure up a simple way in solving the problems we are facing. We have to look deeper and solve the issues at every angle. There should be no illusions. There should be no expectations other than those that result from what we do in this conference.
France appeals to all of you, honorable delegates. Let us join hands and use our minds to reach ways that diminish these problems. Let us make Mother Earth a better place to live in... now and forever.
Othman: Historical SC
Hello, bonsuier, comet sava J . From the country of love. From the country of French Kisses. From the country that produces essences that would pervade throughout the air of the whole world. From the country that is filled with hot sexy women. Comes the honorable delegate of France, here in the H-SC in Kuwait.
The honorable delegate did not cross thousands of miles for nothing. The delegate came holding a goal on top of his shoulders. The goal honorable delegates is to solve one extremely significant issue, which is The Iran-Iraq Conflict. The honorable and most distinguish delegate is going to work hard and will find solution that’ll eradicate this issue. This issue honorable delegates was a disaster, YES it was a disaster. A disaster to all countries that buy oil from both or either nations. France is not asking for oil, NOT ASKING FOR BENEFIT, NOT ASKING FOR PROFIT. FRANCE HONORABLE DELEGATES IS ASKING FOR PEACE.
Yea delegates and chairs PEACE is what France is Looking for, France and all the nations present. Merci for listening.
Reem, Security Council:
Madam Secretary General, Mr. President and fellow delegates,
One word can stop the violence, one word can stop the killing, one word can eliminate the hatred, one word can unite us all as one. (pause) Peace. Peace is what removes the tanks, the weapons of mass destruction and reduces the death rates. Peace is what solves all the issues on hand today and previous events. However, the main question here is how do we find (I cant think of a better word for find.. help ) peace? By strengthening nations relations or by strengthening UN peacekeeping operations, what ever it takes we must do together! If we all unite under the name of Peace we will all succeed.
Issue: Prevention of an arms race and regulation of private companies in outer space, with method to ensure no terrorists gain access to outer space.
Student: Dana Kadar
Declaring the importance of space science and space applications for the fundamental knowledge of the universe, education, health, disaster management, meteorological forecasting, and other major contributions of space science and technology for the well-being of humanity,
Recognizing the common interest of mankind as a whole in furthering the peaceful uses of outer space,
Believing that the exploration and use of outer space should be for the betterment of mankind and to benefit all countries irrespective of their economical or scientific developments,
Reaffirming the need for international cooperation for using outer space exclusively for peaceful purposes,
Believing that the United Nations should promote international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space,
Recognizing that the prevention of arms race would avert a grave danger for international peace and security,
Keeping in mind that there aren’t any offensive weapons in outer space, but that doesn’t exclude the possibility that they could be stationed there in the future,
Emphasizing that the national authorities have the primary responsibility in providing the reassurance that outer space would be used for peaceful purposes only,
1. Calls upon the establishment of a Space Monitoring Committee under the UN Space Committee which will:
A. Study practical and reasonable means for giving effect that space is used for peaceful purposes:
i. Assist in the research on outer space with NASA;
ii. Sees that there is mutual exchange and distribution of information on outer space research;
iii. Study the nature of legal problems which may arise from the exploration of outer space;
iv. Considering question of technical aspects and safety measures relating to the use of arms race and nuclear power in outer space;
B. Monitor the activity going on in outer space by:
i. Hiring professionals who are capable of accomplishing the committee’s goals with each representative in the UN could have a delegate in this committee;
ii. Use of advanced technology, gadgets and instruments that allow the monitoring of outer space;
2. Requests the specialized agencies and other international organizations to continue to enhance their cooperation with the Space Monitoring Committee;
3. Further Requests that these agencies and organizations would provide the Space Monitoring Committee with progress reports on their work relating to the uses of outer space peacefully;
4. Affirms the obligation of every country to make sure that citizens are using space for peaceful purposes and nothing else;
5. Proposes that this committee shall inspect any space facility that is suspected of using space as a place for war:
A. Inspections shall be conducted by an inspection team that will consist of:
i. Inspectors and assistant inspectors which are designated by the Head of the Committee with approval from the Secretary General;
ii. An escort from the country in which the facility is located would help with the inspections;
B. Any person who owns or operates a facility subject to inspection shall ensure access to the facility and to the necessary information as well as provide assistance to the inspection team in order to achieve the aims of the inspection indicated in the mandate of the inspection team;
6. Recommends that any individual who fails to follow the committee’s requirements shall be penalized and would be taken to court where they will be tried;
7. Further Proclaims that any country who fails to comply with the committee’s requirements shall be reported to the Security Council and further action will be taken from there;
8. Urges all countries, especially with major space capabilities, to contribute actively in preventing for outer space in becoming an arena for an arms race;
9. Expresses its hopes that all countries will have a part in this committee and that will cooperate in using outer space peacefully.
Question of: Creating a response towards the contamination of local water systems.
Main Submitter: France
Student: Laila Arafe
Defining water systems as underground water, water distribution networks, water reservoirs, rivers, sea water,
Defining the contamination of local water systems as the penetration of polluted materials into water networks or other water systems,
Believing there are many things that cause water contamination, like industrial wastes, incorrect plumbing in houses which could mean wastes are flushed directly into local rivers, misconnected pipes, and the usage of pesticides (according to the US Environmental Protection Agency are defined as: any substance or a mixture of substance intended for preventing, destroying, or repelling any pest) and other harmful chemicals in agriculture,
Having studied that more than 1 billion people worldwide don’t have safe, reliable drinking water and between 2 – 5 million people die each year from water related diseases,
Realizing that China is facing severe widespread water pollution, where 77% of sewage and waste matter is currently untreated, and 70% of the Chinese population has no access to safe drinking water (China has a population of 1.3 billion), according to a report released by an international environmental and technology consulting firm in Tuebingen, Germany,
Noting Further that contamination and lack of supply capacity are the leading factors of water shortage,
Having Studied that one main destructive pesticide is DDT, which has extremely harmful effects on human beings,
Noting With Regret that many countries are using cheaper, harmful pesticides (sometimes because they cannot afford better ones) which is also a major cause of water pollution,
Expressing its Appreciation towards the USA on restricting the use of DDT,
Confident that by signing for this resolution, countries are aiming to improve the quality of agricultural products and improving the health of beings on earth (humans, fish, animals, dairy products, vegetables…etc);
1. Supports all nations’ efforts in solving this issue,
2. Calls upon the creation of an organization called The Sanitizing Water Contamination Organization (SWCO) which will have a main location in France and will:
A. Have a researching team that will:
i. develop ways on reducing water contamination
ii. improve the quality of pesticides and other harmful chemicals that contaminate water,
B. Form a force under SWCO called the Rapid Water Contamination Clean-up Force (RWCF) that would take quick action in an emergency situation, by immediately decontaminating the affected areas to reduce the harms and deaths of the ecosystem and aquatic life,
C. Have sub-locations in every continent that will:
i. Monitor water qualities in nations to ensure no contamination are found in the waters,
ii. Send inspectors to nations to ensure all water sources are uncontaminated and that nations are not using harmful pesticides and chemicals,
iii. check on countries periodically to check on the rate of water contamination,
3. Affirms that researchers and inspectors will be provided by institutions in countries,
4. Urges that the president of SWCO will be elected by the members of this organization and will change regularly (time will be decided by members by what they feel is necessary) which in return will appoint the executive branch,
5. Further recommends that each continent will be represented by the country that has highest level of water contamination,
6. Notes that developing countries that cannot afford to build and/or have proper systems would be supported with equipment and resources and aid in improving their quality of water by SWCO in coordination with developed nations,
7. Emphasizes that harmful chemicals (like DDT) that can cause high water contamination should be controlled in nations that have high agricultural production, and products that yield in agricultural production and don’t have harmful effects should replace these chemicals,
8. Further requests that this organization would release a yearly list of the level of contamination in each country around the world:
A. the best 10 countries who have improved in decontaminating their water will be rewarded with:
i. an international prize (similar to the Nobel prize) or
9. Trusts that celebrities/famous people will give speeches to aware people about the problem and to motivate and influence them to use the correct methods related to water to avoid water contamination.
Commission: Human Rights
Question of: Establishing measures towards eliminating prison and interrogation abuses by occupational forces
Student: Sarah Shaheen
Fully believing that, according to report of ABC News in June 2005, the official number of Iraqi men, women and children in US-run prisons in Iraq is said to be around 16,000,
Noting with deep concern that according to John Pace of the UN Human Rights in Iraq, " between 80 percent to 90 percent of about 156,000 number of the Iraqis who have been detained by US and British forces (from March 2003 to October 2004) are innocent people" rounded up "quite blindly," and taken to prisons and greatly abused.
Realizing that about 80% of the prisons on occupied lands are ran secretly by attackers that torture and abuse thousands of innocent people in the country,
Fully aware that forced-run prisons in Afghanistan, Guantanamo Bay in Cuba and other occupied sites around the world are not being watched enough by the countries and are not, according to
Deeply disturbed that of all the countries that have signed the Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV), which relates to the protection ofwar in the hands of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power, 194 have ratified,
Realizing that according to the Pentagon and Bush administration, most prisoners, especially in Guantanamo Bay, are being tortured because they do not have a country to support them
Congratulating the Human Rights Watch (HRW) for every effort it has done to protect the rights of all prisoners however still believing that one more very important action should be taken to give prisoners all the rights they deserve;
1. Calls Upon the formation of a sub-committee under the Human Rights watch that will:
A. Have its Headquarters in Geneva
B. Have a branch in every continent that needs it which will be decided by the Human Rights Watch
C. Have a representative hired as a president of the sub branches by the United Nations for every joining country which will:
i. Decide on the number of worker in every branch which will:
1. Search the conditions of the prisoners of countries
2. Make sure that the limits are not acceded by any country
3. Send reports to the president on the conditions and whether or not actions should be taken
4. Declare the consequences if any force or action were taken by the country against prisoners that accede the limit,
ii. Decide on the way prisoners should be treated in the country and the limits taken
iii. Decide what kind of actions are torture which should not be acceded
iv. Request from the country to
1. Write a policy on ways to treat prisoners under what conditions
2. send the policy to head of the continent and if decided that it needs negotiations it will be sent to the SC if not it will become official
D. Have the fundamental goals of protecting every prisoner from occupational forces, regardless from what country he/she is,
E. Have biannual inspections on every occupational force prison to check that every prisoner is being treated to his/her country's policy;
2. Requests that every unsupported prisoner who does not have a nationality be treated according to the Fourth Geneva Convention
3. Calls Upon a meeting to be held at the headquarters:
A. Once every country has written its prisoners policy to have every policy officially legal in the presence of every joining country
B. Biannually to discuss prisoners conditions and whether or not every country is following other country policies;
5. Notes that if a country or force does not follow each country's policy, the question will be sent to the Security Council where immediate action will be taken,
6. Strongly urges every country to join this sub-committee not only to protect its prisoners, but to protect all the prisoners around the world.
Othman Al- Othman France
SC Resolution Clauses
1. Calls upon the creation of The Peacekeeping Organization in France (POF) that will:
A. Support both Iraq and Iran financially by:
i. Providing donations collected by wealthy European countries, Wealthy nations, and Uncle Sam if they wish which will be collected by easily in wealthy countries.
ii. Ask the UNESCO to provide those two nations with teachers to support the youth in their countries.
B. Make sure that no weapons are being imported by both nations:
i. Iraq is importing chemical weapons from Uncle Sam and that will be banned.
ii. We will make sure that the amount of weapons in both nations is decreasing to a certain percentage in a calculated time period.
2. Stipulates that Force will not be used by the POF to stop the war unless the time period that we will take this action in expires.
3. Calls for the European nations and China to make a meeting and negotiate the issue.
STATEMENTS OF THE DELEGATES
Dana Khader, Co-Ambassador and Disarmament:
Bonjour honorable president of France
It's an honor for me to be writing to you today, the co-ambassador of France from the KSAA event. As a France delegate I was the main submitter for the disarmament forum for the issue about arms race in space. France doesn't want to stop because it is one of the P% countries as I have researched. As a France's delegate we were all aggressive and at the same time giving the impression as of a peaceful country. In the GA we talked more than once against all resolutions and gave lots of points of information. Going against resolutions is what France does. It's an honor to be representing France as a country and defending it and realizing the love and French kisses that are on the ground of France and under the skies of the one and only. VIVA LA FRANCE...
Merci pour ton temps Dana Khader
Laila Arafet, Environment
My name is Laila Arafeh. I represented France at this conference. This has been an unforgettable experience. I am not the type of person that can stand in front of a crowd and defend my point of view. However, I did more than that. The first day didn't go as well as I thought it would. I forgot to print a copy of my resolution, and ended up being a co-submitter of a guy (Poland) that has been in MUN for 2 years. I went back and convinced the other delegates that I should be main because my resolution is better written and I included sources etc. (even though I knew I am not able to be main and I that I wouldn't be able to answer points of information)... so they chose me to be main instead of Poland, and he ended up being co-submitter (and he was not happy about that). When I went up to make my first speech, I was extremely nervous, but after that I kept raising my placard and I wanted to speak the whole time. My last speech was good and I convinced more people to vote... but it failed by 2 votes (then i motioned to divide the house and it failed by only one vote---> because of the ASK people). In the GA, France had a lot of things to say to attach the resolutions, but they only chose us once for a point of inf.
Sarah Shaheen, Human Rights
Bonjour most respected president of wonderful France
I was very proud to be representing France at the Human Rights Commission. It was a great honor for me to represent France and I was up to the position. I was a main-submitter and passed my resolution with an overwhelming majority. It was a great resolution and I was proud to keep my country where it should be: at the top. I learned that defending my country was the most important step and was proud to be recognized as one of the strongest delegates in my commission. I learned a lot during this great experience and especially to be a powerful delegate to get to where our country wants. One of my best experiences at the KSAA event was the ability to convince people that France is one of the best delegations of all and especially of the P5 countries. I was proud to pass my resolution to help thousands of people who suffer from human right issues around the world. Lastly I would like to thank you for giving me this great experience that I will never forget. It was great representing the country of love, art, passion, fairness, and as much as I could say. It could go on forever. Merci .. Vive la France!
Human Rights Commission