Country: Costa Rica

Event: Mini-MUN 1999
Student: Alia al Humaidhi


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The Costa Rican National Anthem

Costa Roca Noble
patria tu hermosa
bandera expresión de tu vida nos da
bajo el límpido azul de
tu cielo blanca y pura descansa la paz
En la lucha tenaz,
de fecunda labor que enrojece del hombre
la faz conquistaron tus hijos labriegos,
sencillos eterno prestigio,
estima y honor eterno prestigio, estima y honor


Salve oh tierra gentil
Salve oh madre de amor
Cuando alguno pretenda tu gloria
manchar verás a tu pueblo
valiente y viril la tosca
herramienta en arma trocar


Noble patria tu pródigo suelo dulce abrigo y sustento
nos da bajo el límpido azul de tu cielo
vivan siempre el trabajo y la paz


English:

Noble homeland, your beautiful flag
Expresses for us your life,
Under the limpid blue of your skies,
Peace reigns, white and pure.
In the tenacious battle of fruitful toil,
That brings a glow to men's faces,
Your sons, simple farm hands,
Gained eternal renown, esteem and honour.
Hail, gentle country! Hail, loving mother!

If anyone should attempt to besmirch your glory,
You will see your people, valiant and virile,
Exchange their rustic tools for weapons.

Hail, O homeland!

Your prodigal soil
Gives us sweet sustenance and shelter.
Under the limpid blue of your sky,
May peaceful labour ever continue.


Costa Rica




Country profile of Costa Rica

Political structure:

Costa Rica has a democratic republican government. There is a president. Costa Ricans use voting to elect a civilian to hold an office in the government. Every four years on the first Sunday of February a new president is elected. Citizens over 18 are able to vote.



Geography:

Costa Rica is found in Central America. It is bordered by Nicaragua on the northern side, and Panama on the east and by the Caribbean Sea on the northeast and the Pacific Ocean on the west and southwest. It is 19,730 square miles in land size.

Costa Rica has two mountain chains from the northwest to the southeast. One starts in the northwest called Cordillera Volcanica and the other starts in the east called Cordillera deTalamanca. Costa Rica has many rivers. It has heavy rainfall and high humidity in the highlands located in the "valley" which is formed by the two mountain chains running parallel to each other. It is about 4.900 feet above sea level and forms one large rain forest.

The lowlands are found in the north and inland areas of Costa Rica and are about 400 feet above sea level. It is a tropical country and the average temperature is around 77 to 90 degrees F.



Natural resources:

Costa Rica is very self-sufficient. It produces a lot of what it needs for the citizens. Some of what it has naturally is mineral resources. Like bauxite deposits, copper maganese, gold, magnetite all around its coastline and in the ground. Costa Rica also has some petroleum.

Much of Costa Rica's timber is chopped down to make enough ground for cropland. It grows its plant foods all on its grounds like coffee and bananas, which are a couple of their best-known products. Beef, which was also one of their most important exports has now declined in importance.

Costa Rica has the ability to feed itself and most of the cropland is dedicated to growing products for exporting. These croplands are made larger by cutting down the forests around them. Since growing food is the only way Costa Ricans can make money they sacrifice their forests for land to grow their plants on.



Cultural factors:

There are ethnic and religious groups in Costa Rica. The highest percentage of Costa Ricans comes from a Spanish background. The Meseta Central, which is the region with the highest population in Costa Rica, makes up almost 85% of the population, is very Spanish in both its manners of living and ancestry. The rest of Costa Rica's population is mostly Indian, African, and colonial Spanish. This group makes up about 8% of the population and lives mainly in the Guanacaste provincia. The people of African ancestry mostly live in the Caribbean lowlands and make up 7% of the population.

When it comes to religion there are two main religions in Costa Rica. 90 percent of Costa Ricans are Roman Catholics. The remaining are Protestants and Jewish.




Economy:

Among its Central American neighbors, Costa Rica has the highest standard of living and largest income.

Yet Costa Rica has been suffering an economic crisis for about 2 decades. One tenth of its population lives in poverty. It has a large debt which they have 32% of the 1995 budget servicing. These debts grew because of Costa Rica trying to pay for social welfare programs. Costa Rica is near to fully recovering from this crisis. The citizens themselves pay taxes and their money comes from selling the banana's and coffee to other countries which is also used to pay for the debt.



Defense:

Costa Rica has no army or military at work. It is on good terms with all countries at this point in time.



Views on World Problems:

Costa Rica is a very peaceful country. It is known to be neutral or take the "right side" on conflicts in the world. Costa Rica, though a very small country, is able to bring peace or agreement between large countries which aren't able to do so themselves. It is of much importance in the Security Council.



History:

Starting from 1986, after Costa Rica came out of one of it's worst economical crisis, Oscar Arias Sanchez was elected as president.

In 1987, five Central American presidents signed an accord for regional peace, which succeeded beautifully, and President Arias was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1987.

The National Liberation Party (PLN) lost elections in 1990 and power was turned over to Rafael Angel Calderon, who represented the Social Christian Unity Party. There was public dissatisfaction and the PLN won the presidency back in 1994 represented by Jose Maria Figueres Olsen.



Sources:

"Costa Rica". Encyclopedia Brittanica 1994.
Foley, Erin. Costa Rica. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish. 1997

 


POLICY STATEMENTS

1. Measures to eliminate trafficking of technologies/weapons of mass destruction (WOMD).

Costa Rica does not approve of the trafficking of weapons of mass destruction. They are a threat to world peace. With the exact words of the president of the Security Council in 1992 from the resolution 1128 of the Security Council in 1998 "all weapons of mass destruction constitutes a

threat to international peace and security." This resolution "condemned" certain countries for having WOMD, and disagreed with the idea of it.Costa Rica congratulates any effort made by any other country to end trafficking of WOMD.



2. Reform of the SC.

Costa Rica does not appreciate the form of the Security Council in its present state. To reform is to "make or become better by removal of faults or errors." The Security Council presently gives the "big five" a lot of power and a lot less power to the other five. Costa Rica strongly aids any attempt to reform the Security Council into a better organization. One reason for this decision is because the Big Five usually think about themselves before the rest of the world. If a country needs something very badly and four of those big five agree and one doesn't then that country could lose a lot. Showing how they could effect the world by making one wrong choice by mistake. We all know they've made them before, such as WWII, and if they make one that's too big to fix then the whole world is exposed to danger.



3. The Sanctions on Iraq

Costa Rica, as a neutral country, strongly supports the sanctions on Iraq. We think it is very important to make it clear that whatever country goes against what the United Nations has agreed to, it should be punished. We also do not believe warfare to be the correct way to resolve disputes. We think the world should accept the definition of sanction to be "penalty for disobeying a law or reward for obeying it."

Iraq, numerous times, tried to attack Kuwait. The UN made it clear the if Iraq didn't stop then the UN would take action. Costa Rica is lead by looking at resolutions of the Security Council 1210, 1205, 1194, and ten others. Costa Rica congratulates UN on taking action and agrees with these sanctions.


4. The status of the Kurdish People

Costa Rica isn't agreeing with the treatment of the treatment of the Turkish people and Iraqis towards the Kurdish people. The Kurds are people who should be respected like any other group of human beings no matter what their background. People have humanitarian rights, which should be respected. The Turks and Iraqis should both accept the Kurds into their communities. Costa Rica greatly aids any attempts to help these Kurds in being respected and acknowledged in the world as normal people and not objects to be played around with.


5. War in Africa between DPR Congo and neighboring countries.

Costa Rica condemns the war occurring in Africa and believes that the sides could have come to an agreement through negotiation.

War is not productive and doesn't help anyone in achieving anything. It harms communities in many different ways. War is not the right way to solve problems and they could be resolved in a much more peaceful way by using alternative ways.

 

RESOLUTION

Forum: Security Council
Question of: Reform of the Security Council
Delegation: Costa Rica

Defining reform as "making or becoming better by removal of faults or errors,"

Bearing in mind that the temporary members of the Security Council should have more power and equal rights,

Recognizing that the Big Five have all power in the Security Council while the temporary members don't,

Keeping in mind that as long as the Big Five have all power then the temporary members won't be heard,

Deeply disturbed by the unfairness of the ranking in the Security Council,

Approving that the Security Council has accomplished certain goals in the past,

Fully believing that the Big Five should have a little more power than the temporary members,

Emphasizing the need for the temporary members to be heard and have effect on decisions,

1. Acknowledges the accomplishments of the Big Five in the past,

2. Emphasizes the disability of the temporary members in the Security Council,

3. Regrets the treatment of the Big Five towards the temporary members,

4. Urges temporary members of the Security Council to speak up and prove their presence in the Security Council during their term,

5. Encourages the Big Five to listen and take note and take into consideration the needs and suggestions of the temporary members,

6. Reminds the Big Five that they are accompanied by other countries to help in making critical decisions,

7. Requests change in power of the Big Five to VETO any subject, but to only be able to VETO a war crisis,

8. Calls upon the UN to choose one country from every continent to be in the Security Council and have equal rights between all members,

9. Resolves that the Security Council be reformed and the Big Five having less power and equality between members.

 

OPENING SPEECH



Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen, fellow countries, and secretary general. Costa Rica is very proud to be here.

Costa Rica is a country that is very peaceful and is neutral on most cases. If not, it is on the side that's right. We hope to portray this in this session today.

Costa Rica has suffered a very though economical crisis and may not be noticed much in the world. But it did pull itself back together after 2 decades of struggling. It now has the highest standard of living and the largest income among its neighbors in Central America, and as you see here is now a member of the Security Council.

Costa Rica would like to bring the problem of pollution, which it discourages, to everyone's attention. Pollution causes disaster in the community health wise. It is a very serious issue that Costa Rica would like to bring attention to. Many countries are suffering from this problem and being affected by pollution that is carried by wind from neighboring countries. This problem can be treated in a mandatory way or a luxury way. It requires a lot of cooperation and agreements between countries.

We hope we will end with a reasonable solution by the end of this conference.