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France originated after the French Revolution. This revolution began in 1789 and ended in 1799. This revolution introduced democracy to the people of France. However, France did not become a democratic country afterwards. There are several factors that led to the eruption of the French Revolution. The people of France consisted of three groups. The first group, or the higher class, people were the members of the churches and the ministers. The second group, or the middle class, were the nobles. The third group, or the lower class, were the people living in the cities and towns. Social, political, and economic conditions angered the middle and the lower classes, and this led to the Revolution. The financial problems caused by the costs of wars was another reason why the revolution started. The success of the American revolution made the people of France feel that theirs would also succeed, and that was what really happened. The president of France is the strongest political power of France. Jacques Chirac is the current president of France. He was last elected in May 17, 1995. The president stays in this rank for seven years. The head of government is prime minister Lionel Jospin, who is appointed by the president. The French Cabinet is the council of members whom are elected by the president after counseling the prime minister. However, the French Constitution has given the president the most power. He can dismiss and approve premier and other ministers. He can also appoint all civil and military officers. He can even call for a parliamentary election whenever he wants. That proves how strong and staunch the president can be and how the constitution has served him by allowing him unlimited power. The French Parliament consists of the National Assembly and the Senate. The members of the National Assembly are elected under a single-member majoritarian system to serve five-year terms. There are 577 seats in the National Assembly. On the other hand, the senators are elected by an electoral college. There are 296 seats in the Senate. The members serve nine-year terms, and they are elected every three years. There are many political parties in France which are led by different members. France has been a stable country in the last few decades. After the establishment of the Constitution in 1958, political stability arose in France. Although France contains different political parties, right now, there are no major disputes between the office, the parliament, or these parties for power. It is obvious that the president is the most highly-ranked structure in a country, and should have the most power. However, the Parliament has power to do particular things.
France, the largest country in western Europe, is bordered by many countries and water regions. To say about the physical shape, it is like a hexagon. France is configured on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the northwest by the English Channel, and on the southeast by the Mediterranean Sea. This location both helps and harms France. The water regions of France help it a lot. On the other hand, the countries mainly Germany, can be dangerous to France. Due to this, France has always, since the 1870s, attempted to make some kind of a deal with Germany to be "immune" from any exterior danger because Germany is a modern country that owns a large military and nuclear power on top of having an economic power greater than that of France.
Due to its surroundings, the climate in all parts of France is no the same. The western part of France has cool summers and mild winters. That is due to the fact that this part is affected by the moist winds that come from the Atlantic Ocean. However, the central and eastern parts of France experience colder winters and warmer summers, because of the air masses that arrive at these parts coming from the interior of Europe. These three areas experience rainfalls especially in summers. As for the climate along the Mediterranean, it is hot in the summers and mild in the winters. The summers are rainless, but not much rain falls in the winters.
France contains abundant and different kinds of natural resources, each with its own characteristics and benefits. The main natural resources of France are coal, natural gas, iron ore and steel, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, and potash. Other natural resources are animals, who produce lots of dairy products including cheese. However, the main resource is iron ore which is the most abundant resource in France. France is one of the largest producers of wheat.
As for self-sufficiency, France is a self-sufficient country. France’s agriculture has been in a continuous progress that this country is no longer importing food products from other countries. France is trying to become self-sufficient in all branches. France has all the facilities and chances that would allow it to become a self-sufficient and self-dependent third world nation.
France is a country that contains many ethnic groups. Among these groups are Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, and Basque minorities. The Celtics are a group of people who come from Britain, the Teutonic from Germany, the Slavic from Russia and Poland, and the Basque from the mountains located between France and Spain. These ethnic groups are known to have lived in France a long time. These groups are considered now as French people, who make 93% of the whole population. However, France has immigrants who represent the rest of the population. These immigrants come from Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and Indochina.
Christianity is the most important religion in France. About 90% of the whole population are Catholics, and only 2% are Protestants. There is also 1% Jewish, and 1% Muslims. Most Muslims come from North African countries. However, 6% are unaffiliated. Many Christians, especially the Catholics, simply do not attend churches very often.
The French culture has had a great influence on the culture of the Western world, especially in the area of arts and letters. During the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries France became a wealthy country, and although Rome was the best destination for artists before that time, many of them started coming to France, particularly Paris. Now, the Western culture is partly-dominated by France, unlike 150 years ago when France completely dominated it. The French were even popular in film making, for they were ranked as the world’s top film producer.
France is an independent country economically. France does not rely on debts received from other countries. That means that it does not take loans. Instead, France is helping other countries and giving loans to them. Unlike Russia, France is experiencing a normal economy where it does not have to borrow any money from any other nation.
France practices trade with many countries of the world, as well as being a member in several organizations. In 1990s, the exports were worth $270.5 million per year, and the imports at 250.2 million. France trades with countries such as the US, the Netherlands, Japan, and China. Others include North African countries, Iran, and Iraq. Since it is a member of the EU, then it also trades with Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, Great Britain, and Spain. Three-fifths of France’s foreign trade is with the members of the EU. France is most importantly a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which is a branch of the UN.
France, although not a super power, has a fairly strong military compared to that of the United States. It has an Army, Navy, and an Air Force. In France, there are 12,264,824 males fit for military service. In order to enter either of the mentioned branches, a person must be above 18. Each year there are 407,794 males reaching the military age (18). In 1996, there were 398,900 armed forces where 236,600 worked in the Army, 63,300 in the Navy, and 88,600 in the Air Force. There were also 10,400 troops working in the nuclear branch. France’s nuclear power is strong because it has lots of nuclear submarines and ballistic missiles which are tested frequently. France builds the largest number of nuclear weapons in the world. In 1995, the amount of money spent on the military was about $47.7 billion dollars.
France is an independent country militarily. France has a powerful nuclear force, which is what many countries care about in these days. France is currently a successful country in making nuclear weapons. France’s scientists are so well-known that several are even working for the Iraqi government. France does trade weapons with countries such as Iraq and Russia, but it doesn’t depend mainly on what it receives.
France is a member of several alliances in the world. It is a member of the council of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). France rejoined NATO’s military in 1995, after 30 years of withdrawal from this branch of NATO. The French government has not agreed to include its nuclear force into NATO’s defense structure. This nation also provided the United Nations (UN) with troops to help this worldwide organization succeed in its peacekeeping operations in Cambodia, Somalia, and former Yugoslavia. In 1992, France and Germany decided to make a mutual defense force called the Eurocorps, in which both countries work together. Germany contained 15,000 French troops in 1996. France is also a member of the European Union (EU).
Views on world problems:
France has had positive views on many world problems and has tried to solve them for the sake of peace. Right now, France is helping NATO in its attacks on Yugoslavia. However, according to what President Chirac said in his press conference in Washington, France doesn’t want to continue the attacks, but it seeks to persuade sides involved to make a peace treaty. It also attempted to end the crisis (before the attacks) by organizing a summit in Rambouillet, France in order to make Yugoslavia stop hurting the Kosovar Albanians. France also attempted to help Turkey in trying Ocalan and presented some solutions that can be prosperous. France is in favor of ties with African countries, because they are consider France their no.1 trading partner.
The last fifteen years of the history of France were not crucial and full of changes. In 1981, Francois Mitterrand was elected as a president for this country. However, France faced many problems that mostly damaged its economy, such as the currency becoming devaluated, and the trade experiencing failure. Jacque Chirac became prime minister in 1986. Chirac became president 1995 and started making ties with foreign countries in many regions. He also insisted on resuming the nuclear tests after they had been banned by Mitterrand. Although the right under Chirac wanted a more aggressive France, they worked to maintain previous alliances, especially with Germany and the European countries.
Bibliography: "France." http://www.informationplease/com/ipa/A0107517.shtml. 1999. "France." http://www.odci/gov/cia/publications/factbook/fr.html. 1999. "France." Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 1998. Microsoft Corporation. "France." World Book Encyclopedia. New York: World Book Publications, Vol. 6, (1995), pp. 391-420.
1. Sanctions Against Iraq:
The Republic of France clearly opposes the sanctions against Iraq imposed by the United Nations and the United States of America. In the past nine years and after the Persian Gulf war, these two sides have put economical sanctions against Iraq including the ones that prevent Iraq from producing oil to other countries and buying weapons. However, these sanctions harm all countries. Iraq is a country that is suffering from economical difficulties. France believes that it is in the advantage of all countries to trade with Iraq, since its people are in danger of starvation. One of the UN’s most known goals is to provide comfort for humanity. It is in the benefit of the people of Iraq to sell oil to other countries. Iraq is a country that needs all kinds of weapons. All nuclear countries will make benefit of selling weapons to Iraq, because it badly needs them. This way, the economic powers of all nuclear countries can be charged.
2. War In Southern Africa:
France does not encourage the war in Africa, instead tries to convince the countries involved to sign peace treaties. France seeks security and peace in Africa. The UN and all the countries involved in the SC aim to get peace anywhere in the world. It is in the interest of all countries to have peace in Africa. This means that the war should not be extended into other regions which can be a danger to many nearby countries. It is vital to get peace in Africa before it’s too late. France has shown its cooperation with this crisis as it held a conference in Paris where the UN secretary general Kofi Annan and some African countries attended. The continuation of war in Africa results in more refugees who need to be taken to other nations. A peace treaty is very helpful in this case.
3. Status of Kurdish people:
France’s policy towards the Kurdish people living in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and the European countries is clear. France completely believes that the Kurds must be respected and are eligible to have all their rights. However, France does not support the fact that the Kurds want to establish their own independent country.
Many Kurds are living in the EC countries. During Ocalan’s arrest, the Kurds went angry and became a source of terrorism in most European countries. France believes terrorism is wrong and dangerous. France believes that all people deserve their rights. If the Kurds feel that they’re being denied their rights, they should use democratic means, instead of terrorism, in order to obtain their rights.
4. Weapons of Mass Destruction Trafficking:
France opposes the banning of making weapons of mass destruction. Selling nuclear weapons to other countries attracts money, which can help nuclear countries in becoming stronger economically. Trading and making weapons is the only way these daysthat a country can protect itself. However, France opposes using weapons of mass destruction becuase it is fatal It is essential for many countries, especially the industrial ones, to have nuclear weapons in order to strengthen their military.
5. Reform of the SC:
France does not appreciate the reformation of the Security Council. France doesn’t support the reform of the Security Council because any other member can be replaced by another one, especially from the industrial and highly improved countries. France and the Security Council do not want China or Russia to be out of the council, simply because they represent two of the greatest powers of the world. The reform of the Security Council can also arouse major problems. If, for example, Iran replaces any temporary member then ofcourse it can’t deal with the US, and the world will be observing arguments between the two all the time, unless they change their policies which is not really expected. The Security Council is experiencing no major conflicts between its members right now, and the big five should remain in the council.\
QUESTION OF: The current war in Southern Africa between DPR Congo and its neighbors DELEGATION: France DELEGATE: Mustafa Maleki
Deeply concerned that in 1996 alone, 14 of Africa’s nations were involved in armed conflicts;
Reminding that this war erupted in August 1998 when Congolese rebels tried to overthrow Laurent Kabila, noting that they were supported by Rwanda, Burundi, and Uganda;
Deeply alarmed that this war has resulted in 350,000 refugees and displaced persons according to a press conference done by the head of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR);
Appreciating the fact that the United Nations has recently established a liaison office at the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in Addis Ababa in order to encourage diplomatic efforts between African diplomats, especially those of DPR Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda;
Further Alarming that the Organization of African Unity (OAU) has failed to obtain useful achievements for this conflict as they held meetings and conferences to solve the problem;
Bearing in mind that the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is facing problems in separating civilian Rwandan refugees from hiding soldiers as a result of the difficulties it faces in the southern part of DPR Congo;
Keeping in mind that France hosted the 20th Franco-African summit in 1998 which welcomed 35 states and focused on the African war;
Deeply alarmed that the Congolese government has sent 15,000 youths by force to fight against the rebels and refugees on the borders.
1.Resolves to end the conflict of refugees by sending troops to the borders between DPR Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda in order to protect the refugees from the hiding militia set by the government of the four countries, and to work as international peacekeepers in the area by:
a. Using $15 million from the UN’s annual budget for peacekeeping operations that is about $100 million
b. Using 10,000 UN troops to the area
;c. Using $10 million from the OAU’s annual budget.
d. Sending 15,000 OAU troops;
2. Resolves to place economical sanctions on DPR Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda until the peace process ends by: a. Asking the Security Council members to agree with the sanctions for the sake of peace and security c. Allow all the mentioned countries to retreat their money after the peace process is over; 3.Strongly asks the countries afflicted in the war to stand with the UN and help it in peacemaking, peacekeeping, and peacebuilding;
4. Encourages African countries to hold an aimful conference in order to sign a peace treaty through negotiation and reconciliation and to comply to all its requirements;
5. Congratulates countries that stop trade with DPR Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda and do not provide any kind of aid to war;
6. Asks the UN to send several humanitarian coordinators to the Democratic Republic of Congo that will do the following by the help of the OAU: a. Help the refugees, youths, and displaced persons return to the urban areas of the country b. Help the refugees, youths, and displaced persons to exercise a new civilian life in the urban areas by the process of rehabilitation and reconstruction c. Buy up the arms and weapons from the soldiers and the youths to force them on leaving the war d. Help innocent people, especially the youths, to find appropriate jobs;
7.Asks the UN to send a group of high officials to improve the internal political conditions in DPR Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda which will in turn lead to: a. Limiting the powers of the leaders b. Decrease in the number of soldiers of the government gradually since most are sent to war by force c. Decrease in the number of refugees and displaced personsgradually d. Settlement of peace in the region;
8. Urges the UN to make an international war crimes tribunal against the leaders of DPR Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda that: a. Works under a mandate of the UN b. Uses $3 million from the UN’s annual budget to provide financial immunity for itself c. Is created by experienced judges from the International Court of Justice d. Is created by experts from the International Law Commissione. Finally and most importantly, ends the trials successfully and without any delay.
France would like to welcome all the members of the Security Council, whether the permanent members who possess veto power, or the temporary members who will delight us all by their presence between us. France would like to focus mainly on the crisis of refugees. The Kosovo crisis right now, is the largest and most evident incident that requires everyone to pay careful attention to the refugees. Mr. Milosevich’s forces are daily abusing the people of Kosovo, who have started fleeing to bordering countries like Macedonia and Romania. We cannot blame NATO for this crisis, because it is actually doing what it is supposed to do since Milosevich is not ready to sign a peace treaty. The crisis in the Democratic Republic of Congo has also resulted in thousands of refugees, whom suffer greatly to guarantee their lives. Refugees are being treated as beggars. Refugees, anywhere in the world, are victims of cruelty and oppression taking into consideration that almost all of them are innocent. Again, France declares its pride to meet with such present countries of the Security Council, especially the temporary ones since they are new to the council. We will greatly be delighted to know their perspectives towards the issues that will be discussed. We all hope to conclude this meeting having extracted all that serves world peace and the countries’ benefit.