Event: CACMUN 1999
Country: Republic of Uganda

Student: Shadi Alsuwayeh


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The Ugandan National Anthem

Oh Uganda! may God uphold thee,
We lay our future in thy hand.
United, free,
For liberty
Together we'll always stand.

Oh Uganda! the land of freedom.
Our love and labour we give,
And with neighbours all
At our country's call
In peace and friendship we'll live.

Oh Uganda! the land that feeds us
By sun and fertile soil grown.
For our own dear land,
We'll always stand:

The Pearl of Africa's Crown.


Country Profile

Short Form: Uganda.
Term for Citizens: Ugandan(s).
Capital: Kampala, the city on hills
Date of Independence: October 9, 1962, from Britain.
Time: GMT+3
Currency: Uganda shilling (1000 shs = 1US$)

Political Structure:

Uganda was one of the colonies of the United Kingdom. In 1962, the ninth of October Uganda got independent from the UK and became a free republic.

The head of the state is the president. He has most of the power. Then comes the vice president. Next comes the Prime Minister. After him comes the first deputy then the second and finally comes all the other ministers like the minister of education, health, sports and etc.

Uganda’s constitution was built in 1995 on the same day and month of their independence (ninth of October). Citizens are allowed to vote after the age of eighteen. Under the 1995 constitution the president is directly elected for five years, with no term limit. Uganda has a stable government.

Uganda is divided into 39 districts; Apac, Arua, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, GuluHoima, Iganga, Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kalangala, Kampala, Kamuli, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum, Kotido, Kumi, Lira, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sototi, and Tororo.

Geography Considerations:

Uganda is a medium sized country located in the eastern part of Africa. It has a total area of 236,040 sq. km. It’s land boundaries are Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Zaire. Uganda has no seas but it has lakes, swaps, and a river. The land surface varies remarkably, cause of its elevated plains, vast forests, low swamps, arid depressions, and snowcapped peaks. The highest peak in Uganda is Margherita Peak, which is 5109 meters (16,762 ft).

Uganda is a mixture of tropical rain forests, high altitude vegetation in the south and savanna woodland with a little bit of semi-desert in the north and northeast.

Uganda Climate is Equatorial. The temperature ranges from 16°C to 29° C (60°C to 85° F). The average annual rainfall is changes from 760 mm to about 1520-mm (60 in). The main two rainy seasons are May and October.

Uganda is quoted as a country where a seed of any tropical fruit thrown on the ground can germinate and only to be found three weeks later blossoming due to the favorable rains throughout the year and also its very rich soil.

Natural Resources:

Uganda’s main natural resource is its rich soil. It has an excellent soil that can grow four crops a year. Uganda has also copper, cobalt, limestone, salt, gold, tin, and ample waterpower resources for producing hydroelectricity.

Cultural Factors:

The union of many peoples has created Uganda. Ancient people with their own traditional lands, their own customs and a way of life inherited from their ancestors. They now live together as one people. Today we are all proud to be Ugandans, while we cherish the memory of our history and keep alive the tradition of our ancestors.

Uganda has a population of about 19,121,934 citizens. The greater part of the population is concentrated in a wide band along the shores of Lake Victoria. About 12% of the population are estimated to be urban area. Kampala City is the main commercial center and Capital City, while most industry is concentrated in Jinja.

There are thirteen ethnic groups; the Baganda 17%, the Karamojong 12%, the Basoga 8%, the Iteso 8%, the Langi 6%, the Banyankole 6%, Bagaisu 5%, the Acholi 4%, the Lugbara 4%, the Bunyoro 3%, the Batoro 3%, the Europeans, the Asians, and the Arabs make up all together only 1%, and others are 23%. Often, these divers ethnic groups, don’t get along very well. There are still social differences among them, and in many cases don’t mix in marriages, especially between the north and the south.

As well as ethnic groups there are 4 different religions, the Roman Catholics are 33%, the Protestants are also 33%, the Muslims are only 16%, and the indigenous beliefs are 18%. More than half of Uganda's people are literate, the result of the Christian missions and British colonial rule.

Uganda’s official language is English, but they have four other, Luganda, Swahili, Bantu languages, and Nilotic languages. The Bantu-speaking peoples are concentrated in the south and southwest and are the largest group. They include the Ganda, Soga, Nyoro, and Nkole. To the north and the east are Nilotic and Nilo-Hamitic peoples, composed of many different tribes. The dominant languages are Luganda (spoken by the Ganda) and Swahili, the East African lingua franca. English is used throughout the country as the official language

Economic Structure:

Most of Uganda's people are farmers, producing either food or export crops. Reliable rains make farming possible. Food crops consist of bananas and plantains, cassava, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, corn (maize), sorghum, dry beans, and peanuts. People usually grow enough for their families and to sell in local markets. On such lakes as Victoria and Kioga commercial fishing is a major activity.

Uganda is landlocked. The need for the country to have an outside link for its exports and imports was recognized in the 1890s. The British government provided funds to complete a railroad by 1902 from Mombasa, on the East Coast of Kenya, to Kisumu (in Kenya) on Lake Victoria, using indentured East Indian laborers. Lake Steamers from Uganda made connections at Kisumu. The railroad is still operating at present time.

Accesses to and from Uganda are as follow:

One)By air: through Entebbe International Airport, 40 km from the Capital. Entebbe Airport is served by a number of Airlines including, Uganda Airlines, the national Air carrier, Sabena, Alliance Air, Kenya Airways, Air Tanzania, Air Malawi, Air France, British Airways, Air Iran, Gulf Air, Inter Air, Air India, plus many connecting flights.

Two)By road: a network of modern tarred roads feed the Capital from different boarder posts. Coming to Uganda from Kenya, one can get to Kampala via the Nairobi-Kisumu-Malaba-Kampala highway.

Three)By rail: Kampala is linked with Kenya by rail.

Four)By lake: A steamer service links Port Bell with Mwanza in Tanzania
Uganda’s currency is shillings. The exchange rates as follows:
1 US Dollar (USD) = 1,472.50 Uganda Shilling (UGS)
1 Uganda Shilling = 0.0006791 US Dollar
1 British Pound = 2,392.27 Uganda Shilling
1 Uganda Shilling (UGS) = 0.0004180 British Pound (GBP)

Uganda’s Export dependency is on crops, coffee, cotton, tea, bean, cereal, lentils, fresh fruits, flowers, fresh vegetables, textile/leather, and diary products.Uganda’s Import dependency is on automobiles, computers, pharmaceuticals, agriculture products, and various merchandise.The Import volume of Uganda far exceeds its Export, making the country one of the poorest in the world.


Uganda has three military branches the Army, the Navy, and the Air Wing. They have about 6,529,673 males (Manpower ability) in the army. Uganda's reported military expenditures averaged less than 3 percent of gross national product (GNP) and ranged between 14 and 30 percent of government spending. In 1993 military expenditure was $56 million.

Historical Factors:

From the 15th century, rival kingdoms in what is now Uganda were gradually overcome by the well-organized state of Buganda, which was ruled by a king (kabaka), and followed an animist religion. Arab traders arrived in the 1840s, and the kabaka, Mutesa I, adopted some of the teachings of Islam in 1867. He allowed Anglican missionaries to teach Christianity in 1877 and Roman Catholics in 1879. After Mutesa died in 1884, there was rivalry between the Muslims, Anglicans, and Catholics.

The British set up the British East Africa Company in Buganda in 1890. The area that is now Uganda was declared a protectorate in 1894 to control the Upper Nile and Egypt, which was also under British control.

Uganda gained its independence in 1962. A general election was held, and a British Cabinet-style government under Milton Obote was formed. A republic was declared in 1963, with the king (kabaka), Mutesa II, as president and Milton Obote as Prime Minister. In 1966, with the support of the army under Col. Idi Amin, Obote suspended the constitution, made himself executive president, forced the kabaka to flee the country, and nationalized many of the banks and industries.

In 1971 Amin deposed Obote and during the next seven years expelled 40,000 east Indians and slaughtered at least 300,000 Ugandans. Amin's army was attacked by troops from Tanzania in 1979, forcing him to flee the country. Obote eventually returned to the presidency, but he was unable to restore unity and was deposed in July 1985 by Tito Okello.

The National Liberation Army, led by Yoweri Museveni, a prominent member of the Ankole tribe, took control of Kampala in January 1986 after an extensive field campaign in the south and southwest. Museveni was sworn in as president and suspended political activity until legislative elections were held in 1989.

A new constitution was drafted in 1990. The interim legislature, called the National Resistance Council, is made up of 278 members and includes 68 nonelective seats. Museveni was officially elected to the office of president on May 9, 1996. The president defeated his main opponent, Paul Ssemogerere, by a margin of 74 percent to 24 percent. On May 10, Ssemogerere protested the vote, charging widespread fraud and voter intimidation by Museveni's supporters. The presidential election was Uganda's first since the nation gained independence from Great Britain. Uganda's government is plagued by conflicts within the country, especially in the north and southwest, and by continuing disagreements with Kenya and Rwanda and guerrilla activity along the borders.



Policy Statements:

Issue 101: The question of the condition and treatment of refugees.

The world of the refugees is a big catastrophe these days. Many people in the world treat the refugees badly. They harass them, beat them, and even don’t help them. The main causes of these refugees are wars for example in Kosovo and also natural disasters for example in Turkey when the big earthquake took place the people traveled away. Except they stayed in there country, but traveled to other cities.

There are not only refugees from Kosovo, Palestine, and Yurkey. African countries too have refugees, like Rwanda, Sudan, and Congo. Uganda helped those refugees. She let them come in and settle and gave them food and water even to refugees from Congo. That shows that Uganda is very helpful. Yes, Uganda is graceful but she will not be able to continue this way. The Refugees are causing a big problem to Uganda economically. Uganda is hoping that the UN will contribute in stopping the wars that cause refugees. Also the UN, rich countries, and capable organizations should donate more money so that the poor refugees can go back to their countries, build new homes for them and their children, and begin a new life again.


Issue 102: The question of the role of regional organizations in settling international conflict.

Uganda is a peaceful country and its policies are of those regional organizations which she is a member of; African Union Organization, Kagera Basin Organization, the intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD), and The Eastern African Organization. Uganda had played and will continue playing an important role through these organizations to contribute in resolving and settling international and regional conflicts.

Uganda believes in peaceful settlements of conflicts between countries. She also believes that the regional organizations have an important role to play in settling international and regional conflicts. Such role can be in format of arranging meeting between parties, use influence on head of governments, offering aids of different kind.

At this time Uganda is having a dispute with Zaire. The old president of Zaire was a dictator, and Uganda was supporting and hosting the people that were opposing him. The Eastern African Organization is involved in solving this dispute. And we urge The African Union Organization to contribute in the peaceful settlements of conflict.

Uganda would like to submit its thanks to all the organization that helped her with the refugees in her country.

The WFP (World Food Program) had helped Uganda with the Sudanese refugees by giving them food (there total cost was $43,260,432). Uganda is grateful for that.

Issue 103: The question of the growth and implementation of information technology on global communications.

Uganda is a poor developing country. It’s not a place where there is a lot of technology. They don’t have as much computers and Internet connection as other rich country has. In fact the telephone lines ratio in the country is 2.3 telephone lines for every 1000 person.

At the same time it is trying to keep up to date and not stay too far behind in technology.

Again Uganda is a simple country aiming for development and better technology and we think that industrial countries with much more technology like the USA and The UN should help. They can offer technical aids and expertise, training, and financial aids.

How can the world become a global village in this age of communications and some poor countries like Uganda is struggling to provide simple telephone services to its people?

It is in the interest and benefits of us all not to leave poor countries (not only Uganda) stay behind in technology, they will have a hard time living in the future with all the technology that the world will have.

Draft Resolution:

Defining refugees as having a basic life condition;

Taking into consideration that the basics for the refugee protection are not always upheld;

Deeply disturbed that the international community support has diminished due to global recession;

Noting how the refugees’ population increased more than ten times from about 700,000 to 7 million refugees in 25 years in Africa; 1

Deeply concerned about the increasing number of refugees all over the world,

Aware that refugees flows means security, social, and economic burdens on countries that have provided and still provide an asylum;

Congratulates all the countries and organizations that help draw attention to the continuing urgency of the refugees and displacement crisis in Africa;

Condemns the humanitarian Organizations Such as The Red Gross and UNHCR for being hesitant and poorly prepared with limited resources when there are new refugee emergencies,

Requests that the UN Security Council continue to help of refugees;

1.Proposes that UNHCR make intensive awareness program about the refugees to educate governments and the public about refugees and remember them and help through:
One.T.V and radio programs
Two.An internet site
d. Stickers and posters everywhere so all the world can remember them on transport boxes, Food can or boxes (cereals etc), and -On buses and taxies

2. Call upon the UN, other organizations, countries, and financial institutions that have the capabilities, to contribute enough money to the UNHCR so they can solve the problems concerning refugees;

3. Resolves the UN to eliminate wars, as they are the main cause refugees. That is through; One.Issue relevant resolutions.
Two.Sign treaties.
Three.Provide peacekeeping force.
Four.Apply sanctions against countries that cause wars and sell some of its resources to pay for refugees and basic need of its People. (like selling the oil of Iraq for food and medications)

4. Request the UN to help and oblige countries to build homes against or away from natural disasters such as earthquakes, landslide, volcano eruption, and others;

5. Impose sanctions on countries whose actions contribute to the problem of refugees by wars, prejudice etc;

6. Urges all Member States, the UNHCR, other relevant United Nations bodies and organizations, Organization of African Unity and sub-regional organizations to initiate programs to provide aids, advice, training and technical assistance to African States which host refugee;

7. Requests the Secretary-General to establishment a Trust Fund for the Improvement of conflict Prevention and Peacekeeping in Africa.

Opening Speech

President, secretary general, Excellencies, fellow delegates, ladies and gentlemen, JAMBO, Good (Morning/Afternoon/Evening)
I am honored to be before you representing my country Uganda. And I am very happy to be here among you all.

Uganda is a poor developing country in its resources, but rich in its people and culture. Uganda aims for Development for the well being of its people.

Uganda will continue to play an important role in peace making, and join all initiatives by countries and or organizations to improve the world eliminating the causes of wars.

Uganda would like to highlight the problem of the refugees. For several years Uganda has been receiving refugees from many different countries in Africa. It is causing serious economical and social problems. The reason is, as you all know Uganda, like many countries, is a poor country with extremely limited resources. And it can not afford, alone, all these economical and social demands of refugees for many years.

Not only Uganda has been suffering from this crisis; other countries in the world also have been suffering from it.

I hope we will end with a reasonable solution for this big problem through frank, serious, objective deliberations.

Thank you very much,