Event: AMMAN 2003

Commission One: Disarmament and
International Security Background

Student: Hamad Al-Essa



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Issue: The containment of the risk of nuclear proliferation in North Korea:

Recently, North Korea has shown defiance to the UN by openly proclaiming its possession of nuclear weapons and nuclear development programs. The UN and other nations have shown their concern to disarm such countries of these weapons of mass destruction, but the situation becomes sensitive since some nuclear weapons can be claimed to be nuclear energy sources. The committee will seek to find a peaceful resolution to contain the risk of North Korea’s nuclear developments, bearing in mind the sensitivity of the situation and the Non-Proliferation Treaty.

The issue on the Korean Peninsula dates back to the end of World War II, after the divide of the two Koreas and the inconclusive Korean War, which lasted from 1950-1953. The United States now has 37 thousand troops stationed on the South-Korean side of the border as a deterrent against North Korea.

Under the 1994 agreement, North Korea promised to give up its nuclear weapons program and allow inspections to verify that it did not have the material such weapons would require. In exchange, the United States and others agreed to help build two light water nuclear reactors to replace the plutonium-producing reactors it was using.

Recently, North Korea has deported all IAEA inspectors from the country and has admitted that it is in fact developing its nuclear program, claiming that it needs such weapons to defend itself against the threat the United States poses. The United States, on the other hand, has refused to take part in any negotiations with North Korea, and will not sign a non-aggression pact, which is what North Korea demands.

This bitterness is, by itself, the heart of the problem. The United States will not sign a pact unless North Korea disarms first. North Korea will not disarm unless it gets assurances from the United States that it will not be threatened, and therefore demands a non-aggression pact.

Six-way talks went underway for a period of time since the conflict arose, and have concluded with out any agreement or solution. The only result was North Korea bluntly stating: We will not disarm because we feel threatened.

To conclude: the goal of anyone writing a resolution on this issue would be to establish a framework in which all involved parties can negotiate and reach a compromise, and provide an international incentive for this compromise to be reached, and in effect reduce the threat on international peace.




Issue Two: The trade-off between the trend of increasing military expenditure and development, and the resultant effect on international peace:

The committee will examine the possibility of organizing a global effort to reduce the increasing spending on military purposes, whereby part of these military investment budgets can be reallocated to other efforts in hopes of increasing member countries’ rate of growth. Another issue of concern is the effect of this increased spending on military expenditures on international and national peace and security.

This issue exclusively deals with the economics of civil wars, violence and crime in underdeveloped nations. The tradeoff between military expenditure and long run economic development affects mostly the people and children of most underdeveloped countries. Millions of children suffer from wars, as resources that could have been invested in development are diverted into armaments. One of the most distressing realities of this time is that most wars have been fought in precisely those countries that could least afford them. Take this as a brief example:

"Despite the overall global decline in military expenditure, large amounts of scarce resources continue to be devoted to armaments. Between 1960 and 1991, total annual military expenditures by developing countries rose from US$27 billion to US$121 billion. Sadly enough, some of the steepest increases occurred in the poorest countries. Angola, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Somalia and Yemen have for many years spent more on their military than they have on their people's education and health. Money spent on arms could have been put to much better use. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) has estimated that redirecting just one quarter of developing countries' military expenditure could have provided the additional resources to implement most of the year 2000 program: primary health care for all, immunization of all children, elimination of severe malnutrition, provision of safe drinking water for all, universal primary education, reduction of illiteracy, and family planning." This is just a small sample of this broad issue and what it entails.

To conclude: the goal of anyone writing a resolution on this issue would be to create an incentive for countries to divert their spending from armament to long-term development, within a framework the UN can monitor and verify.



Issue Three: Maintenance of international security: good neighborliness, stability and development in West Africa:

This topic will address the current armed conflict in West Africa, along with the spread of disease, which further exacerbates the situation. Hopefully, a peaceful resolution will be instituted so as to strengthen relationships between these countries.

West Africa is a region burdened by armed conflict and sudden political turnover. A policy statement I have written while representing Angola in the previous event may give a sample of what chaos the region lies in:

"As a nation that has been in civil war for three-quarters of a century, Angola could have made good use of peacekeeping forces if they were made available at that time. The presence of peacekeeping troops could have prevented many of the mass causalities, many of which are still mourned for today. As a nation that borders the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola is greatly affected by the ongoing disputes in the country."

The many years of political unrest and constant bloodshed between the government of Joseph Kabila and Rwandan-backed guerrilla forces have taken their toll on millions of innocent men, women and children. This devastation must come to an end. In addition to all that, the part of the Congo that borders Angola might prove to be a refuge to UNITA rebels if action is not taken on our part. As two fellow African nations, the security situation in Cote D’Ivoire and Liberia greatly concerns Angola.

The recent developments in that region, however, have been impressive and encouraging. Angola is content with the fact that president Charles Taylor has agreed to voluntarily step down from his post, saving the region from great tragedy. Angola also applauds the signing of a peace treaty in Cote D’Ivoire.

The plights of the region are all fueled by the struggle to control the region’s diamond mines. The armed conflict in West Africa is characterized by unbelievable atrocities-maiming, mauling, murder and rape. Many rebel militias recruit children as young as seven years of age, many of which are under the influence of drugs.

To conclude: the goal of anyone writing a resolution on this issue would be to reach a solution to this problem by providing incentives for rebel forces to give up arms and enter negotiations with their opposing parties, so that the region can once again enjoy peace and stability.