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Cuba’s government is a communist government that achieved its independence on 20 May, 1902. Its administrative divisions consists of 14 provinces Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara. Its constitution started on 24 February 1976 and was on amended July 1992 and June 2002. The Cuban government consists of: chief of state, Fidel Castro Ruz who is also the president of the council of State, president of the council of ministers, and head of government, and the cabinet. The legislative Branch is the National Assembly of People’s Power which consists of 609 seats. Elections are held every five years. Last elections were held 6 March, 2003, next to be held in 2008. The judicial branch consists of the People's Supreme Court or the Tribunal Supremo Popular. The National Assembly elects the president, vice president, and other judges. There is only one political party in Cuba and it is, the Cuban Communist Party (PCC), and Fidel Castro Ruz is the first secretary. This party is an extreme left side party. Cuba is a stable country, and has been since its independence from America in 1902. Cuba’s legal system is based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal theory.
Cuba was an independent nation under the US’s protection. After the Spanish-American war, Cuba established a government that met the approval of the USA because it was occupying it. However, in 1902 the country went through a period of unstable democratic government.
Cuba is a communist nation, which means that every citizen is treated like an equal. However, Fidel Castro has turned it into a dictatorship and he is the one that controls everything in the country. He holds all the power and controls the country. Cuba states that it is communist country to the other nation so that it is respected and to show that it is a civil nation.
Communism believes that all citizens within the nation are equal. There is no difference between genders, ethnic groups, or races. The government controls all income and businesses. That is why communism is the first step towards world peace. If there are no differences between people, then the world will be united.
Cuba is in the Caribbean located between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. Cuba is only 140 kilometers away from the US state Florida and that is why many Cuban immigrants are found there. This also led to the USA trying to overthrow the Cuban government. It has succeeded in doing so four times.
Cuba consists of many small islands and has a semi-tropical climate. Cuba’s total area is 110,860 sq. km. There are 1,600 islands surrounding the mainland. The largest one is Isle of Youth, which are mostly covered in forests. Cuba’s climate is semi-tropical, which is moderated by trade winds. This helps it grow resources like banana, tobacco, coffee, and sugar. Its dry season starts in November and ends in April, while its rainy season starts in May and ends in October. The east cost is subjected to hurricanes from August to November. The most recent hurricanes that Cuba encountered were hurricane Katrina in August 2005 and Rita in September 2005. Cuba’s terrain is mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast. Cuba’s environment is suffering from air and water pollution, biodiversity loss, and deforestation. The land is used as arable land 27.63%, permanent crops 6.54%, and other uses 65.83%.
Cuba has many harbors that helped its trade. It has 200 harbors along the coast and they are narrow, protecting it from waves and winds. The most important ones are Havana, Guantanamo, and Santiago de Cuba.
Cuba has many natural resources, agricultural products, and industrial products that it exports to other countries and it also imports products from other countries. Cuba’s natural resources are cobalt, nickel, iron ore, chromium, copper, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, and arable land. It also has agricultural products such as sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans, and livestock. Cuba’s industrial products consist of sugar, petroleum, tobacco, construction, nickel, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, and pharmaceuticals. Cuba exports sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products, citrus, and coffee. Its export partners are Netherlands 22.7%, Canada 20.6%, China 7.7%, Russia 7.5%, Spain 6.4%, and Venezuela 4.4%. Cuba, however, imports petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, and chemicals from Spain, Venezuela, China, Canada, Italy, and Mexico. Its imports are $6.916 billion of their budget while its exports make up $2.388 billion of their budget. Cuba produces oil, electricity, and natural gas but it does not export or import any of it. It produces 72,000 bbl/day of oil while it uses 205,000 bbl/day of it. It produces and consumes 704 million cu m of natural gas. Finally, it produces 15.65 billion kWh of electricity and it consumes 13.27 billion kWh of it. Cuba’s electricity sources are fossil fuel: 93.9%, hydro: 0.6%, nuclear: 0%, and other: 5.4%. Cuba is a self-sufficient country that can supply its self with all necessary commodities.
The US embargo has had a great impact on Cuba’s economy. In 1958, the U.S. accounted for 67 % of Cuba's exports and 70 % of its imports. Now, Cuba is not able to obtain vital resources like cheap oil, consumer gods, and subsidies from the Soviet Union and the Comecon nations because of the US embargo. Also, Cuba has a shortage of automobiles and the only ones that they have are pre-1960’s American automobiles.
Cuba has many natural resources that have helped it survive without the US trade. Cuba’s land is mostly fertile land so it grows many citrus fruits, vegetables, and sugar cane; it has the second largest tobacco crop, and one of the world’s largest nickel ore reserves. It is currently trading these resources with many countries. Cuba is a UN-self-sufficient economy, like that of all the Caribbean Islands.
Cuba has a large population and different cultures with different religions. Cuba’s population is 11,382,820. This population is divided up two 4 ethnic groups: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, and Chinese 1%. 85% of the population is Roman Catholics prior to Castro, the assuming power, Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria. The native Amerindian population of Cuba started to decrease significantly when the European explorer discovered it. After the development of the Spanish colony nearly all of the native population was wiped out and replaced by African American slaves and people from Spain. Also, many people came to Cuba from the US. However, now many Cuban’s try to migrate to the USA illegally by homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, and falsified visas. Most of the Cuban’s that move to the USA are anti-Castro.
Cuba is a united country even thought it is communist and many people Catholic. That is mainly because of the government’s control on the media and what goes on in the country. The Cuban Council Churches (CCC) is a council that is made up of 22 denominations and it monitors relations between the Catholic churches and the Cuban government. The government does not favor any religion or church; however, it is more tolerant of churches that maintains a close relation with the state through the CCC. The Cuban Government continues to refuse to allow the church to have independent full access to the media, to train enough priests for its needs or allow sufficient numbers of foreign priests to work in the country, or establish socially useful institutions, including schools and universities, hospitals and clinics, and nursing homes. Pope John Paul II visited Cuba to try to improve the situation in Cuba between the government and the church. His first visit was unsuccessful but he visited a second time when the pope said that the embargo on Cuba was unfair and unacceptable. During his second visit, relations between Castro and the pope improved greatly. Unmonitored religions continue to be harassed, repressed, and interference. The most independent religious organizations work under restrictions imposed on them by the Cuban government.
Cuba has many Trade partners and they are Netherlands, Spain, Brazil, Canada, Russia, China, France, Italy, and Mexico. Cuba’s economy is a stable economy that is trying to recover from the impact of the US embargo on it. Cuba’s annual GDP is $37.24 billion. Its currency is the Cuban Peso that is converted to be 0.93 US dollars. Cuba has an external debt of $13.1 billion and another $15-20 billion owed to Russia. Cuba is an economical aid recipient and it receives $68.2 million. Cuba has many exports and that forms a large amount of its GDP. It also produces and consumes natural gas, oil, and electricity but it does not export or import any of it.
The US embargo on Cuba affected its economy substantially, causing great loss of money ($70 billion). That lead to borrowing money and that is why Cuba is under debt. Cuba is part of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Cuba is a member in many economic organizations like the United Nations (since 1945), Non-Aligned Movement (founding member), ACS (Association of Caribbean States), ALADI (Asociación Latino Americana de Integración), SELA (Sistema Económico Latino Americano), CARICOM (Caribbean Community), and the OAS (Organization of Mexican States). One of Cuba’s major sources of income is tourism. Tourists come for the prostitution in Cuba and many Cubans living in Miami cone to visit home. Cuba’s economy is also based on the products that they export to other nations like cobalt, nickel, iron ore, chromium, copper, salt, timber, silica, and petroleum. Cuba also has high taxes and controls all means of production.
Cuba’s economy depends heavily on remittances from Cuba- Americans. Annual remittances have been estimated to be from $375 million to $1 billion. It makes up almost 3% of the Cuban economy.
It is a vital factor in Cuba’s economy. However, Cuba owes billions in Paris Club debt to nations such as France, Japan and Germany. And that’s when Cuba recognized the World Bank issue a very severe one, and that Wolfowitz should be taken of the presidency.
Cuba does not have a large military. Cuba’s military is the Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) which consists of: Revolutionary Army (ER), Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR), Territorial Militia Troops (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT). Both female and male are eligible for military services at the age of 15. Cuba’s military has about 1,932,967 males and 1,875,412 females for military power. However, only one quarter of both numbers can fight because of lack of weapons. The military needs $694 million which makes up %1.8 of Cuba’s GPD. For many decades, Moscow has been the key supplier and supporter of Cuba, but it cut off almost all its military aid by 1993. Moscow was Cuba’s biggest ally until it subsided. Now, Cuba has no membership alliances with any countries. Cuba’s army is not very strong because of the lack of weapons, food, and shelter.
Cuba was known to have Russia’s nuclear weapons, but after Cuba participated in the Latin American Nuclear Weapons Free Zone it sent back all its nuclear weapons, which stopped Cuba from threatening other countries.
Currently, the USA holds Guantanamo Bay and counts it as the USA’s. Guantanamo bay is considered an invasion even though it is leased to the USA. Cuba could not do anything because of its old weapons and because it has no weapons from the embargo. Also, Cuba has little food to give to the soldiers so they are unable to fight. So Cuba has no military power to retaliate against the USA. It cannot threaten or take back Guantanamo bay. Cuba could not adequately defend itself from an attack from the US. The USA does not want to attack Cuba and take over it because it does not want to violate national sovereignty and it does not want to cause problems. The only reason that it holds Guantanamo Bay is because it is leased for the USA.
Views on World Problems:
Cuba has many views on international problems. First of all, the problem of Guantanamo Bay, the USA has the lease to it; however, it is still part of Cuba. The USA’s abandonment of the bay will terminate the lease. The base contains a detainment camp that holds militant combatants from Afghanistan and Iraq that the US says are not covered in the Geneva Convention. The Cuban government denounces the lease on grounds that article 52 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the law of treaties voids treaties procured by force or its threatened use. Nonetheless, the bay was claimed by the USA from 1898. The US continues to hold this base because it assumed that Cuba might ambush it and take control of the base so it started shipping in troops until the threat was gone because Cuba’s forces are not strong enough.
Another problem that Cuba is part of is the embargo that was placed on Cuba by the USA. It is an economical, financial, and commercial embargo that was placed on Cuba February 7, 1962. The embargo is still in effect and it remains an extremely controversial issue worldwide. The UN has proposed many resolutions on stopping the embargo and only 3 countries voted against them: Israel, Marshal Islands, and the USA. The Cuban government estimates that the total direct economic impact caused to Cuba by the U.S. embargo is $70 billion, and the impact caused to the USA is $1.2 billion. Due to the significant loses caused on both sides, Cuba wants to end the embargo, along with all the other countries in the UN except for the USA, Israel, and Marshal Islands.
Finally, the last problem concerning Cuba is the illicit drug problem. Territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment zone for US and European-bound drugs. Cuba established the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999.
Cuba is in many world organizations and they are: ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, and WTrO.
Cuba is trying to have good relations with other communist countries, which are only 3 left, and they are Cuba, North Korea, and Vietnam. The United States is not allowing communist countries to have any relations, because they might be a threat to this world. Cuba is a member of the Organization of American States (OAS) but its membership has been suspended since 1962 (Cuba's "empty chair" policy and removal of right to vote in OAS for a by the OAS).
Since Cuba’s great economical loss, it had stopped supporting guerrillas in Latin America. Venezuela has a good relation with Cuba because of its unfolding Bolivian Revolution. Chavez and Castro are close buddies because they are both Anti-America and they are both trading partners. They both do not agree to the USA's policies. Many other nations in Latin America have elected leftist governments like Brazil, Bolivia, and Ecuador. Bolivia is demanding that the companies that occupy the natural gas sites in Bolivia pay the state 87% of their making. Bolivia has sent military power to guard the natural gas refineries. Bolivia’s president, Morales, met with Chavez and Castro in Cuba to decide on making Bolivia a social government. Ecuador is also making the private companies that occupy their oil reserves pay 60% of their earnings to the government.
Cuba's history is filled with over thrown government and thousands dying the beginning of Cuba’s history, Spanish settlers established the raising of cattle, sugarcane, and tobacco as Cuba’s primary economic pursuits. African slaves were brought to Cuba and the Indian population started too died out. Jose Marti was the person who helped initiate the final push for independence, making Cuba the last Spanish colony to gain independence. In 1902, the USA granted Cuba independence by forcing the Spanish forces out. The Cuban government started to form but under the watch of the USA and they liked it worked.
Cuba had many dictators before Castro, and the USA supported them all. With the independence, Tomás Estrada Palma became the first president of Cuba. However, an armed revolt broke out when he was elected and the USA had to take control of the country for two years. After those two years, a self-government was restored with Jose Miguel Gomez as the new president. But the USA still supervised Cuban affairs. Despite frequent outbreaks of disorder, the constitutional government was maintained until 1925. In 1925 Gerardo Machado y Morales was elected president, and he suspended the constitution and made himself the Cuba’s first dictator. During his rule, Cuba gained more control over its economy and some important development projects were done. In 1933, a small number of the Cuban army staged a coup, which overthrew Machado and made Carlos Manuel de Cespedes President. In September of the same year, a second coup led by Sergeant Fulgencio Batista overthrew Céspedes and replaced him with Carlos Mendieta y Montefur. After that, Batista tried to run for president but nobody supported him so he turned to the Communist Party of Cuba. In 1934, the USA ended its supervision of Cuba, and with the help of the party, Batista became president and during his term, he carried out major social reforms. At the end of his term, Ramón Grau became president. However, Grau was a big enemy to the communists. In 1948, after Grau’s term ended, Carlos Prio Socarras, who had been Grau’s minister of labor and was particularly hated by the Communists, became president. During his term, corruption increased.
In 1959, rebel leader Fidel Castro led his army to victory, making Cuba a communist state. His rule has held the regime together since then. Cuba's Communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s.
In 1962, the USA placed an embargo on Cuba because the new Cuban government passed the first Agrarian Reform Law to begin expropriation of large-scale land holdings on May 17, 1959. The compensation that was offered to the USA to stop the embargo was seen as inadequate, and was rejected by American interests.
One of Castro’s closest advisors, Ernesto "Che" Guevara formed an alliance with Raul Castro to persuade Fidel to align himself with the communists and thus with the Soviet Union. Guevara also played an important role in persuading Blas Roca Calderio, the Cuban Communist leader, to work and try to gain control of the revolutionary government from within. Roca agreed and he informed the Soviet Union and they took the opportunity to gain a political stance in the Americas and they promised unlimited aid and support if Castro declared Cuba a communist state. In late 1960, the embargo was imposed which drove Castro more towards the Soviets. The result of the Cuban-Soviet alliance was that the Soviets decided to place intermediate range ballistic missiles in Cuba. In 1963, the USA imposed a complete diplomatic and commercial embargo on Cuba, which lead to Cuba directing all its trade with the Soviet Union and its allies. Cuba had to sell all its sugar crops to the Soviets and the Soviets had to supply Cuba with all its oil.
Following that, the soviet subsidies withdrew from Cuba’s side and stopped supplying it with military and other aid. This has caused a great effect on Cuba and the country is still trying to recover economically. The money that was lost from these two events adds up to be about $76 billion. Many Cuban immigrants have traveled to the USA illegally because of the economical problems that Cuba is going through.
The collapse of the Soviet Union resulted in an economic crisis in Cuba and in the embargo, having its greatest effect by denying Cuba the ability to replace Soviet imports with U.S. imports. Cuba has developed trading relations with the rest of the world. However, Cuban citizens are experiencing a shortage of food and needed material like cars, car parts, and supplies that it used to export from the USA.
Issue #1: The Question of detention without trial in the war on terrorism:
The war on terror has spread all over the world and many countries are trying very hard to eliminate terrorism. However, countries like the USA and Australia have taken steps like detention without trial in the war on terrorism. The USA has detained over 600 people because they are suspects of terrorist acts and they have been kept in prison for years without the right to speak to family or the right to see a lawyer. The USA is going against its constitution and it is practicing policies that the USA is foreign to. It’s true that every country wants to stop terrorism, but taking away people’s rights is not the way to solve it. Cuba believes that each individual should be given his rights even though he is suspected to be involved in terrorist acts.
Cuba’s leader, Fidel Castro, imprisons people for going against his rule. He puts people in jail without trial just for questioning his authority. Castro has locked up hundreds of citizens because they went against his word and now all of Cuba’s prisons are full. This is because these people went against the country’s laws and posed a threat to the government. However, Cuba does not support detention without trial in the war on terrorism. This issue concerns Cuba because the USA are detaining people and putting them in Guantanamo Bay, which is located in Cuba. Cuba is a communist country that believes in equality and does not want to do with anything that violates human rights. The UN does not support the USA’s policy, but it has done nothing to try to stop it.
Cuba believes that this policy is not fair and it does not support the USA. Cuba believes that each individual should have a trial even thought he is suspected to be involved in terrorist acts. Cuba believes that the UN should take measures against the USA and stop it from continuing with this policy. The UN should hold talks so that the US abandons the new policy. The UN should have inspections of the Guantanamo Bay prison and they should give each prisoner a fair trial.
Issue #2: Improving the living conditions of Africa:
Living conditions in Africa are very low and many people suffer from poverty and bad health. Children all over Africa is not receiving the amount of nutrition that they should receive. People lack clean water to drink and food to eat. Diseases like AIDS are spreading rapidly and they are affecting the majority of the African nation. Many people are illiterate and are not receiving a proper education. They are so poor that they cannot afford any money to eat, drink, and live. Development in Africa is very low. Citizens of Eritrea and Ethiopia are suffering from the war because they do not have shelters or water.
Cuba has played a vital role in helping African nations. It has helped train over 30,000 young people in many specialties and has aided many African nations. Cuba has opened up many medical schools in African nations in countries like Ethiopia and South Africa. In areas that Cuban assistance was present like Ghana, Eritrea, and Equatorial Guinea infant mortality dropped significantly. Cuba has also helped many other countries in Africa with medical education and treatment. Cuba is a communist country and communism believes in equality between people. That is why Cuba has aided many African nations. It wants to develop a system in Africa that the people and the governments can benefit from. The UN has tried very hard to improve living conditions and development in Africa. It has set the Millennium Development Goals so that it can try to improve development. Many volunteers have been sent to Africa to try to help and many donations have been collected to improve living conditions. Also, the UN has built many schools for the education of children in Africa.
Cuba stands firm with the UN’s tries to improve living conditions and development in Africa. Africa is one of Cuba’s major partners as it has sent generic AIDS drugs to it for free. Cuba wants to gather more funds so that the living conditions in Africa are raised and that the people can live. It also wants to increase awareness within the UN so that the problem can be solved. Cuba wants to see more industries being started in Africa so that its economy can improve. If more industries are started and the government has control over them, then the economy of many countries can increase and become better. Cuba wants to show that investing in Africa is a good thing because it helps the nations and the investors. Cuba should also try to help the leaders of the African nations to increase industries and investments. Cuba supports countries that are giving debts to the African nations; however, it believes that the countries should not pressure the African nations into paying back the money quickly.
Issue #3: The control and guidance on the media:
In many countries, freedom of speech is expressed by all of its citizens, including the media. The media is allowed to publish whatever it wants under the right of freedom of speech. Many media stations have published stories that have been offensive to other religions, races, and ethnic groups. This happened in Denmark when the media published sketches of the prophet Mohammed and the government could not do anything about it. The only people that had control of the media were the presidents of the media companies. However, in other countries, the media does not have as much freedom as the media does in countries that practice freedom of speech. They are restricted in what they are allowed to publish. In Cuba, the government controls the media. Fidel Castro censors Catholic speeches and what they say in their churches. He has, however, reached an agreement between him and the churches. Anything that wants to be spread in the media should be approved by Castro.
Cuba believes that the media should not have all the freedom that it wants because it might lead to problems like it did in the Denmark issue. Cuba believes in freedom of speech, but to a certain extent. Cuba also believes that the media should have limitations about what it publishes. The media should not offend any race, religion, or ethnic group. Cuba wants to see laws being made that stop the media from publishing offensive material and that restricts their limits. The media should be limited in special cases to avoid any unrest between countries and unrest within the country itself. If the media goes against the government then it should be limited.
Issue #4: Towards eliminating arms proliferation:
Over 500 million small arms exist between citizens and a million more produced each year. Small arms have been the cause of at least 500,000 deaths. These weapons are spreading significantly and a lot of people are new holders of small arms. These arms are being distributed between citizens without the governments knowing. These weapons pose a threat to everybody and they should be eliminated. There have been many attempts to eliminate arms proliferation. The USA is the biggest arms seller in the world and that because it is capitalist and capitalism supports the sale of weapons and women. Cuba is very concerned about this issue because arms proliferation is the main cause that the USA still holds Guantanamo bay. Cuba does not have enough military power to take back Guantanamo, and the US keeps getting more weapons. The UN’s conference on Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons was the first to establish the problem and try to fix it. The conference wanted to stop the trade at an international level and decrease the death toll that is resulting from it.
Cuba wants to stop the proliferation of arms because it is one of the main causes that are stopping world peace. Cuba supports the UN’s action and aids them in any way possible. Cuba thinks that monitoring places that arms trade might take place in them would be a great step forward in stopping the proliferation of arms. Cuba would also like to see security increase in countries that have the most arms trade and proliferation. Cuba also wants the UN to hold talks with the USA to try to control proliferation of weapons in the US. The USA is a capitalist country and capitalism is based on free market and the private ownership of production. This is harming the world because many of the productions are small arms and that is why a capitalist state will never accomplish peace. Capitalists use other people and only they are benefited while the rest are harmed. Capitalism uses other people for money. It sells the power of life and death to the rich and that is the ultimate perversion of capitalism. Cuba believes that that is a violation of human rights and that is not right. The main reason that there is no peace in our world is because of capitalist states.
Issue #5: Integration of women in development:
Women for many years have been excluded from many activities and men were the only ones that could participate. Women were excluded from economical activities and education. In these recent years women had been active in activities that they could not participate in earlier; however, men still have a privilege and they are seen better than woman in certain areas of development. Communist countries greatly believe in the equality of women so they do not support the views of some countries, which discriminate against women. They believe that woman should be treated like men would be and that they have all their rights. In Cuba, there is no discrimination between gender. All people are treated equally. It is the perfect example of how people should be treated in countries. The UN has made several attempts in the integration of women in development. It has passed many resolutions concerning this issue and many countries within the UN have created organizations for the integration of women like Morocco and Africa. The most important attempt that the UN has made is the UNIFEM.
Cuba is a communist country and communism believes in the equality of women. Cuba believes that women should be given an equal chance in every area of development and they should be given their rights and not be treated differently than men would. They can contribute greatly to the development of countries. There is no discrimination between genders and that is the perfect example of how people should be treated in countries. Equality in work, education, punishment, and development are all policies that Cuba supports. Cuba does not favor any gender more than the other does and it supports all policies that have equality.
Fully alarmed by the fact that these acts are in direct violation of Article 1 in Chapter 1 of the UN charter which says, "The purposes of the United Nations are and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion."
Noting with regret that these acts are in direct violation of Articles 9, 10, 11 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which states, "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention, or exile," and "Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing …," and "Everyone charged with a penal offense has the right to be presumed innocent until proved … No one shall be held guilty of any penal offense on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offense…" , respectively,
Deeply concerned by the fact that, according to the Human Rights Watch report, many countries like the USA, Israel, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia detains people without trial,
Alarmed by the fact that, according to President Bush and his administration, over 600 people have been arrested without trial in the USA and about 200 in Afghanistan,
Deeply disturbed by the fact that, according to a Human Rights Watch report, detainees at US bases are being mistreated and tortured,
Applauding the Human Rights Watch, according to a news report made by CNN, for helping many of the detainees in many different prisons with aid and offering psychiatrists to detainees who have been affected mentally,
Expressing its appreciation to the ICRC, who helped the detainees by sending in aid and helping many prisoners who have been affected mentally. and questioned the USA’s policy,
Taking into account that, according to the ICRC website, the ICRC is the only Non-Governmental Organization that is able to access a country’s prisons, even against the country’s will, without violating national sovereignty,
1. Calls upon the formation of a convention that will: A. Be held in Geneva, Switzerland, B. Have a representative of the UNHRC present, C. Write a treaty that will help the ICRC in gathering and distributing aid;
2. Resolves that the treaty that will be written will: A. Be written by the UNHRC B. Help the ICRC by gathering aid, i. From countries that are willing to send aid, ii. Have conventions in many countries to increase awareness and gather aid, iii. Individual donations, C. Help the ICRC with transportation: i. Planes to carry the aid over seas and to carry people that are volunteering to help; ii. Jeeps to transport them on ground; iii. Deals will be made with companies to get these vehicles and countries may send some; D. Gather more people to help the ICRC: i. Visiting many countries to gather volunteers, ii. Communication, 1. TV commercials, 2. Signs in newspapers, 3. Posters and billboards, 4. Countries may provide more people if they wish, iv. Have a press conference after the signing to make the public aware of the accomplishments,
3. Further resolves that the treaty will have a committee that will work under the convention and will: A. Do the planning of all the things mentioned above like: i. Visit the countries to gather the aid and volunteers, ii. Form deals with the companies that will provide the transportation, B. Meet monthly in their headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland to: i. In their meetings they will discuss the things mentioned above, C. Consist of, i. Experienced negotiators so they can get the best deals with the companies that will offer the transportation, ii. Administrative staff that will handle all the office work, iii. Executive staff that will send monthly reports, after the meetings, to the UN mentioning what they accomplished and what their goals are,
4. Trusts that the UN hires all the people that are needed in the committee;
5. Affirms that the treaty will not violate national sovereignty because it is helping the ICRC and the ICRC is the only NGO that can access countries’ prisons without violating national sovereignty even against its will.
Imagine your self-holding one of the world’s finest cigars while siting on a beautiful beach. That is Cuba. However, that image is slowly turning into history because of the USA. But, Cuba is not only about pleasure, it is involved in many global issues. For example, the US embargo.
The USA has no right to stop trade with Cuba just because it does not believe in its political system. Also, Cuba is concerned with how the US believes in detention without trial in the war on terrorism. That policy not only takes away the prisoner’s rights, it is totally contradicting to the US’s policies. We know they sell the power of life and death to the rich, and now they want to violate human rights? Who do they think they are, stopping trade and depriving humans of their rights?! We should stop countries like the USA to lead our world as they are only destroying more.