Event: Pearl-MUN 2006
Student: Nour GandanfarLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2005-2006 Team page
Poland is a democratic republic. But it hasn't always been that way. Before 1997, Poland was considered a communist country. It had its own communist constitution and followed all of the communists' rules. Its first anti-Communist constitution transpired on April 2, 1997 and was put to effect on October 17, 1997. Now Poland had executive power, which is exercised by the government. The government consists of a council of ministers, which is led by the Prime Minister. The president, as the head of state, has the power to veto legislation passed by the parliament, but otherwise has a mostly representative role. Presidential elections occur every 5 years.
The current president is Lech Kaczyñski; the current prime minister is Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz. The real power in Poland's political structure is the Prime Minister. That's because the Prime Minister advises the president with almost everything. There is absolutely no opposition against the government, especially after the post-communist era. The people totally support the new government of Poland. There are political parties in Poland but they don't have much power. Examples of political parties would be Polish Peasant Party, Social democratic Party of Poland, and Union of Labor. The parties have enough power to control and carry on with their specific job. Poland's stability is going pretty well right now, much better than before anyway. The new government of Poland has been welcomed and has enjoyed the public's support.
Poland is a country in Central Europe to the east of Germany. Its total area is 312,685 km2. Poland only connects with one sea, The Baltic Sea. The Polish landscape consists mostly of the lowlands of the Northern European Plains. Its average elevation of Poland is 173 meters, and only 3 percent of Polish territory is higher than 500 meters. Many rivers run through the Polish lands. For instance, the Vistula, the Oder, and the Warta are a few of the rivers that cross the Polish planes. Poland is also home to 9,300 lakes, such as, Masuria, which is Poland's most famous river. 40.25% of Poland's land is fertile of agriculture. That's why Poland had a great income in agriculture. Poland's climate in the winter is temperate, cold, and cloudy with frequent precipitation. In the summer however, the weather is mild with frequent showers and thundershowers. Poland is a neighboring country to 7 countries. They are as follows: the Czech Republic, Belarus, Germany, Slovakia, Ukraine, Russia, and Lithuania. After the Great War, Poland had a couple of border disagreements with Russia and Germany, but in this day and age Poland has no border disputes.
Poland's natural resources are quite plentiful for a country of its size. A few of the resources include: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, and arable land. As you see, most of the natural resources are metals and the extracts of them. That's because Poland is famous for its vast mines. Coal is Poland's most important mineral resource. In 1980, the total reserves for the coal reached up to about 130 billion tons. Poland's climate features moderate temperatures and sufficient rainfall that enable agriculture of most temperate-zone crops, including all the major grains, several industrial crops, and several varieties of fruit. Poland is generally self-sufficient in food; the main crops are rye, potatoes, beets, wheat, and dairy products. Poland's also highly self-sufficient when it comes to energy. It has considerable resources of hard coal and lignite. The country's leading manufactures include machinery, iron and steel products, chemicals, ships, food processing, and textiles. Poland's trade-agreement has increased rapidly throughout the 90's. Poland's closest allies in the trading business are: The United States, Britain, France, Switzerland, Sweden, Holland, and Japan. The trading started in the late 1980's and progressed till this day.
During most of its history, Poland was an international country for many ethnic groups, such as: Belarussians, Germans, Jews, and Ukrainians. This cultural diversity was reduced sharply by World War II and swift migrations followed it. As a result of this process, in 1990 an estimated 98 percent of Poland's population was ethnically Polish. The three primary ethnic groups remaining were the German, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian groups. They worked well together along with the remaining Polish community. World War II fundamentally transformed Poland into a state conquered by a single religion. According to a 1991 government survey, Roman Catholicism was professed by 96 percent of the population. The devotees to Judaism, Greek Orthodox, Protestant, and other religious groups quickly vanished after the war. Many foreign observers distinguish Poland as a permanent victim of history, whose survival through urgency and a persistent sense of national identity has left a mixed legacy of strong courage and prejudice toward outsiders.
The development of immigration policy in Poland has been always treated as an expression of the coercive nature. One aspect of immigration however is missing - the possibility of actual modification of the system of beliefs. The fact that a restrictive policy versus foreigners emerged in the country of very low immigration levels, only slightly exceeding 0.1% of total population, cannot be explained by domestic processes. To Poles, their history includes brighter memories of Poland as a highly cultured kingdom, uniquely understanding of ethnic and religious diversity and maturely supportive of human liberty and the fundamental values of Western civilization.
Poland's economy has its good and bad sides. Its financial state isn't going that well. Poland earns about $52.73 billion, and spends about $63.22 billion. So it's losing about $10.49 billion every year. Poland also owes the USA about $123.4 billion since 2005. Throughout the 1990's the United States and other Western countries supported the growth of a free enterprise economy by reducing Poland's foreign debt burden, providing economic aid, and lowering trade barriers, but even with that happening Poland is having trouble in the economic department. Poland exports machinery and transport equipment, intermediate manufactured goods, miscellaneous manufactured goods, and food and live animals. Its export partners are Germany, Italy, France, the UK, Czech Republic, and the Netherlands. Poland import machinery and transport equipment, intermediate manufactured goods, chemicals, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials.
Poland gets its income from natural gas, coal mining, food processing, machine building, and textiles. Its import partners are Germany, Italy, Russia, France, and China. Poland owes $123.4 billion, mostly to the United States. Poland is currently a member of the EU & has been a member in the WTO for 6 years. Poland's economy is stable for now and it's pretty strong. Poland's economy is definitely growing, even though it's by 3.5%.
Poland maintains a sizable armed force currently numbering about 175,343 troops. Poland relies on military recruitment for the majority of its personnel strength. All males (with some exceptions) are subject to a 12-month term of military service. The Polish military continues to restructure and to update its equipment. Poland shows its great support to the UN Peacekeeping Organization by contributing troops to Southern Lebanon, Afghanistan, and Iraq. The Polish military continues to use mostly Soviet-era equipment, however Poland has begun upgrading and modernizing its hardware to Western standards Recent modernization projects include the acquisition of 100 F-16 fighter jets from the United States and 128 Leopard 2 MBTs from Germany. Napoleon is quoted to have said that 800 Poles would equal 8000 enemy soldiers. That's how strong the Polish army is. The army can definitely defend its self when necessary. The Polish military spends about $3.5 billion a year. That's 1.71% of the GDP. Poland's top national security goal is to further combine with NATO and other west European defense, profitable, and political institutions using the transformation and reorganization of its military. Polish military policy reflects the same defense nature as its NATO partners.
Views on World Problems:
Poland's views on world problems are similar to the United States' views. That's because one of Poland's biggest allies and suppliers is the United States. Mostly what the United States asks Poland to do, Poland will comply. For example, Poland assumed command of an international division of stable forces in Iraq on September 3, 2003, contributing 2,300 troops. Polish military forces have also served in both Operation Enduring Operation Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Russia and Poland have seldom been the best of friends, but relations between the two countries hit low after the savage beatings of three Polish nationals on Moscow’s streets. There exists profound traditional friendship between China and Poland and the two peoples as well. For quite a long period, the two peoples have sympathized with, supported and helped with each other. Poland looks forward to better relations with France, after the question of Iraq had soured their ties. Poland was a supporter of the Britain during the Iraq war and sent 200 troops to Iraq. Poland has good relationships with all 5 world superpowers. Poland is a member in 70 international organizations. Here are a few: ·European Investment Bank ·European Union ·Food and Agricultural Organization ·International Atomic Energy Agency ·International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ·International Civil Aviation Organization .International Confederation of Free Trade Unions ·International Labor Organization ·Interpol .Inter-Parliamentary Union ·International Telecommunication Union ·National Atlantic Treaty Organization ·Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe ·United Nations ·United Nations Conference on Trade and Development ·United Nations Disengagement Observer Force ·United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization ·United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees ·United Nations Industrial Development Organization ·United Nations Operation in Cote d' Ivoire ·Universal Postal Union ·World Customs Organization ·World Federation of Trade Unions ·World Health Organization ·World Intellectual Property Organization .World Trade Organization
The Poles possess one of the richest and most respected historical traditions of all European countries. In the first centuries of its existence, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom. They created a strong Central European state and included Poland into European culture. Alarming foreign enemies and internal crumbling battered this initial structure in the thirteenth century. But that was in the early 1300's. In the years following World War II, Poland, like other East European countries, underwent a rapid, planned change from its old civilization, took a chance, and stepped out into the modern world. At the end of the 1980s, Poland, like the other countries of Eastern Europe, underwent a rather sudden shift away from communist rule and into an uncertain new world of democracy and economic reform.
Recently, Poland had a difficult transition form a communist country to a democratic one. After months of haggling, the round table talks yielded a historic negotiation in early 1989. Solidarity would regain legal rank and the right to post candidates in parliamentary elections. Although to many observers, the guarantee seemed a foolish allowance by Solidarity at the time. The election of June 1989 swept communists from nearly all the disputed seats. The union shaped a noncommunist majority that shaped a cabinet conquered by Solidarity. In August 1989, the Catholic intellectual Tadeusz Mazowiecki became Prime Minister of a government committed to taking apart the communist system and replacing it with a Western-style democracy and a free-market economy. The end of 1989 had swept the Soviet alliance swept away by a stunning succession of revolutions partly inspired by the Polish example. Suddenly, the history of Poland, and of its entire region, had entered the post-communist era.
Issue 1: The question of detention without trial in the war on terrorism
Poland has seen many crimes of terrorism throughout its history. Its concern for the acts of terrorism is huge. There is no doubt that acts of terrorism constitute a most serious violation of the principles of the United Nations and are aimed directly against the ideals, which this Organization upholds. For example, Poland was simply shocked by the terrorist attacks on 9/11. But nonetheless, Poland believes that fairness should be issued to the beholders of terrorism. Another good example would be Abu Ghraib. The way the American soldiers treated the Iraqi citizens was undesirable, even if the Iraqis had committed horrible crimes. The question of detention without trial in the war on terrorism is simply unacceptable to the Polish community. Especially since Poland has entered the democratic age.
Although it has seen many degrees of terrorism, Poland still feels that terrorist are human, and every human should have a trial no matter what crime he/she has committed. Poland believes that work on a convention against terrorists should continue to be of the utmost importance. Poland would like the UN to launch an urgent appeal for the universalisation of all major international conventions against terrorism, but still give terrorist their rights. And once a trail has been issued and a sentence released, then that is when terrorists' rights have been fully put to purpose. Poland asks the UN for no more.
Issue 2: Improving the living conditions of Africa
The living conditions in Africa have been horrendous for the past 20-40 years. Many countries and organizations have taken the first step in improving the living conditions of Africa, and Poland applauds them for their upright and forth standing kindness. Poland has followed in these footsteps and has donated $120,000 of humanitarian aid to the citizens of Darfur in Sudan. The Polish government has also donated $55,000 of medical equipment, tents, and blankets also to the nation of Sudan. Poland's help to the continent of Africa has incredibly increased over the years. In 1998 Poland donated $1.71 to Africa. In 2004 Poland donated $9.92 to Africa! It was a tremendous step forward for Poland. Improving the conditions of Africa has been a priority for the Polish government for many years.
Poland feels that every country should try and assist Africa in expand its living conditions. It would be a great achievement if most of the counties in the United Nations donate at least $10,000 to the citizens of Africa. Poland would like the UN to do a lot more fund-raisers for the people of Africa. It would mean a lot to them and help them a great deal. Africa doesn't need money as much as it needs equipment. So if the countries or the UN could send material things like blankets, tents, clothing, canned food, and toys for the little children. If every country and every person tries to help each other out, then there would a lot more unity and agreement in the world. That's why Poland is so keen on helping other countries get through a tough time. Just like the United States has helped Poland get through their tough times.
Issue 3: The control and guidance on the media
The media seems to be everywhere these days. No matter how much we try, we can't seem to control it. Whether it's on politicians, celebrities, or average people, the media can't seem to control itself. Although, various times it displays good things like a man saving a child from a burning building. But most of the time it shows a lot of negative things and that leads to negative impacts. A recurring example is when the media show a group of men trying to shoot each other. What type of example does that set for our children? The Polish Constitution guarantees freedom of opinion and the freedom to acquire and disseminate information, and forbids both ex ante censorship of the media and licensing of the press. That's why Poland was horrified and shocked by the Danish cartoons that were displayed in the newspapers. The issue of the control and guidance on the media has been a concern to Poland and its citizens.
It's not only Poland that has been worried about the situation. I'm sure most countries feel a need to put a stop to the media's continuous hassle to get what they want. The UN should create a few rules that keep a line between ok and going too far. The media can't wait outside a person's home 24/7 just to see what type of flowers they have, or put on a show that shows stuff that people won't be able to benefit from. It's ridiculous. The UN should regulate a couple of rules the show the media what they're not allowed and allowed to do. Media isn't all bad; it can be good. For instance, it can show awareness in Africa, but it can also have a huge harmful effect.
Issue 4: Towards eliminating arms proliferation
Eliminating arms proliferation is always a difficult decision. We are at a new age right now, a modern age with technology surrounding all of us. Weaponry is a pressing issue in this contemporary world. Every country needs weaponry, not just to defend itself against nearby dangers, but for other useful jobs like hunting and shooting. But the weaponry has increase hugely throughout the last 20 years. And eliminating arms proliferation has become a problem and issue on the minds of the leaders of this free world.
China is concerned about "leakage" of arms from military and police depots; Russia has the problems of discharged and ill-paid soldiers and massive leakage of arms or all kinds from military storehouses; and South Africa is being flooded with illegal arms from within the country as well as from neighboring states. Those are a few of the problems that have risen to the surface during the world's quest for more arms. But we can fix these problems. We can: 1) Clamp down on illegal trade by improving national customs, controls, and standardizing export policies. 2) Destroy additional arms instead of selling them off cheaply on the international market. 3) Create effective programs to re-assimilate former soldiers into civil society, and reduce the reason for them to turn to banditry for survival. If the UN could help with the problem then Poland would be very grateful.
Issue 5: Integration of women in development
Women are a big part of this world, and it's important for them to have equal rights and chances. Their development throughout the years has increased rapidly. The women in the Polish society have developed intensely since the early 1980s. For example, in 1988, the Union of Polish Composers (UPC) included 27 women in a total of 187 composers. But Poland feels they still don't have the same respect and appreciation like men do. Women need to be more involved in a lot of the things that they do. It is fine if they just want to stay home and take care of their family, but we also should open a lot more doors to them. The integration of women in development is an immense matter, especially at this time.
The time we are in now is a beginning of a new era, and a new era needs a new way of thinking. A woman integrating into the New World seems like a great idea. Poland would like the UN to develop a lot more yearly exhibitions, demonstrations, and presentations showing the importance of women and their development. Poland would also like the UN to form a workshop, specifically for women of all ages, that illustrates the role of women in the community and helps them understand how important it is for them to go out and start making a name for themselves. It's important that we show how much we appreciate women. And supporting the integration of women seems like a brilliant idea.
Realizing that there are 83 to 96 guns per 100 people,
Recognizing that's roughly approaching the statistic of one gun per man, woman, and child,
Bearing in Mind that decreasing arms proliferation, legal or illegal, is a difficult decision to make considering:
Taking into Consideration that the people of this world think they are in desperate need of weaponry to protect them; they are the "weapons of choice",
Keeping in mind that a "leakage" from military and police depots has been happening all over the world since many countries including China are trying to figure out the sources of this leakage,
Having Considered that the world is flooded with small arms and light weapons numbering at least 500 million, enough for one of every 12 people on earth,
Deeply Disturbed by the fact that arms kill more than half a million men, women, and children on average each year,
Believing that the National Rifle Association (NRA) has played a major role in increasing small arms,
Believes that governments bear the principal responsibility of preventing, fighting, and destroying the unlawful trade of arms and weaponry,
Welcomes the efforts undertaken at the global and local levels to address illicit trades in arms and weaponry,
1. Congratulates the UN on its 11-day conference on the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons, and wants it to have a yearly conference done that should discuss: A. Consideration of the program of action, which consisted of: i. Concern on the consequences on the children of the world, ii. Reaffirming individual or collective self-defense, B. Preventing the illicit trade of small arms and light weapons, C. International assistance and cooperation in thwarting illegal arms;
2. Also Congratulates the Non-governmental Organization (NGO) on its addition to the UN conference, and urges it to come up with its own yearly conference, which should discuss the subjects of: A. Small arms injuries and health community perspective, B. Impacts on communities and developments, C. Human rights concerns, D. Controlling and reducing arms;
3. Affirms that the UN and other various organizations should have a big part in reducing illegal and illicit arms and weaponry, jobs such as: A. Having press conferences that discuss the issue at hand, B. Looking at small arms in each of three key dimensions, which are: i. Preventive environments, ii. Conflict environments, iii. Post-conflict environments, C. Taking the supply-side of the small arms trade into account, D. Insuring that active measures must be taken to collect and destroy the weapons of war;
4. Declares that three approaches are necessary to develop small arms policies, which are: A. Addressing demand by having public gatherings every 6 months in countries that the problem is most visible in like the US, the gatherings will have: i. Professional speakers that will address the public in a manner which they will recognize the problem, B. Controlling supply, by: i. Having inspectors from the government closely monitor the production and trade of small arms, ii. Create strict rules and punishments to those who are found with illegal arms, C. Taking weapons out of circulation by: i. Arranging members of the governments to go around residential areas with search warrants and dispose of any illegal weaponry they might find without a first offense, ii. Requesting all civilians to hand over all illegal arms before new rules are issued;
5. Urges the UN to hold bigger, better, and more extensive conferences on the illegal trade of arms and weaponry with more organizations attending and presenting speeches. The conferences should be held in New York every year with well-known professionals that have had experience with the problem at hand and should discuss: A. "Leakages" from military and police bases, A. The illegal flooding of arms from within the country as well as from neighboring states, B. The problem of discharged and ill-paid soldiers which is happening in a number of countries;
6. Calls Upon destroying additional arms instead of selling them cheaply on the international market;
7. Requests that nations should clamp down on illegal trade by: A. Improving national customs, B. Improving national controls, C. Standardizing export policies;
8. Encourages other nations start stepping and enforcing a few more laws that meticulously monitor the illicit trade of arms and weaponry; such as: A. Governments tightening legislation and regulations of legal production and trade, B. Investing significant resources to implementation by closely monitoring the areas that do succeed and rewarding them by investing needed items;
9. Expresses Its Hope that all nations will someday cooperate and conquer the illegal trade of illicit arms.
Poland's history has attracted many tourists over the years. They come from different countries, wanting to experience its rich past, present, and future. They listen to the brilliant music of Frederic Chopin, and are amazed by the works of Madame Marie Curie. Yet, they fail to see what is really going on, the horrible truth that is affecting everyone in this world. It wasn't there 100 years ago. That shows how shocking the problem was, is, and will continue to be. It will continue to grow, develop, and will destroy us if we don't do something about it.
The problem is one that's clearly visible in almost every nation. It's the problem of the continuous increasing of arms and weaponry. Experts show that within the next couple of years, the rate will grow alarmingly. It's a major problem that has to be dealt with immediately before it's too late. Therefore, Poland calls upon the nations of this world to consider the problem of eliminating, or at least reducing and lessening the dependence on arms and weaponry.