Country: South Africa

Event: Pearl-MUN 2006

Student: Alia Al-Sager

 



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The Republic of South Africa National Anthem




The Republic of South Africa

 

 

 

Country Profile


Political Structure:

South Africa is run by a republican government system. Their legal system is based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law. It is ruled by the Chief of State who is also the Head of Government. The National Assembly elects the president for a five-year term. Thabo Mbeki is the elected president of South Africa. The president then appoints the cabinet and there is a deputy president. The parliament consists of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces. The National Assembly is made of 400 seats and the members are elected by popular vote. The National Council of Provinces is made of 90 seats, 10 of which are elected to protect ethnic minorities.

The new constitution was certified on the 4th of December 1996 and was signed on the 10th of December 1996 by President Mandela, who was the president at the time. South Africa is made of 9 provinces: Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North-West, Northern Cape, and Western Cape.

 

B. Geography:

South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland. It is 1,219,912 sq. km located in the continent of Africa, at the southern tip. The climate is mostly semiarid and subtropical along East Coast. Days are sunny while nights are cool. South Africa is surrounded by the Indian Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean. It borders with Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe.

 

C. Natural Resources:

South Africa is rich in a range of natural resources. It has Gold, Chromium, Antimony, Coal, Iron Ore, Manganese, Nickel, Phosphates, Tin, Uranium, Gem Diamonds, Platinum, Copper, Vanadium, Salt, and Natural Gas. The discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold in 1886 spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants.

 

D. Cultural Factors:

South Africa is a multi-faceted country. There are 11 official languages, including Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, and Zulu. The population consists of Africans 75.2%, Caucasians 13.6%, Colored 8.6%, and Indian 2.6%. There are various religious parties in South Africa. Christians represent 68%, Muslim 2%, Hindu 1.5%, and indigenous beliefs and animist are 28.5%.

Until 1991, South African law divided the population into four major racial categories: Africans (black), whites, coloreds, and Asians. Although this law has been abolished, many South Africans still view themselves and each other according to these categories. Africans comprise about 75% of the population and are divided into a number of different ethnic groups. Whites comprise about 14% of the population. They are primarily descendants of Dutch, French, English, and German settlers who arrived in South Africa. 

 

E. Economy:

South Africa is a developing country even though there is abundance in the supply of resources. High unemployment and severe economic problems remain from the past era where the whites where ill-treating the native Africans. Other problems standing in the way of the growth of the economy are a high level of crime rate, an elevated level of corruption, and a wide spread of HIV/AIDS. On the other hand, South Africa has a well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors. The stock exchange ranks among the 10 largest in the world. A modern infrastructure supports an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region.

In an effort to solve some of the problems facing the economic growth, President Mbeki promised at the beginning of year 2000 to increase privatization and to reduce governmental spending. President Mbeki had also planned to attract foreign investment and to implement less restrictive Labor Laws. However, South African economy witnessed a slowing down following the stagnation in the international economy.

 

F. Defense:

The military Branches are The South African National Defense Force and The South African Police Service. The South African National Defense Force includes The Army, The Navy, The Air Force, and Medical Services. The minimum age for joining any military service is 18 years of age. South Africa invests a lot of money for their military forces. Their expenditure in 2001 was $1.79 billion.

 

G. Views on World Problems:

South Africa is a strong country known to lead most African countries. It views on world problems are most likely to resemble those of the United States. During the apartheid it had bad relations with neighboring countries, but recently it has developed and is on good grounds with most of its neighbors as it has joined the Organization of African Unity (OAU). South Africa is also part of the Commonwealth and the United Nations, which are leading organizations in the world. South Africans feel strongly about the Israeli Palestinian conflict since they felt what it is like to be racially discriminated against they oppose the Israeli aggression, but the government is neutral on this issue. They are also part of the war on terrorism and they were also part of the US led coalition. Finally, South Africa is basically relation Zimbabwe

 

H. History:

The country's first nonracial elections were held on April 26-29, 1994 that resulted in the presidency of Nelson Mandela on May 10, 1994. During Nelson Mandela's 5-year term as President of South Africa, the government committed itself to reforming the country. The ANC-led government focused on social issues that were ignored during the apartheid era such as unemployment, housing shortages, and crime. Mandela's administration began to reintroduce South Africa into the global economy by implementing a goal oriented economic plan. In order to fix the holes created by apartheid, the government created the Truth and Reconciliation Committee (TRC) under the leadership of Archbishop Desmond Tutu. In June 1999, Nelson Mandela retired and Thabo Mbeki was elected President of South Africa. To follow in wake of Nelson Mandela as President of South Africa is a hard task. For Thabo Mbeki, the new President, not being Mandela is but one of many personal challenges facing his leadership and, in turn, his effort to work on his vision for transforming South Africa. Began arriving at the Cape in the late 17" century.

Coloreds are mixed-race people primarily descending from the earliest settlers and the indigenous peoples. They comprise about 9% of the total population. Asians descend from Indian workers brought to South Africa in the mid-19th century to work on the sugar estates in Natal. They constitute about 2% of the population and are concentrated in the KwaZulu- Natal Province.

The quality of the education that the South African country is providing is slowly becoming less. Although while under the apartheid system schools were separated, and the number of schools and their teaching quality varied very much according to the racial groups. Even though the laws governing this separation have been abolished, the long and hard process of restructuring the country's educational system is just beginning. The challenge is to create a single nondiscriminatory, nonracial system that offers the same standards of education to all people.

 

 

 

Policy Statements:

Issue #1: War on Terrorism

South Africa believes that terrorism should be eliminated. Terrorism harms many countries as well as a numerous number of individuals. South Africa strongly condemns countries that support terrorism. South Africa pursues an independent foreign policy of peace. South Africa will not tolerate a country using the terror as means of achieving a goal. It holds that all countries are equal members of the international community whether they are big or small, strong or weak, rich or poor. All countries should settle their conflicts through a peaceful agreement instead of implementing force or the threat of force. South Africa will not impose its social system upon others, nor will it allow other countries to force theirs upon it. South Africa believes that all countries are entitled to choose the social system and lifestyles that suit their own conditions.

South Africa has signed many treaties involving counter-terrorism. It believes that the world should unite to fight it. South Africa has created one of the first counter-terrorism unit involving sea/ air/ land.

 

Issue # 2: Sales of Weapons

The proliferation of weapons’ problem is that it could increase the outcome of crime. With more weapon supply in the community, the crime’s magnitude will increase. However, the real problem in arm trade isn’t concerning the manufacturer of the weapons. It is the suppliers of the weapons to the armed groups. Those ‘middle men’ are almost always backed up by big nations who want the armed groups to fight each other, but doesn’t want its hands dirty.

South Africa is in awe by the effects of the armed conflicts. If only the weapons could not reach those armed groups, then peace will be imminent because they can’t fight each other. They will be forced to negotiate. However, because the suppliers are armed with great ‘wastas’, the trade is running.

South Africa has joined many treaties and organization that fight arms trade. They are proactive in fighting the problem.

 

Issue #3: Media

The media may have an influential role in problems of human and civil rights abuse and the media could very much be a way of acting out, and standing up for your rights. There is one problem for countries that unfortunately cannot afford to have a very influential and respectable media, what else do they have to voice out there problems.

The Royal family controls the media in South Africa. For the Royal family owns all of their Television Stations except for one and even though the Royal police are constantly on their case. Recently the Royal police confiscated a video tape by a court order because the government though that the tape was "threatening the foundations of the kingdom." The government will allow freedom, but not if it infringes on the countries government’s privacy. South Africa is severely secretive with its royal family.

 

Issue #4: Proliferation of Weapons

The proliferation of weapons’ problem is that it could increase the outcome of crime. With more weapon supply in the community, the crime’s magnitude will increase. However, the real problem in arm trade isn’t concerning the manufacturer of the weapons. It is the suppliers of the weapons to the armed groups. Those ‘middle men’ are almost always backed up by big nations who want the armed groups to fight each other, but doesn’t want its hands dirty.

South Africa is in awe by the effects of the armed conflicts. If only the weapons could not reach those armed groups, then peace will be imminent because they can’t fight each other. They will be forced to negotiate. However, because the suppliers are armed with great ‘wastas’, the trade is going on.

South Africa has joined many treaties and organization that fight arms trade. They are proactive in fighting the problem.

 

 

 

Resolution:


Forum: ECOSOC
Delegate: Alia Al-Sager
Submitted By: South Africa
Issue: Terrorism

Defining terrorism as use of force or violence by a person or an organized group, against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons,

Fully alarmed by the horrific incident which occurred in Argentina during 1992 and 1994 bombings and that improved law enforcement machinery of the country,

Fully aware that the Crime Congresses are held every five years and are open to all 189 UN Member States,

Condemning the aftermath of the September 11th attacks on New York and the Pentagon, in which 5789 people died and a lot of money was lost according to CNN.com,

Having heard that the United States has also provided various forms of anti-terrorism training to the Argentine Government through the Department of State's Anti-Terrorism Assistance Program,

CondemnsOsama bin laden and his terrorist organization who were believed to be the ones responsible for the terrorist act that happened on September the 11th,

Believing that the states of Latin America are now working more closely together in the kinds of cooperative activities that are indispensable to fighting international terrorism,

Taking into consideration the item regarding international terrorism was first placed on the agenda of the General Assembly by the Secretary-General in 1972. States, however, were unable to agree on the definition of international terrorism and were divided on how to address the problem,

Further requests that all nations cooperate with this resolution and help make the world a better place to live,

1. Resolves formation of the UNTCA (United Nation Counter-Terrorism Agency) short-named as UNITIC, and it will be located in Geneva and consists of all the countries of the world;

2. Further Resolves that the UNITIC will formulate through specific experts a standard requirement for counter-terrorism agencies. The standards will include everything required and will be updated regularly every three months and when needed;

3. Urges all nations to cooperate organization to for fill its noble goals to stop terrorism;

4. Draws the attention to all nations to secure:
A. All their communications,
B. Weapons be on stand by,
C. Increase security;

5. Recommends all nations to have standby workers who are trained to take care of terrorism issues and are capable of handling them according to the standards set by the UNITIC;

6. Requests that all nations monitor their country artillery weapons closely to see what is going on and what is being sold;

7. Notes that nations should exchange any valuable information required to maintain international security;

8. Further reminds that terrorism may lead to many destructive problems like:
A. The country will lose a lot of money.
B. Tourists will not be as attracted to the county as they were before the act;

9. Further Requests that countries that require any type of aid against the terrorist will receive it from the UNITIC after their request being verified by a group of specialized experts;

10. Takes note of the fact citizens will migrate to other countries to ensure their safety and the safety of their families;

11. Expresses its hope that all the nations will approve of resolving the problem of terrorism.

12. Urges all nations to try to use the methods required to fight terrorism around the world.

 

 

 

Opening Speech


The proliferation of weapons’ problem is that it could increase the outcome of crime. With more weapon supply in the community, the crime’s magnitude will increase. However, the real problem in arm trade isn’t concerning the manufacturer of the weapons. It is the suppliers of the weapons to the armed groups. Those ‘middle men’ are almost always backed up by big nations who want the armed groups to fight each other, but doesn’t want its hands dirty. South Africa is in awe by the effects of the armed conflicts. If only the weapons could not reach those armed groups, then peace will be imminent because they can’t fight each other. They will be forced to negotiate. However, because the suppliers are armed with great ‘wastas’, the trade is going on. South Africa has joined many treaties and organization that fight arms trade. They are proactive in fighting the problem.

 

 

 

Statement of the Delegate