Students: Dana Khader, General Assembly A and Ambassador Sara'a Abu Shaar, ECOSOC Fawaz Al-Khalid, General Assembly B
The Republic of Turkey is run as a republican parliamentary democracy with a variety of different political parties. Its main political party, however, is the AKP - (Justice and Development Party). Recep Tayyip Erdoðan, the current Prime Minister of the republic established it in 2001 as a pro-Islamist party, and by Abdullah Gul, Turkey’s previous Prime Minister. However, AKP rejects the "Islamist" label - claiming that it is a pro-Western party with a "conservative" social agenda but also a solid commitment to liberal market economy and European Union membership. Currently the AKP has 367 seats out of the 550 in the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
In Turkey, the Grand National Assembly is in charge of electing both a Prime Minister (normally head of the largest party in the assembly) and a president, who is head of state. The president serves a seven year term and does not have to be a member of the Parliament. The current President, Ahmet Necdet Sezer, won 60% of the National Assembly vote and was elected as president of Turkey on May 16th, 2000. His term is due to end in May of 2007 when the Parliament will choose a successor.
The majority of power in the Turkish Republic is not vested in the president. Rather it rests mainly in the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. This means that the Turkish nation is being run by the British system. The Council of Ministers is appointed by the president and these ministers’ job is to nominate the prime minister. The active Prime Minister of Turkey is Recep Tayyip Erdoðan, who is currently the leader of the Justice and Development Party. Though he had won a majority of parliamentary seats in the 2002 general elections, Erdoðan had become Prime Minister several months after his party's landslide election victory in November of 2002. For he had been barred from standing in those elections because of a previous criminal conviction for reading an Islamist poem at a political rally, an action that would supposedly amount to Islamist agitation and for which he served several months in jail. In Turkey, Erdoðan’s action is viewed as a brutal mistake. This is because the Turkish constitution clearly states that "Turkey is a secular nation with complete separation of state and religion." Thus by reciting the lines of an Islamist poem during the elections, Erdoðan was contradicting a major rule of the Turkish constitution - making Turkey seem like an Islamic nation rather than a secular one. By doing this, Erdoðan was also going against the will of Turkey’s national hero - Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.
However, prior to the resignation of the previous Prime Minister, Abdullah Gul, on the 11Th. of March 2003, Erdoðan was given a second chance to run and from then he had been elected Prime Minister of the republic. Credited for improving public services while mayor of Istanbul during the 1990’s, he is a populist with widespread support from working class Turks. Even though his (AK) party has Islamist roots, Erdoðan insists that it is committed to secularism.
In Turkey, legislative power lies in a single chamber, according to the constitution of 1987. This single chamber is the unicameral 550-seat Grand National Assembly of Turkey, which is also known as Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (TBMM). The members of the National Assembly of Turkey are elected for a five year term, and legislative elections are held at least once every four years. The last legislative election was held on the 3 of November 2002 and the next is expected to be held in 2007.
The voting age in Turkey is 21 years. To avoid fragmentation of parliament, a party must win at least 10% of the national vote in a national parliamentary election to gain parliamentary representation. Independent candidates may also run, and be elected. In order to do so, they must only win 10% of the vote in the province from which they are running.
Furthermore, the Turkish government is also composed of a judiciary branch, which includes the constitutional court. The freedom and independence of the Judicial System is protected within the Turkish constitution. No organization, person, or institution can interfere in the running of the courts. Furthermore, the executive and legislative structures are forced to obey the courts' decisions.
In addition, the Turkish military plays a highly important, informal political role, seeing itself as the guardian of the secular, unitary nature of the republic. The army (officially referred to as the Turkish Land Force) is by far the most powerful of the three political branches of Turkey. It has traditionally been a politically influential institution, considering itself the guardian of Atatürk's legacy. It is so powerful that it itself had ordered Erdogan's arrest and it was only with its approval that he was given another chance to run for parliament. However, by no means does this make Turkey’s military a dictatorship. In fact, the army's takeovers have seldom involved firing a shot.
Moreover, the main goal of the Turkish military in Turkey is to make sure that the country is in a neutralized direction, which is between Islamic and non-Islamic. As for political parties deemed anti-secular or separatist by the judiciary, they can be banned since Turkey’s constitution makes it clear that "Turkey is a secular state…" Furthermore, the Turkish Land Force is widely respected and admired by the citizens of Turkey. When it intervenes in politics, everyone, including the military itself, considers that it does in the best interests of the nation.
Since 1945, the Republic of Turkey has functioned under a multi-party system generally allowing a wide array of political groups to represent the population. However, the Turkish democracy has experienced three military interventions, with the latest coup taking place in 1980. Today, Turkey has a rather robust democracy. The presence of a majority government, by the Justice and Development Party (AKP), has greatly improved stability, and has done much to erase the ill effects of the coalition governments that came before it. It is unlikely that another coup will take place in the near future, and the political violence of the 1970’s and 1980’s has very much become a thing of the past.
The drafting of Turkey’s new constitution took place in November 7, 1982 after a period of military rule, and enshrines the principle of secularism. Turkey's political system is based on a separation of powers. Its constitution is called Anayasa or Main Law.
The Turkish Republic is divided into 81 provinces called iller in Turkish. Each province is divided into sub provinces called ilçeler. The province usually bears the same name as the provincial capital, also called the central sub province and each province has a governor. The capital city of Turkey is Ankara, but the historic capital Istanbul remains the financial, economic and cultural center of the country. Currently, an estimated 68% of Turkey's population lives in urban centers. In all, 12 cities have populations exceeding 500,000 and 48 cities have more than 100,000 people.
Geographically, Turkey forms a natural bridge between the Old World continents of Asia and Europe. It is located in a strategic location which allows it to control the Turkish straights (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas. Turkey’s territory extends from 36° to 42° north and from 26° to 45° east in Eurasia. In shape, its land is roughly rectangular. The Republic of Turkey occupies a total area of 780,580 sq. km of which 770,760 sq. km is composed of land and 9,820 sq. km is composed of water. The vast area of Turkey makes it the world's 37th largest country in size (after Mozambique). It is somewhat larger than the US state of Texas and is quite comparable in size to Chile. The country is divided into seven main regions: the Marmara, the Aegean, the Mediterranean, Central Anatolia, East Anatolia, Southeast Anatolia and the Black Sea region. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. This region makes up around one-sixth of Turkey's total land area.
35% of Turkey’s land is composed of arable land and 3% of it is composed of permanent crops. The remaining 62% of its land is classified as "other". The countries that border Turkey include Armenia (268 km), Azerbaijan (9 km), Bulgaria (240 Km), Georgia (252 km), Greece (260 km), Iran (499 km), Iraq (352 km), and Syria (822 km).
Many geographers consider Turkey politically in Europe, although it is rather a transcontinental country between Asia and Europe. The land borders of Turkey total 2,573 kilometers and the coastlines (including islands) total another 8,333 kilometers. Not only is Turkey large is size, however it also has a large variety of landscapes that are the product of complex earth movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. The Bosporus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey, leading to the creation of the Black Sea. There is an earthquake fault line across the north of the country from west to east.
Turkey is a country that is rich with a wide variety of natural resources. One of its most important natural resources is agricultural. The diversity of climates in Turkey allows several different crops to be grown. The production of Turkey’s crops include 29.7 million metric tons of cereals such as wheat, barley, rice and maize, 20.8 million tons of vegetables and melons such as tomatoes, onions, eggplant, and cabbage, 5 millions tons of root crops such as sugar beets and potatoes, 9.5 million tons of fruits such as grapes, apples, olives, citrus, and nuts and 673,000 tons of oilseed. Agriculture is a very significant natural resource to Turkey and it is a soil resource too. Moreover, the Republic of Turkey also has a lot of water. In fact, it produces great amounts of the water that comes to the Middle East.
In addition, Turkey’s strategic location makes it a natural "energy bridge" between major oil producing areas in the Middle East and Caspian Sea regions on the one hand, and consumer markets in Europe on the other hand. Turkey's port of Ceyhan is an important outlet both for current Iraqi oil exports as well as for potential future Caspian oil exports.
Also, Turkey's Bosporus Straits is major shipping "choke point" between the Black and Mediterranean Seas. The Turkish Republic produces 50,000 barrels of oil per day. Three companies account for the majority of Turkey's oil production -- the Turkish State Petroleum Company (TPAO), foreign operators Royal Dutch/Shell (Shell), and ExxonMobil. Smaller companies that also account for Turkey’s oil reproduction include: Petrom of Romania, (which produces around 2,600 barrels of oil per day in the Selmo block), and Aladdin Middle East (which produces 480 barrels per day in Siirt and Gaziantep).
Turkish oil fields are generally small, and scattered around the country. Oil fields in the country's southeast (specifically the Hakkari Basin, Turkey's main oil producing area) are old and expensive to exploit. In addition to the Hakkari Basin, Turkey contains oil prospects in its European provinces, in the Black Sea shelf region, and in other oil basins in southern and southeastern Turkey. Potential oil reserves in the Aegean Sea have not been explored due to conflicting Greek claims over the area. In December 2003, TPAO stated that it was planning large-scale exploration for oil and gas in the Black Sea, Mediterranean, and Aegean Seas (plus southeastern Turkey). Since 1961, only 1,400 exploration and assessment wells have been drilled in Turkey. In July 2003, Australia's Amity Oil reported a commercial discovery at its Adatepe #1 well in the Thrace Basin.
Furthermore, Turkey has hard coal (anthracite and bituminous) reserves of around 1.1 billion short tons, plus lignite reserves of around 8 billion short tons. Around 40 percent of Turkey's lignite is located in the Afsin-Elbistan basin of southeastern Anatolia, while hard coal is mined only in one location - the Zonguldak basin of northwestern Turkey. Turkey's state-owned coal company, TTK, produces and distributes hard coal, while Turkish Coal Enterprises produces most of Turkey's lignite. In addition, Turkey's Electricity Generating Authority produces lignite for three power plants. Between 1990 and 2000, the number of workers in Turkey's coal sector fell from 63,993 to 35,665 as the world came to realize that Turkish coal, which is used mainly for power generation, is generally of poor quality and is highly polluting.
Natural gas is Turkey's preferred fuel for new power plant capacity for several reasons: environmental (gas is less polluting than coal or oil); geographic (Turkey is located next to huge amounts of gas in the Middle East and Central Asia); economic (Turkey could offset part of its energy import bill through transit fees it could charge for oil and gas shipments across its territory); and political (Turkey is seeking to strengthen relations with Caspian and Central Asian countries, several of which are potentially large gas exporters).
The United States, among others, has been encouraging Turkey to make use of its unique geographical position to become a major transit center for natural gas from the Caspian/Central Asia to Europe. At the same time, however, Turkey's dependence on Russia for gas imports could reach 70 percent or higher, seemingly undercutting Turkey's goal of expanding and diversifying its fuel suppliers. In April 2003, Turkish Energy Minister Hilmi Guler told Parliament that the government had a "strategic goal" of sharply reducing Turkey's reliance on Russian natural gas - from 70 percent now to 30 percent within five years. This goal appears to conflict, however, with the volume of Russian gas already contracted for via Bulgaria and "Blue Stream."
Turkish natural gas production in 2002, which was (13 billion cubic feet -- Bcf) met just 2 percent of domestic natural gas utilization requirements. Marmara Kuzey (North Marmara), which came on stream in May 1997, is the country's largest non-associated gas field. Marmara Kuzey is located offshore in the Thrace-Gallipoli Basin of the Sea of Marmara. In March of 2002, the Gocerler natural gas field was officially opened in Turkey, 16 months after its discovery in the Thrace basin. Production potential is estimated to be as high as 6.6 Bcf per year. Also, in July of 2001, TPAO announced that it had found gas in the Mersin and Iskenderun Bays in Turkish areas of the Mediterranean. Following this and in September 2004, TPAO said that it had found a viable gas deposit at the Ayazli-1 located well off the Turkish Black Sea coast. Currently, most Turkish associated gas is re-injected into oilfields as part of an Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) system.
Furthermore, and addition to all of the previously mentioned natural resources, Turkey's most important minerals include chromate, bauxite, and copper. The country also exploits deposits of other minerals such as, manganese, lead, zinc, antimony, asbestos, pyrites, sulfur, and mercury.
Turkey has the 17Th. largest population in the world. Precisely, it consists of 70,413,958 individuals. The country is composed of two main ethnic groups - Turks and Kurds. Turks make up 80% of the total population and Kurds make up 17% of it. The left over 3% is an assortment of smaller ethnic groups including Greeks, Armenians, and Jews. Turkish is the official language of the country. Of the 6,800 languages that are currently known and spoken throughout the world, Turkish ranks fifteenth in terms of numbers of speakers. Turkish is the mother tongue of 90% of Turkey’s inhabitants. The minority of the country’s citizens, however, speak Kurdish, which also has some common words with the Turkish language. Furthermore, around 70 other languages and dialects are also spoken in Turkey including various dialects of Caucasian as well as Arabic, English, Greek, Ladino, and Armenian.
When it comes to religion, 99.8% of Turkey’s population is Muslim. Two thirds of these Muslims belong to the Sunni branch of Islam, whilst the remaining one third is composed of Alevi Muslims. Turkey also has a small but substantial Twelver Shi'a minority, which makes it home to the fifth largest Shia population in the world. As for the remaining 0.2% of the Turkish population that is not Muslim, it is composed of mostly Christians and Jews. The Jewish population in Turkey is one of the largest and most prominent outside of Israel and at the start of the 20th century the number of Jews in Turkey had reached to approximately 500,000 individuals. Jews have lived in Turkey for over two-thousand years. Turkey granted protected minority status to the Jews in 1926. During World War 2, the country managed to maintain its neutrality. It served as a "safe haven" for the Jews who had fled from Nazi Germany in the fear of being prosecuted. While the Jewish communities of occupied Greece were wiped out almost completely by German and Bulgarian occupation forces, on the other hand, the Turkish Jews remained secure. The present size of the Jewish community in Turkey is 26,000 individuals according to the Jewish Virtual Library. The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2,500 in Izmir and other smaller groups located in Adana, Ankara, Bursa, Canakkale, Iskenderun and Kirklareli. Also located in Turkey is the Ecumenical Patriarch who is the leader of the Orthodox Christian community throughout the world.
Although Turkey is a Muslim-majority country, and was previously home to the "caliph" himself - who was once the leader of the world's Muslim community - it is quite different from other nations like itself. This is because in Turkey there is a strong tradition of separation between religion and state and this is also mentioned in the Turkish constitution. The Turkish government makes it very clear that Turkey is a secular state with complete freedom of religion. Its status as such was established in 1923 by the country’s national hero, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, "the Father of the Turks", who was successfully able to transform Turkey from a religion-driven Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state where state and religion are considered two separate things.
When it comes to education in Turkey, education is obligatory and free from ages 7 to 15. This free schooling includes primary and secondary education. Primary schooling lasts for five years and secondary education lasts for three. However schooling is available until the age of 17. Nearly all children in the country complete the primary level, and an estimated 54 percent, based on a survey taken in 1992, go on to the secondary level. Once secondary school has been completed children take an exam to determine entry to university. Turkey has around 820 higher education institutes, which include universities. More than 29 of these universities are government-funded universities, the oldest of which was founded in Istanbul in 1453. The country also has nearly 600 professional colleges and institutions offering vocational and further training. Because the government of Turkey places education above everything else Turkey has quite a high literacy rate. 86.5% of Turkey’s total population is literate - 94.3% of which are male citizens and 78.7% of which are female citizens.
The majority of the Turkish population is of Turkish ethnicity. Besides the minorities who have legal status as defined and internationally recognized by the Treaty of Lausanne such as Greeks, Armenians and Jews; ethnic groups include Abkhazians, Albanians, Arabs, Bosniaks, Chechens, Circassians, Georgians, Hamshenis, Kabardin, Kurds, Laz, Ossetians, Pomaks, Roma and Zazas, and the largest non-Turkic ethnicity being the Kurds, a distinct ethnic group concentrated in the southeast. Because the term "minority" remains a sensitive issue in Turkey, Turkey’s two main ethnic groups - the Turks and the Kurds undergo continuous clashes between one another. In fact these clashes pose as great danger towards Turkey’s peace that the government handed this issue to the USA and the European Union for help. The main reason of these clashes is that Kurds are in close relation to the Iranians (the majority of Iranians are Shia Muslims), and the Turks are in fear that if the Kurds take over Turkey then it will no longer be a secular state but rather an Islamic one just like Iran. Furthermore the Turks fear that Iran may also be supplying weaponry to the Kurds.
Not only are Turkey suffering from clashes between its very own citizen, however, terrorism also seems to be penetrating the country’s grounds. Terrorism in Turkey originates from local separatist groups, local left and right wing groups, and domestic and transnational fundamental Islamic groups. Information gathered in the aftermath of the 2003 Istanbul bombings indicate that al Qa'ida and other international terrorist groups recruit from various segments of Turkish society. However, Turkey's capital and second largest city, Ankara enjoys a relatively low crime rate. The population of Ankara includes military and civilian government employees, diplomats, business people, and migrants from rural Turkey, education professionals, and industrial workers. Most of the crime in Ankara is perpetrated against Turkish citizens, and burglary and assault are the most common crimes. Today, an estimated 65% of the Turkey’s total population is now categorized as urban people.
Traditional Turkish cuisine includes meze, a tray or table of small dishes, including stuffed vine leaves, salads, and a variety of other items, as well as shish kebab - a Turkish invention which is grilled on a skewer. However, white beans are also considered as a national food as almost every Turk eats them. An essential part of Turkish culture is hospitality. It is very often for friends, relatives, and neighbors to visit each other. This tradition of hospitality dictates that visitors are always to be invited in and offered something to drink or eat. Turks believe that it is impolite to decline the offer. They go to great lengths to make their guests feel comfortable.
When it comes to recreation and sports, soccer is Turkey’s most popular sport for both spectators and participants. However, Turks also enjoy several other sports, including volleyball, basketball, wrestling, and swimming. Wrestling has been the national sport of the nation for many centuries since the Ottoman times, and for over 600 years a traditional wrestling competition has been held in the town Edirne.
Turkey celebrates many festivals. A major festival in Turkey is the Islamic festival which is followed by a three-day holiday called "Seker Bayrami" (Sugar Holiday), which comes at the end of the month-long fast of Ramadan. A four-day Islamic holiday called "Kurban Bayrami" (Sacrifice Holiday) is also celebrated in Turkey. This holiday honors Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his only son, Isaac, at Allah's command. It also marks the season of pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca). While Turkey’s Islamic holidays are calculated according to the lunar calendar, secular holidays in the republic are calculated according to the Western calendar. Official holidays include "New Year's Day" (1 January), "National Sovereignty Day" (23 April, coinciding with Children's Day), "Ataturk's Memorial Day", "Youth Day" (19 May), "Victory Day" (30 August), and "Republic Day" (29 October).
The Turkish Empire is also greatly influenced by artistic expression. Throughout the first years of the republic a large quantity of resources were invested by the government into fine arts such as paintings, sculptures and architecture which would modernize the country and help create its very own cultural identity. A transition from Islamic artistic traditions under the Ottoman Empire to a more secular, Western orientation has taken place in Turkey. Literature is also considered the most advanced of contemporary Turkish arts. Music has also played a very important role in Turkish culture. A long history of influences from both Europe and Asia is reflected in the complexity and diversity of Turkish music.
Turks are proud of their centuries-old musical tradition, which is similar to the music of nearby Islamic regions such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, and northern India. There is also a lively tradition of folk music, with many regional styles and contributions from ethnic minorities, including the Roma (Gypsies). A cosmopolitan nation, Turkey has also adopted classical and popular music from the West, and developed genres that combine Western, Asian, and Arabic elements. Centuries ago the music of the Ottoman Janissary bands, which is no longer played, greatly impressed Europeans, who incorporated several Turkish instruments, such as the cymbal and kettle drum, into European music. Composers such as Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven also imitated the music in a style called alla Turca. The most important factor, however, which makes Turkey’s culture completely fascinating, is that part of it is in Europe and another part of it is in Asia. Similarly the Gaza strip is different from the West Bank.
The Republic of Turkey is composed of several different military branches that work under the guidance and control of the Turkish Armed Forces. First, there is the Turkish army, which is officially referred to as the Turkish Land Force. Second, there is the Turkish Navy (which includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry). Third, there is the Turkish Air Force.w categorized as urban people. clashes between its very own citizen, however, i of Lausanne such as Greeks, Armenians and Jewa The Turkish Gendarmerie and Coast Guard are also other military branches that operate as part of the Department of Internal Affairs in peacetime and are subordinate to the Army and Navy Commands respectively. In wartime, both have law enforcement and military functions. The Turkish Armed forces, with a combined troop strength of 1,043,550 people, is one of the largest standing forces in NATO. The Turkish Armed Forces became a member of the NATO Alliance on February 18, 1952. Currently, 36,000 troops are stationed in Turkish-recognized Northern Cyprus. Every fit male Turkish citizen has to serve military service for varying time periods ranging between 1 month to 15 months depending on his education, job location, and occasional paid options.
In 1998, Turkey announced a modernization program for its military worth some $31 billion over a period of ten years including tanks, helicopters, and assault rifles. Turkey is also a level three contributor to the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, gaining an opportunity to develop and influence the creation of the next generation fighter spearheaded by the United States.
Though Turkey’s allies include Israel and USA, solely Turkey without the aid and assistance of any other nations powers all of Turkey’s military branches. This makes Turkey’s military a very strong and self-powered one. However, Turkey does receive aid from the UN in case of emergencies or famine. It is obligatory for males who are of 20 years of age to offer service in the Turkish military and defend their country.
As expressed in Article 72 of Turkey’s constitution, "National service is the right and duty of every Turk. The manner in which this service shall be performed, or considered as performed, either in the armed forces or in the public service, shall be regulated by law." The required period of active-duty service in Turkey’s military has been decreased throughout time, from two years to eighteen months and, in 1992, to fifteen months. Male citizens who pass a physical examination are called up during their twentieth year, but introduction can be postponed until the completion of an educational program. Graduates of universities and colleges have the opportunity to fulfill their military obligation as reserve officers with an eighteen-month period of active service following some former preparation at their educational institution. The first four months of the service period consist of cadet training. This is followed by fourteen months of service in a specific branch to which the individual is appointed. This period of active service plays an important role in the lives of many young men and women because it is considered an educational experience for them too. Not only do these individuals master weapons, however they learn personal hygiene, table manners, and the basics of social conduct. Moreover, they also receive a wholesome diet and, in most cases, better medical and dental care than they will have during any other time in their lives.
Based on a survey taken in 2005, the number of men that are fit for military service in Turkey between the ages of 20-49 are an estimated 13,905,901, whilst the number of women that fall within this age group and are fit for military service are an estimated 13,335,812. However, the amount of men that are available to serve in the military between the ages of 20-49 are approximately 16,756,323, and the number of woman that are available to do so between the ages of 20-49 are an estimated 16,051,706.
In order to maintain a credible military establishment in an age of rapidly changing technology, Turkey’s Ministry of National Defense has required heavy expenditures relative to other demands on the government’s revenue. As a result, the Turkish government has allocated tremendous funds to defense in discrepancy to greatly acknowledged needs and necessities for social and economic growth. Between the years of 1981 and 1991, defense was considered the largest category in Turkey’s national budget, averaging in most years close to 20 percent of total government expenditures and 4 to 5 percent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). The following largest budget category - education, commanded a little more than half of the resources assigned for defense. Today however, an estimated $12.115 billion has been spent for military expenditures in Turkey, which include weaponry and other fighting equipment. This money accounts for 5.3% of the country’s GDP.
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, when the Cold War had finally come to an end many dangers and threats emerged in Turkey and were directed specifically at the country’s security. These threats were multi-directional and multi-dimensional. They included regional and ethnic conflicts, political and economic instabilities and uncertainties in the countries, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and long-range missiles, religious fundamentalism, smuggling of drugs, and all kinds of weapons and terrorism.
Turkey is located in a very strategic location. It is at the center of the triangle formed by the Balkans, Caucasus, and the Middle East. This triangle is an area where threats and risks are concentrated. Moreover, Turkey is in a region where the interests of the global powers and formations intersect. It is evaluated that the importance and place of Turkey in the New World order will become even more strengthened in the future. Therefore the Turkish government came up with Turkey's Defense Policy, which is directed at defending Turkey from other neighboring countries who might want to take control over her due to her natural characteristics. This policy is also prepared to protect and preserve national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, and vital interests of the country.
Today, Turkey has a very high technologically advanced military machine in existence. The Turkish armed forces aim to modernize and upgrade their weapon systems even more to bring them into line with NATO standards, the better to defend the national independence since the 29th October. The section of the Turkish constitution on national defense has various provisions pertaining to the office of the Commander in Chief, the General Staff, and the National Security office. The Chief of the General Staff is the commander of the armed forces, and, in the time of war, exercises the duties of the Commander in Chief on behalf of the President of the Republic.
With the purpose of maintaining her national survival, of strengthening her defense and keeping pace with technological progress, Turkey assigns adequate funds to the budget of the Ministry of National Defense within existing possibilities. For the year 1995 the budget of the Defense Ministry was fixed by parliament at TL 152,847,000,000,000 (8.1 billion Dollars), which qualified to 11.4% of the national budget and 4.5% of the GDP.
The mission of the Turkish armed forces is to defend and protect the Turkish land and the Turkish republic.
With its current military Turkey can attack Iraq, defeat the Kurds, and defeat the Greeks. The army is important to insure that the country is stable and secular as well as making sure that Kurdish stay within the territory of Turkey since they are in close relationship with Iranians and might be receiving weapons from the Iranians. The Turkish government spends lots of money to make sure that they stay stable and strong and protect their sovereignty. Yes, they can defeat a Greek invasion on Cyprus.
There is a problem between Turkey and Greece because each of the two sides proclaims that Cyprus is theirs and now Cyprus is divided into two communities.
The Turkish armed forces have staged three coups between 1960 and 1980, whilst also influencing the removal of the Islam-oriented government of Necmettin Erbakan in 1997. Through the National Security Council, the army has influenced policy on issues it deems a threat to the country, including those relating to Kurdish insurgency and Islamism. In recent years, reforms have seen an increased civilian presence on the NSC and a decline in the military's influence as it attempts to comply with the EU's Copenhagen criteria. Despite its influence in civilian affairs, the military continues to enjoy strong support from the nation, frequently seen as Turkey's most trusted institution.
Turkey’s active economy is a complex combination of modern trade and commerce along with a regular agricultural division that until today accounts for more than 35% of employment in Turkey. The country has a strong and rapidly increasing private sector, yet at the same time Turkey plays an important and vital role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The industrial sector that is the largest and most prominent in Turkey is composed of textiles and clothing, which makes up one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other industrial sectors, especially automotive and electronic industries, are inclining in significance and importance within Turkey’s export mix. In Turkey, GNP growth has exceeded 6% throughout several years. Unfortunately however, this strong expansion has been intermitted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001.
In the 1980’s, Turkey began a series of reforms designed to shift the economy from a socialist one (which is what Mustafa Kemal had desired) to a more private-sector, market-based model. The reforms spurred rapid growth, but this growth was punctuated and hampered by sharp recessions and financial crises in 1994, 1995, and 2001. Turkey’s failure to pursue additional reforms combined with large and growing public sector deficits. Widespread corruption resulted in high inflation, increasing macroeconomic volatility, and a weak banking sector. GPD per capita increased by 210% in the seventies. But this proved unsustainable, and growth scaled back sharply to 70% in the eighties and a disappointing 11% in the nineties.
The Ecevit government, which was in power from 1999 until 2002, restarted structural reforms in line with ongoing economic programs under the standby agreements signed with the International Monetary Fund (IMF). These reforms included the passage of social security reform, public finance reform, state banks reform, banking sector reform, increasing transparency in public sector, and also introduction of related legislation to liberalize telecom, and energy markets. Under the IMF program, the government also sought to use exchange rate policies to curb inflation.
Today, with the implementation several of economic reforms, Turkey’s economy seems to be turning around and 2004 GDP growth reached 9%. However, the inflation then fell to 7.7% in 2005 - a 30 year low. Regardless of the strong economic gains in 2002-05, which were largely caused by the renewed investor interest in emerging markets, IMF banking, and tighter monetary policy, the economy of Turkey remains hampered by a high current account insufficiency and high debt. The public sector economic shortage goes over 6% of GDP. This is caused by high interest payments, which accounted for about 37% of central government spending in 2004. After 2005, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Turkey averaged less than $1 billion yearly. However more economic and judicial reforms and forthcoming EU membership are anticipated to boost FDI. Privatization sales are at this present time approaching $21 billion.
The majority of Turkey’s labor force - 41.2% - is concentrated in the service category. Another 35.9% is concentrated in the agricultural category and the remaining 22.8% is concentrated in the industrial category. On January 1, 2005, the old Turkish Lira (TRL) was converted to the new Turkish Lira (YTL) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish Lira. Thus, in 2005 one Turkish lira was equivalent to US dollars 1.3436.
Turkey’s current external debts have reached approximately $170.1 billion. Turkey has many good economical partners. According to a study made in 2005, Turkey’s import partners include Germany 13.9%, Russia 10.5%, Italy 7%, France 5.6%, China 4.4%, US 4.1% and its export partners include Germany 13%, UK 8.2%, Italy 7%, US 6.9%, France 5.1%, Spain 4.2%. Some of Turkey’s export commodities are apparel. Foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, and transport equipment. On the other hand, some of its import commodities include machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, and fuels and transport equipment. They have privatized to a very high extent and that’s why they have a high public debt because private businesses have lost all money.
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Aside from being a member of the United Nations, Turkey is proudly a member of an infinite number of worldwide organizations including ADB; Asian Development Bank, BIS; Bank for International Settlements, BSEC; Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone, CE; Council of Europe, CERN: European Organization for Nuclear Research, EAPC Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, EBRD; European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, ECE; Economic Commission for Europe, ECO; Economic Co-operation Organization, EU; European Union, FAO Food and Agriculture Organization, IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency, ICAO; International Civil Aviation Organization, ICRM International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, IDB Islamic Development Bank, IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development, IHO; International Hydrographic Organization, IOM; International Maritime Organization, OAS; Organization of American states, OIC; Organization of the Islamic Conference, OPCW; Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, UNIKOM; United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission and WTO; World Tourism Organization. In addition, Turkey is also trying to gain membership in the EU and has been a member of NATO for more that 58 years.
Turkey's main political relations remain rooted within Western Europe and the United States. An associate member of the European Union since 1964, on December 10, 1999, Turkey was officially made a candidate country for membership of the EU. Then, on October 3, 2005, accession talks formally began. While the path to membership is expected to be long and bumpy the opening of accession talks was undoubtedly a historical moment for both Turkey and the EU. A major source of tension in its EU aspirations is the issue of Cyprus, a member of the EU, which Turkey does not recognize, but instead supports the de facto independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Turkish Cypriot north. Moreover, other factors include Turkey's human rights record, its relatively large population, its relatively poor (although fast growing) economy, and proximity to the volatile Middle East. Based on what it views as lukewarm support for its accession to the EU and alleged double standards in its negotiations (France and Austria have indicated that they will hold referendums on Turkey's membership).
The Turkish public has become increasingly "euroskeptic" in recent times. A mid-2006 Eurobarometer survey revealed that 43% of Turkish citizens view the EU positively; just 35% trust the EU, 45% support enlargement and just 29% support the EU constitution. It is believed that the accession process will take at least 10 years which would mean that Turkey would enter the EU in 2015 at the earliest. As Turkey continuously does its best to meet the requirements for membership in the EU, it seems as though Europe doesn’t want Turkey to rise as a European nation since it is a Muslim majority country and Turkey feels hurt by this.
The Republic of Turkey suffers from numerous problems. One of these conflicts is with Cyprus since each side claims that majority of Cyprus belongs to them. There are two peoples of Cyprus - the Turkish Cypriots numbering about 200,000 and the Greek Cypriots numbering and 500,000. The Turkish Cypriots are mainly Muslims and the Greek Cypriots are mainly adherents of the Greek Orthodox Church. Cyprus has never been part of the Greek State. It lies 40 miles from the coast of Turkey, and Turkish people have inhabited the island since the 12th century. Cyprus is 250 miles from the nearest Greek Island (Rhodes), and Athens is 460 miles away.
No solution to the Cyprus problem will work unless the inhabitants of the island who will have to live with it freely accept it. Otherwise, there will be bloodshed again and there could be war between Turkey and Greece. There is therefore no point in trying to put pressure on Greece or Turkey to force either or both of the parties in Cyprus to accept the unacceptable. The most important of these issues is international acceptance of the Greek Cypriot regime as the government of all Cyprus and refusal to recognize the right of the Turkish Cypriots to establish their own state. It is therefore necessary to look in some detail at the reasons why the present situation has arisen and why, in consequence, both sides and particularly the less numerous Turkish Cypriots need reliable safeguards for their future.
Greek Cypriots often claim that the Turkish Cypriots withdrew voluntarily from their positions in the state, but this is not correct. They were excluded by threats to their personal safely. Turkish-Cypriots had become refugees in their own land. "Turkey intervened to protect the lives and property of the Turkish-Cypriots, and to its credit it had done just that. In the 12 years since, there have been no killings and no massacres" Lord Willis (Lab.) House of Lords 17th December 1986 (Hansard, col.223)
By resolution 889 (1993) the Security Council "welcomes the declare support of the Government of Turkey for the package of confidence-building measures." Greek Cypriots claim that today dreams of ENOSIS are dead. This is improbable so long as the Greek Orthodox Church has power and influence, but even if it were true the Turkish Cypriots have as much reasons to fear Greek Cypriots as Greek domination.
Also another problem for Turkey is that Turkish workers in Germany are not being given their full rights. Moreover, the Kurdish issue is of deep concern to Turkey since the Kurdish population within turkey form almost 1/3 of turkey. This also concerns Iran, Syria, and Iraq. If the Kurds, who are being backed up by the Shia Iranians gain governance of Turkey than Turkey will no longer be a nation dominated by secularism but will rather be a Muslim one. Furthermore, Turkey and Kurdistan are having conflicts between each other for a couple of reasons for example; the Kurds and Iran are having good relations between each other. Turkey does not want that to happen because if the Kurds get the militants and weapons from Iran, and use them as self defence against Turkey, disasters will happen. Another thing is that many Kurds are going to Turkey in illegal ways; some are by ships, others by transportation sent to Turkey by Iraqis and Iraqi militants.
Turkey and Armenia are also not in good terms with one another at this point in time due to the historical wars, massacres, and conflicts between the two countries. It is proclaimed that Turkey’s Muslim leader killed over 1 million Armenians, and this event was called The Armenian Holocaust, between 1915-1917. Turkey claims that the death of the Armenians was not a state-planned event taken by Turkey for extermination, but was a result of the Chaos of World War I. Turkey invaded Armenia in the past and Turkey killed a great number of Armenians. Armenia was part of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans claims that the Armenians tried to help Russia (fellow Christians). That makes the Armenians TRAITORS to their nation of the time.
Historically, relations with neighbor Greece have been strained and occasionally close to war. The antagonism can be traced all the way back to centuries of Ottoman Turkish rule over the Greek people and consequent struggle by the latter for the creation of a Greek nation state. The last one emerged over the Cyprus dispute and conflicts on the status of the Aegean Sea are the current main points of contention. Cyprus remains divided between a Greek Cypriot south, and a Turkish Cypriot north recognized only by Turkey. Efforts to reunite the island under the auspices of the United Nations have failed thus far. As far as the Aegean Sea is concerned, Ankara considers it strategically important for easy passage of Turkish vessels. Turkey does not recognize the extension of Greek territorial waters to 12-mile around the islands of the Aegean. Ankara argues that the Turkish Aegean coasts would then be blocked by Greek territorial waters, despite the innocent passage of vessels that is universally recognized within the territorial waters of any state according to the Law of the Sea. Turkey has warned that such an act would be considered a casus belli or an act of war on Turkey.
Nonetheless, following consecutive earthquakes in both Turkey and Greece and the prompt response of aid and rescue teams from both sides, the two nations have entered a much more positive period of relations, with Greece actively supporting Turkey's struggle to enter the European Union. A clear sign of improved relations was visible in the response to a mid air collision by Greek and Turkish fighter jets in the southern Aegean. While the Turkish pilot ejected safely, the Greek pilot lost his life. However, both countries agreed that the event should not affect their bilateral relations.
Another problem that Turkey is also facing is the problem of illicit drugs. Due to its strategic location, Turkey is considered a key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and - to a far lesser extent the US - via air, land, and sea routes. Major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul. There are several laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin in the remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul. The government, however, maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate.
Today, two of Turkey’s strongest allies include Israel and the USA.
The history of The Republic of Turkey is filled with numerous significant events that have shaped the nation into what it is today. However, Turkey primarily owes its existence to one man. Mustafa Kemal… He was a Turkish hero. He was known as ''Ataturk'' which meant "The father of Turks". It was he who led the three-year war of independence from the 600-year-old Ottoman Empire that was once, long ago, centered in Turkey. The Republic of Turkey is thankful to Mustafa Kamal. Because of this great man, Turkey turned into a Republic in the year of 1923 and the Ottoman Empire, which had been situated in Turkey for so long, had collapsed. Mustafa and his army held the Turkish people together and defeated the Greeks and their allies’ attempts to dismember Turkey.
In 1923, Turkey was declared a republic and Mustafa Kemal Ataturk had become the country’s first president. Five years after this, and in 1928, Turkey was dubbed a secular state and the clause retaining Islam as the religion of the state had been removed from the Turkish constitution. After the death of President Ataturk in 1938, Ismet Inonu succeeded him and became the new president of The Republic. For the majority of World War 2, which began in 1945, Turkey maintained a neutral state. Then in that very same year, it declared war on Germany and Japan, but did not take part in combat.
Also in 1945, Turkey joined the United Nations. The Republic’s first open elections took place in 1950, and the opposition Democratic Party had won. Two years after this, Turkey abandoned Ataturk’s neutralist policy and joined NATO in 1952.
In 1960, an army coup against the ruling Democratic Party took place. Following this, a new constitution established a two-chamber parliament in the country. Then in 1963, Turkey signed an association agreement with the European Economic Community (EEC). After the signing of this agreement in two years, Suleyman Demirel became Prime Minister of the Turkish Republic - a position he was to hold seven times. Then in 1971, the army forced Demirel’s resignation after the spiral of political violence.
The Turkish troops then invaded northern Cyprus in 1974. In 1976, an earthquake occurred in Turkey and killed more that 5,000 people in the western Van province. Four years later the US, trade embargo was lifted off of Turkey due to the invasion. A few years afterward, military coup followed the political deadlock and there was civil unrest in the region. Furthermore, during this time, the imposition of martial law took place. In 1982, the establishment of a new constitution created seven-year presidency, and reduced the parliament to a single house.
Then in 1983, general elections took place and were won by Turgut Ozal's Motherland Party (ANAP). The following year, Turkey recognized the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," and at the same time the Kurdistan Workers' Party launched a separatist revolutionary war in southeast. Turkey then applied for full EEC membership in 1987.
In 1990, Turkey allowed the US-led coalition against Iraq to launch air strikes from Turkish bases. Two years afterward, 20,000 Turkish troops entered Kurdish "safe havens" in Iraq in an anti-PKK operation and, consequently, Turkey joined the Black Sea alliance. Then in 1993, Demirel was elected as president, and Tansu Ciller became Turkey’s first woman prime minister. In this same year, the cease-fire with PKK broke down.
In 1995, the majority of Turkey’s military offensive launched against the Kurds in northern Iraq - this involved around 35,000 Turkish troops. Also in 1995, Ciller’s coalition collapsed and the pro-Islamist Welfare Party won the elections but lacked support to form the government. Hence, two major center-right parties formed an anti-Islamist coalition.
In addition, Turkey entered the EU customs union in 1995. After one year, the center-right coalition fell and the Welfare Party leader Necmettin Erbakan became in charge of the first pro-Islamic government. The coalition then resigned in 1997 after a campaign led by the military and was replaced by a new coalition led by the center-right Motherland Party of Prime Minister Mesut Yilmaz. One year after this, the Welfare Part, which was the largest, is the parliament was banned. Yilmaz resigned in the midst of corruption allegations and was replaced by Bulent Ecevit.
In February of 1999, the PKK leader, Abdullah Ocalan, was captured in Kenya. Ocalan then received a death sentence in July of 1999. However, this sentence was later converted to life imprisonment instead.
Once again, a devastating earthquake hit Turkey in August of 1999 - this time, killing 17,000 people. Also in 1999, a second earthquake tore the grounds of Turkey and killed hundreds of more individuals.
Entering into the new millennium, Ahmet Necdet Sezer took over from Suleyman Demirel as president at the beginning of year 2000. Then in January of 2001, Turkey had a diplomatic row with France after the French National Assembly recognized the killings of Armenians under the Ottoman Empire as genocide. In May of that same year, the European Court of Human Rights found Turkey guilty of violating the rights of Greek Cypriots during The Republic’s occupation of northern Cyprus.
In June, the Turkish Constitutional Court banned the opposition pro-Islamic Virtue Party from running for parliament, claiming that it had become the focus of anti-secular activities. Hence, a new pro-Islamist party, Saadet, was set up by the former Virtue Party members in July. Then in November, the British construction firm Balfour Beatty and Impregilo of Italy pulled out of the controversial Ilisu dam project and the Swiss bank UBS followed suit in February 2002.
In January of 2002, Turkish men were no longer regarded in law as head of the family. The move gave women full legal equality with men - 66 years after women's rights were put on the statute books. In March of that same year, Turkish and Greek governments agreed to build a gas pipeline along which Turkey would supply Greece with gas. Then in July, pressure for early elections began as eight ministers including Foreign Minister Cem resigned over ailing PM Ecevit's refusal to step down amid growing economic and political turmoil. So, Cem launched a new party committed to social democracy and EU membership. In August, the parliament approved reforms aimed at securing EU membership and the death sentence was abolished (except in times of war). In addition, bans on Kurdish education, broadcasting was lifted.
In November of 2002, the Islamist-based Justice and Development Party (AKP) won a landslide election victory. The party promised to stick to secular principles of the constitution and the deputy leader of the party, Abdullah Gul, was appointed as Prime Minister of the Turkish Republic. Then in December, constitutional changes allowed the head of ruling AKP, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, to run for parliament, and so to become Prime Minister. He had formerly been barred from public office because of a previous criminal conviction.
In March of 2003, AKP leader Recep Tayyip Erdogan won a seat in the parliament. Within days of this, Abdullah Gul resigned as Prime Minister and Erdogan took over. The parliament decided not to allow the deployment of US forces ahead of war in Iraq but allowed the US use of Turkish air space. It authorized dispatch of Turkish forces into Kurdish areas of northern Iraq.
Turkey continued to eye the future EU membership, and in May of 2003, the parliament passed laws easing restrictions on freedom of speech, Kurdish language rights, and on reducing the political role of the military.
Terrorism began to appear in Turkey in 2004. 25 people were killed and more than 200 injured when two car bombs exploded near Istanbul's main synagogue (also in 2003). A few days later, two coordinated suicide bombings took place at the British consulate and a British bank in the city. This killed 28 people. Then in 2004, Turkey signed a protocol, which banned death penalty in all circumstances. This was a move that was welcomed in EU circles. Following this, the EU leaders agreed to open talks in 2005 on Turkey’s EU accession. The decision, made at a summit in Brussels, followed a deal over an EU demand that Turkey recognizes Cyprus as an EU member.
In January of 2005, the new Turkish Lira was introduced as six zeroes were stripped from the old lira. This ended an era in which banknotes were dominated in millions. In that same year, the parliament approved amendments to its new penal code after complaints that the previous version restricted media freedom. The EU once again welcomed this move. However it also said that the penal code still fails to meet all its concerns on human rights.
Then in June of 2005, the parliament overturned veto by secularist President Sezer on government-backed amendment easing restrictions on the teaching of Koran. In October of that very same year, the EU membership negotiations officially launched after intense bargaining. Then in November, the multi-billion-dollar Blue Stream pipeline carrying Russian gas under the Black Sea to Turkey opened in the port of Samsun.
From August to September in the year 2006, bombers target resorts in Istanbul. Shadowy separatist groups warned that they will turn "Turkey into hell". On the 30Th. of September, the Kurdish separatist group, the PKK, declared a unilateral cease-fire in operations against the military.
GA A: Dana’s Policy Statements:
1. The use of security and defense as a means of justifying racial discrimination and intolerance.
Turkey actually does have racial discrimination when it comes to Turks and Kurds because Kurds are trying to separate themselves from the Turkish which is going to be a very big problem and Turkey uses defense as a mean of justifying intolerance. (Not read in front of people).
In the past years, there have been many accusations made towards people because of their race, ethnicity, or religion, that they are terrorists. In conclusion they are suspected criminals, in some countries and they are tortured without a trial, and those countries are breaking the international humanitarian law adopted by the UN. Some of these people are guilty, some are innocent, and people should be innocent until proven guilty. This is racial discrimination, and the state of Turkey does not stand by it. Although Turkey and Israel have very good trade relations, however, Turkey has condemned the act of Israel against Lebanese civilians because it is against international laws.
There is a war between Kurdish and Turkish people because Kurdish are trying to separate themselves from Turkey and a quarter of Iraq are Kurdish and one fifth of the Syrian population are Kurdish and as well and so is 10% of Iran’s population. All these Kurdish communities are trying to have a separate state and that means Turkey will be divided as well as several other countries that have Kurds. Turkey is trying to protect its sovereignty when it is hampering the efforts of the Kurdish when trying to become separating from the Turkish. The name of the Kurdish leader that was jailed was called Abdullah Ocalan and he is in Turkish prison. He fled to Greece, expecting that they’d take him in and let him operate from Greece, but Greece turned him over to the Turks. Turkey’s position is that it wants to get rid of racial discrimination because Turkey is a victim of discrimination and it will not stand quiet.
Turkey wants people to have the ability to walk around in all corners of the world in peace, without fear, and without being discriminated, or having fingers pointed at them. Brazil believes the UN should have a policy stating that nations are not to make foreign people more liable to security checks or suspicion just because of their nationality or color!
Therefore, one of the most important international policies that Turkey believes the world should adopt is:
1) There should be a UN policy that states that foreign people must not be made more liable to security checks and suspicion just because they come from a certain ethnicity or just because of their skin color, or because they have a long beard. (For example: Arabs in America are being kept in immigration for hours and hours, because they are labeled TERRORISTS!)
2. Governmental measures to be taken on an international level to restrict the possible outbreak of a pandemic.
A pandemic is a particularly dangerous disease, like SARS or Bird Flu. This is INTERNATIONAL because it could relate to travel/medical cooperation.
A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges for which people have little or no immunity, and for which there is no vaccine. The disease spreads easily from person-to-person and causes serious illness. It can sweep across the country and around the world in very short time. It is difficult to predict when the next influenza pandemic will occur or how severe it will be.
Wherever and whenever a pandemic starts, everyone around the world is at risk. Countries might, through measures such as border closures and travel restrictions, delay arrival of the virus, but cannot stop it. Health professionals are concerned that the continued spread of a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus across eastern Asia and other countries represents a significant threat to human health. A worldwide influenza pandemic could have a major effect on the global economy, including travel, trade, tourism, food, consumption and eventually, investment and financial markets. The United States has been working closely with other countries, like Turkey, and the World Health Organization (WHO) to strengthen systems to detect outbreaks of influenza that might cause a pandemic. There are many organizations that are trying to stop this disease and Turkey is one of the countries in these organizations like the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization.
Turkey has been on high alert to detect pandemic flu as it lies on the Black Sea, and is bordered by three affected countries (Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia). Therefore, it is not surprising that the disease was confirmed among wild swans found dead in a village. The village is in the Black Sea coastal region of Adjara, near Turkey. The Agricultural Ministry established a protection zone around the affected area and is restricting access. The government has also banned live poultry trade.
In early January, two human cases of H5N1 infection, both fatal, were reported in rural areas of Eastern Turkey. Turkey wants to take all the precautions needed and all actions necessary and join all the organizations in order to protect itself from this deadly disease. Since it’s affecting the economy then Turkey definitely wants to help protect its country from this disease even though it is spreading in it and the countries surrounding it. Turkey doesn’t want to watch its people die so it will do anything inside its country or out to help its people. Turkey will also have tests taken for the people that are coming to make sure they are not carrying that disease and if they are they should be taken to a hospital or a special place in order to cure this disease immediately - before it penetrates and affects the health of several other people. Turkey is trying its best to be within the international regulations of fighting the pandemic disease. Furthermore, Turkey will acquire as many vaccinations as needed to protect its people will get such diseases. The Republic believes that there is a need to have cooperation in order to minimize or eliminate this disease by putting laws for transfer of people from country to country and have a pre-inspection before individuals leave the country.
One of the numerous international policies that Turkey believes countries should adopt in order to help stop this disease and not effect the economy and other elements of the country is to have UN mandates check each ship, truck, etc. importing food stuff into and out of the country yet at the same time not affect the running of these countries.
3. Adverse effects of illicit movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes on people’s rights to secure environment.
Seventeen Greenpeace activists were arrested this morning after unfolding a banner that said "Stop Toxic Ship breaking" on board of a Swiss ship, "Star of Venice", which they had occupied at a ship breaking yard in Aliaga, Turkey. They demanded an end to the poisonous practice of scrapping ships containing toxic materials, including asbestos, on Turkish beaches. Before the Turkish police made their arrest and confiscated one of the inflatable boats, the activists painted a text that said "No Toxic Ship Trade" on a side of another old ship, "Best", which originated from Greece.(1) Greenpeace investigation of the shipyards located close to Izmir confirms that ship breaking practice in Turkey is comparable to the ones in China, India and Bangladesh, resulting in serious toxic pollution, such as dioxin, endangering the workers and the environment.(2) At least 50 percent of the ships being scrapped in Turkey come from Western European operators. Greenpeace called for the European Union (EU) to clean-up its own act by demanding its ship industry remove hazardous substances from ships prior to their export at the same time when it enforces high environmental and health standards on the EU applicant countries, such as Turkey
Turkey is against dumping wastes in water for infinite reasons. First pf all, countries that are dumping the waste are getting affected themselves and second of all they’re not just affecting themselves. Rather, they are also affecting other countries. This issue is a worldwide issue because if a few countries do it, dump toxic wastes, then all the countries suffer. The worst thing is that some countries that are rich can clean up the waste but what about the poor countries, they can’t afford another problem. Turkey is with making all the countries that are dumping wastes clean the waste up and stop doing it or they will be punished. Turkey has control over most of the Middle East Ocean and waters so if there are toxic wastes dumped then the country will take action because it doesn’t want its waters to get affected. Turkey considers the ban of toxic dumping as one of its main priorities, because water is one of Turkey’s most important natural resources. Hence, if Turkey’s water is polluted, then it will no longer be sellable to countries that need it.
The UN and countries around the world should take bigger steps and find more solutions. Less toxic wastes save more lives. First, people should be more aware of how wastes are produced by education. This way, fewer wastes will be produced around the world. We have a very strong agriculture sector. Too much pollution will harm our agriculture. This is also why Turkey is willing to do as much as possible to decrease the amount of illicit movement and dumping. Pollution would really affect Turkey in a negative way because it is part of its development. The more pollution comes or gets to the country the more the industry and agriculture will be affected. A major source of such pollution is agricultural through the use of pesticides and industrial dumping. Rich countries can afford to use safer methods but at the cost of increasing the cost of their goods and decreasing their exports.
Turkey follows the policy which states that Turkish exporters respect any conditions imposed on the importation of chemicals and pesticides subject to the PIC procedure, paying particular attention to difficulties encountered by developing countries; prohibit the export of pesticides for sale or use within Turkey, and ensure that full consultations on all aspects of a project be conducted in an open and transparent manner. Turkey wants to stop the illicit dumping because it’s affecting the whole world so that policy turkey wants is to stop oil countries that are doing that which are the rich countries that’s why if a country does that then sanctions will be done or taken.
ECOSOC: Sarah’s Policy Statements:
1. Steps taken towards combating money- laundering while protecting people's rights.
The Republic of Turkey is growing greatly distressed and troubled at the huge sums of money there are being laundered worldwide. Turkey defines money laundering as, "the age-old process of disguising the illegal origin and criminal nature of funds that are obtained by drug trafficking, arms smuggling, organized crime, embezzlement and several other prohibited processes and by moving them untraceably then investing them in legitimate businesses, securities, or bank deposits all over the world." This illicit process poses as a great threat to peace because it serves as the "life blood" of international organized crime and terrorism. It also has an extremely corrosive effect on a country’s economy, government, and social well-being. Furthermore, money laundering allows different criminals to expand their operations and bring economic power from the market, government, and citizens to the criminal sector.
Money laundering has always been an important topic on Turkey’s political agenda. The Turkish Republic is continuously battling to eradicate money laundering because it believes that fighting money laundering helps fight crime since it deprives criminals of their "blood", due to the fact that they will not have a way to hide their illicit funds anymore.
However, while trying to stop money laundering, Turkey bears in mind a major rule of its constitution, which is "respecting and protecting human rights" because it trusts that abiding by this rule guarantees peace. In addition, the fundamental aims and duties of Turkey - which are also stated in its constitution - are; "to ensure the welfare, peace, and happiness of the individual and society and to strive for the removal of political, social and economic obstacles which restrict the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual in a manner incompatible with the principles of justice". Hence this proves that even in the process of combating money laundering Turkey makes sure to protect the rights of its citizens.
From Moscow to Buenos Aires, money-laundering scandals sap economies and destabilize governments. Policymakers blame crime cartels, tax havens, and new techniques like cyberlaundering. But dirty money long predates such influences. Without unified rules governing global finance, Turkey believes that outlaws will always exploit disparate legal systems to stash the proceeds of their crimes.
From Turkey’s perspective, in order to eradicate money laundering completely there are several important elements that must be adopted by the countries of our world and they are:
A-Good governance: Turkey believes that promoting good governance in all its aspects, including ensuring the rule of law, improving the efficiency and accountability of the public sector, and tackling corruption is an essential element of a framework within which economies can prosper. Particularly in countries where there is significant participation of government institutions or officials in illegal activities-which yields proceeds that must then be laundered-the adoption of anti-laundering policies can have far-reaching effects on governance. In such countries, the IMF is actively using its available leverage to persuade the authorities to take the necessary steps. An important step toward full international coverage of this system will be the creation of further regional FATFs-notably for the transitional economies of Europe, and in the African and Middle Eastern regions.
B-The role of banking supervision: The Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision, approved by the Basle Committee in September 1997, state that "Banking supervisors must determine that banks have adequate policies, practices and procedures in place, including strict ‘know-your-customer’ rules, that promote high ethical and professional standards in the financial sector and prevent the bank being used, intentionally or unintentionally, by criminal elements."
Other policies that Turkey believes can lessen money laundering include:
1-Drafting new central bank and commercial banking laws. This provides a good opportunity to remind countries of the need for anti-laundering provisions, such as the obligation to verify the identity of customers and to report suspicious transactions to the police or similar enforcement groups. Model laws, which draw together expertise of other countries, can provide a very useful start to this process.
2-Good analysis is necessary to determine the scope and form of the money laundering problem, and to help direct enforcement resources efficiently to the key aspects of the problem. Good data are also necessary-money laundering is by definition a hidden activity-and therefore indicators must be drawn from a wide range of economic and social data. Although not directly usable to identify money laundering, extensive international financial and cross-border data compiled by the IMF have been used in a number of economic studies of money laundering. In fact, money laundering is now an important consideration for compilers of international data because it creates global asymmetries in the data.
C-Finally, there is the IMF’s work on fiscal issues and on tax evasion in particular. Although some members’ anti-money laundering legislation does not apply to the proceeds of tax evasion, there are inevitably close linkages between the two. Money that has evaded taxes must be disguised, and laundered money must be kept hidden from the tax authorities. The IMF’s policy and technical work to help its members improve their tax collections therefore assists the fight against money laundering-directly or indirectly, depending on the relevant legislation in the individual country.
The Turkish State also greatly believes that education is the key to combating the crime of money laundering. Not only should this education be provided for grownups however it should also be fed to children because if our children are taught at home and at school the consequences of being involved in such a crime at young ages then they will realize that they should not be tangled with money launderers when they grow unless they are searching for trouble and severe punishment. As the saying goes, "it is much easier to straighten the trunk of a tree when it is still young then when it becomes old." Therefore, if our children are taught at young ages not to deal with money launderers in order to make quick income, then they will grow up with this mentality.
The nation also believes that the public should be made aware of the negative impacts that would result towards them if they got involved in such an act. This public awareness could further rise with the help of the media. Thus if men and women are educated enough from school, from home, or by the media then they will realize that there is no need to be entwined with money launderers in order to obtain income. In addition, by placing strict punishments upon the individuals that carry out such a crime and also punishing any other individuals that aided or assisted to carry out the crime or to keep it discreet, then other individuals who had previously been considering to get involved in money laundering in order to produce an income will become aware of the consequences that come with dealing with drug dealers, terrorists, and other people who are implicated in illegal activities.
One vital point remains. Turkey realizes that there is more to the battle of stopping money laundering than just depriving criminals of their ill-gotten profits and punishing them. Rather, the state believes that in order to fight money laundering - poverty should also be minimized. From experience, Turkey has learned that the people that are most likely to get involved in such a lawbreaking crime which produces great negative effects on a country’s economy, are people that are uneducated and poor, yet found an easy way to make a lot of money in a career with high penalties such as illegally selling drugs and weaponry. Therefore, in order to further combat money laundering, Turkey believes that a country must insure that its people are given a solid education and are given opportunities to work so that they are kept busy and involved in their society rather than being given the chance to think of fanatical ideas which could make them rich at a quick rate. Additionally, Turkey sees that people should be taught ways to work with the possessions and properties that they have so that they can make to make clean money. Hence, by combating money laundering, poverty and terrorism will also be reduced.
Finally, in order to make sure that no human rights are violated, Turkey feels that no individual is to be charged of carrying out the crime of money laundering until precise information is gathered to assure the involvement of this individual with money laundering. In order to obtain this information, a country could form a crimes investigation board, like that of Turkey, to perform studies for the prevention of money laundering, swap information with worldwide organizations, and investigate money laundering cases. Before any individual with this crime and sentenced to jail, he or she should be given the opportunity to have a fair trial.
2. Economic and social council event to consider the issue of transition from relief to development, while focusing on the role of empowerment and self sufficiency in guaranteeing sustainable development.
Turkey believes that the transition of a country from the relief to the development stage requires a continuum of activities. First of all, Turkey would like to define the concept of development using two simple terms: "building industry". Some of the important processes that Turkey believes should be done when a country is trying to transition from the relief to the development phase include:
1) Changing the economy from a socialist’s economy to one in which all citizens are entitled to open businesses - not only governmental bodies.
2) Attracting foreign investors by having cheap labor costs and cheap costs for lands.
3) Educating citizens about how to open businesses and import/export products.
Turkey is assured that if countries simply adopt these three policies, then they will be able to transition from the relief to the development phase.
3. Effects of economic reform policies and debt relief on the development of LDCs, with due consideration to the assistance of the poor segment of the society.
Turkey is strongly committed to the reduction of poverty and the achievement of sustainable development in least developed countries, which are countries that exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development. However, Turkey believes that in order for this development to take place, we cannot keep allowing these poor countries to be dependent upon other nations to relieve them from their depts. Turkey notices that there are several LDC’s that are trying to bloom but are facing difficulties in doing so due to the tremendous amounts of debt that they haven’t been paid yet. Though to many nations it may seem correct to take the debt off of these countries, Turkey is not one of the nations that supports this idea. Turkey believes that debts should not be taken off LDCs because they will always be interdependent upon other nations and will never really bloom in the correct manner.
Several LDCs have a vast potential because of their prosperous lands, but we still find them struggling for every dollar and every cent that they can get because their governments are not educated enough to know how to make use of their country’s natural resources. There are millions of families living on less than a dollar a day in these less fortunate countries. Therefore it is up to us, the developed nations, to provide a helping hand of aid and assistance to these countries and we should invest in them, however we should not just take off their depts. Rather than just completing their "math homework" for them (which will not teach them anything or do them any good), we can help them solve their problems.
From Turkey’s point of view, economic reform policies are vital to the development of LDCs, because this reform is very much like rebirth or a second chance for these countries to rise. Once economic reform takes place in an LDC, many aspects of the country’s government will change completely such as: how and where the country’s money will be spent, which will be recorded in the country’s books. Furthermore, accountants would check and make sure that no one is stealing from the money of the country. This would guarantee that the government is not stealing what is not rightfully theirs, but rather, they are using the aid provided to them by other countries for the very same reason that it has been donated for, which is to help the country grow and to provide its citizens with support. Moreover all the country's imports and exports would be recorded with precise and accurate numbers to insure that not a single penny is stolen.
We could all provide aid and transform these countries from sparse grounds into beautiful prosperous gardens. However, we must not pamper these counties too much and relief them of their debts or else we would only be effecting them negatively - for example when you give a little child everything it asks for, it becomes spoiled.
Fawaz: General Assembly A
Issue # 1: Rwanda
When Turkey helped the Genocide of Rwanda in 1994, it got criticized by many European countries, because those countries wanted the help of Europe to be spread from them only, and not have other countries do the same thing. What they are doing is taking advantage of Rwanda, but Turkey did not. After all the help, we did not get anything that helped us, but something that took us to lower standards of being a "European" country. But Turkey did not stop, until everything became better, for Turkey and for Rwanda. Turkey did not have anything against giving the money, but against whom stopped against Turkey in the name of "helping"Rwanda, which meant stealing and destroying Rwanda.
Issue # 2: Human Organ Trafficking
Turkey does not want to traffic organs. Because when it does, this would lead to a great catastrophe, which will also lead to a civil war in the country and into destruction of its land and its people. Turkey does not want to create that. Peace is a big standard that has to be formed between Turkey and all the countries in the world. But some countries have no intentions to do the same things with its bordering countries. Turkey has tried to get peace with the Kurds and with Armenia. But where are all our efforts going? We would like the UN to find a way for our countries to adopt together and can live and survive a living together with no walls between the countries.
Issue # 3: Helping the Elderly
Turkey is taking of all responsibilities towards the helping of elders and the people who are aging. Aging is a big problem in the world, which has to have no ending for it. Because when people age, they lose strength, by that, they won't be able to work as they did in the past. Those people may have worked in Turkey, or maybe not. But they did work and put much too effort, so why can't we congratulate them for that work? Turkey is taking as much care as it can to force its government to spend the money needed to help the people who sacrificed for the growth of Turkey's economy.
Defining A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges for which people have little or no immunity, and for which there is no vaccine,
Noting that The United States has been working closely with other countries and the World Health Organization (WHO) to strengthen systems to detect outbreaks of influenza that might cause a pandemic,
Pointing out The effects of a pandemic can be lessened if preparations are made ahead of time and pandemics killed over thousands of people which is mentioned in the world fact book,
Saddened that a worldwide influenza pandemic could have a major effect on the global economy, including travel, trade, tourism, food, consumption and eventually, investment and financial markets,
Further noting that Planning for pandemic influenza by business and industry is essential to minimize a pandemic's impact because planning is known to be the number one essential step for success which has been discovered by scientists,
Glad to hear that turkey had gave $251 million to detect and contain outbreaks before they spread around the world,
Further considering that Turkey and many other countries already have population problems and economic problems and would be very grateful if all countries joined together to find a way to solve this issue and stop it once and for all,
Congratulates the WHO for trying to stop the diseases occurring like SARS and bird flue and many countries especially USA has joined the WHO and other organisations to stop SARS,
Further more In 2003 Australia continued to play a strategically important and respected role in international organizations concerned with health, especially the World Health Organization, but still no country has succeeded to stop what’s going on,
Last :The treaty will relate to the white helmets is that it will be asking for any help from them if needed and it also will use the mistakes they did and fix them in this treaty.
1) Requests the formation of the United Nations pandemic protection agency (UNPPO) that will: A. Have a head quarter assigned once this resolution passes, (permanent headquarters) B. Have at least one branch in each continent C. Have enough employees and staff members to accomplish the organization's goals like: i. Searching for a vaccine for the pandemic ii. Finding a cure for the pandemic iii. Taking charge of checking the tests that are taken from people to know whether or not they have pandemic;
2) Resolves that the UNPPO will respond to any countries that ask for help by: A. Asking all people who want to travel to go and get an acceptance code from hospitals to assume that they don’t have any diseases B. Having representatives from the UN go to the borders of each country which will: I. Asking all airline agency give tickets to people who have acceptance code only, II. Check every passenger and weather or not they have an acceptance code, if not then wont be able to travel, III. Checking for any symptoms that might occur in any person, C. Sending lots of doctors from the UN that will be in charge of all the patients and medical care
3) Further resolves that the UNPPO will do the following in the countries that the pandemic is widespread: A. Research and update about all the new elements and earth products that might be helpful to creating a cure for the pandemic, B. Create a new device that can easily check whither or not the person has pandemic C. Check on the country and the level of a pandemic in it by sending a representative which will do that, D. Pursue education and information, which may include travel alerts, press releases, and interagency which will be passed around by all sorts of ways like TV, flyers, mobiles, etc., E. Make compulsory limitations of public interactions and curfews or cancellation of public events F. Enforce the rules of getting a visa which is by having a test for any pandemic before getting the visa to travel, G. Contribute towards global health security by fighting the international spread of outbreaks by ensuring that appropriate technical assistance reaches affected states rapidly, H. Provide information to returning air travellers arriving in turkey either directly or indirectly from areas with pandemic, I. Ask for reports to be sent to the organisation by each airport and the things that are occurring, J. Informs people about the outbreak and ways to stop it by asking airlines to distribute health alert notices to air travellers translated from English into seven other languages which includes, K. Report in case of a specific illness found in people those people will be: L. Isolate from healthy people and restricts their movement to stop the spread of that illness into specialised health care and will be in a special hospital which will have very well trained doctors and nurses;
4) Emphasises that the UNPPO will do its best to try to stop all the sickness in this world especially that some countries cant find money to eat or get cured so that UNPPO will make sure that the sickness wont get to them;
5) Affirms that in order the UNPPO to take action in a country it must first have the permission of the countries governments reminding all nations that this organisation is working on helping nations and decreasing sicknesses which also lead to starvation and death.
6) Resolves that there will be an annual meeting of the head of the each branch at the UNPPO headquarters to do the following: A. Discuss sanctions with the Security Council for specific countries that don’t want to follow the rules and have a check B. Discuss all the events occurring and how the organisation is going
7) Urges all countries that can help in any way to step forward to make our world a better place.
Student: Sarah Abu Sha'ar Commission: Economic and Social Council Issue: Steps taken towards combating money- laundering while protecting people's rights.
Defining money laundering, according to the United Nations, as the process of disguising the illegal origin and criminal nature of funds, that are obtained through drug trafficking, arms smuggling, organized crime, embezzlement and several other prohibited processes, by moving them untraceably then investing them in legitimate businesses, securities, or bank deposits all over the world,
Shows Admiration towards the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), which is an inter-governmental - "policy-making body", for its 40 + 9 Recommendations on combating and eradicating money laundering, that have successfully decreased the destructive effects of money laundering on several nations and their economies,
Congratulates all nations that have implemented the FATF’s Recommendations, which detect and punish money laundering, and specifically nations like Guatemala, Egypt, and the Ukraine, which were, in June of 2001, listed as non-cooperative in the fight against money laundering but have now sufficiently addressed the deficiencies identified by the FATF through enactment and the implementation of appropriate legal reforms - removing themselves from the Non-Cooperative Countries and Territories’ list,
Surprised that the Cook Islands, Grenada, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nauru, Nigeria, North Korea, the Philippines, St. Vincent, and several other nations and territories have not yet implemented the FATF’s 40 + 9 Recommendations and are, until today, considered as non-cooperative in the fight against the crime of money laundering - although the FATF’s recommendations, if implemented by these countries, can decrease terrorism, drug trafficking, and arms smuggling throughout the entire world,
Draws attention to "the huge sums of money that are being generated by organized crime groups from drug trafficking, arms smuggling, and financial crime in order to finance their illegal operations," and also to "the huge sums of money that are generated by criminal groups to finance terrorist operations in all corners of the world" - as stated by the UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime),
Noting with concern that, as declared by the International Monetary Fund, left unchecked, money laundering can erode a nation's economy by changing the demand for cash, making interest and exchange rates more volatile, causing high inflation in countries where criminal elements are doing business, and act as a breeding ground for terrorism,
Alarmed by the fact that, as mentioned in the United Nation’s website, $500 billion and $1 trillion are being laundered globally each year,
Distressed by the truth that money laundering inflicts corrosive effects on the development of a country because developing countries that attract "dirty money" as a short-term engine of growth can find it difficult, as stated by the World Bank, to attract the kind of solid long-term foreign direct investment that seeks stable conditions, good governance and which can help them sustain development and promote long-term growth,
Disturbed that, as confirmed by the president of the World Bank, money laundering empowers corruption and organized crime; corrupt public officials need to be able to launder bribes, kick-backs, public funds and, on occasion, even development loans from international financial institutions; also organized crime groups need to be able to launder the proceeds of drug trafficking and commodity smuggling; in addition, terrorist groups use money laundering channels to get cash to buy arms, and the social consequences of allowing these three groups access to the capacity to launder money can be disastrous,
Quotes the saying of Mr. Alberto Galan, brother of murdered Colombian presidential candidate Luis Carlos Galan, that "Washington avoids the core of the problem, the economic ties between the legal and illegal worlds, the large financial corporations; it would make a lot more sense to attack and prosecute the few at the top of the drug and arms selling business rather than fill prisons with thousands of small fish,"
Deeply saddened by the vast number of developing nations in Asia, several countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and even Europe in which money laundering is flourishing and destroying the development of these nations;
1. Urges all nations to implement fully the FATF’s 40 + 9 Recommendations, which advise nations to execute numerous tasks in order to combat money laundering and some of the basic obligations contained in the Recommendations are: A. The criminalization of the laundering of the proceeds of serious crimes and the enactment of laws to seize and confiscate the proceeds of crime, B. Obligations for financial institutions to identify all clients, including any beneficial owners of property, and to keep appropriate records, C. A requirement for financial institutions to report suspicious transactions to the competent national authorities and to implement a comprehensive range of internal control measures, D. A requirement for adequate systems for the control and supervision of financial institutions, E. The need to enter into international treaties or agreements and to pass national legislation which will allow countries to provide prompt and effective international co-operation at all levels;
2. Declares the formation of the United Nations Anti-Money Laundering Organization, (UNAMLO) that will: A. Work under the guidance and control of the World Bank and include the International Monetary Fund, B. Have the power of cutting loans extended by the World Bank to certain countries that are not implementing the FATF’s recommendations, C. Have its headquarters assigned in New York City, USA, D. Hire a sufficient number of employees and staff members, based on the recommendation of the Untitled Nations, in order to accomplish the organization’s goals, E. Have the goals of encouraging countries and territories that have not yet implemented the FATF’s 40 + 9 recommendations to do so as soon as possible, and help these countries to develop in ways that do not involve money laundering by providing them with: i) Loans in order to fund their development projects, ii) Economic experts in order to aid and assist these countries with their development projects;
3. Resolves that the UNAMLO will carry out the following procedures in order to encourage all countries and territories that have not yet implemented the FATF’s 40 + 9 recommendations to do so and hence lessen money laundering throughout the world: A. Research which countries and territories have not yet implemented the FATF’s recommendations and are, until today, on the NCCT’s list, B. Research which of these countries and territories and receiving loans and development funds from the World Bank, C. Carry out an investigation to find out what types of criminal funds are being laundered in each country, D. Send representatives of the UNAMLO to the countries that have been proven to be involved in money laundering, E. Propose to these countries to carry out the FATF’s recommendations in order to combat money laundering, and provide them with a plan in which they can develop their economies and the funds in which they can do so without having to be entwined in money laundering, F. Present the countries that execute the FATF’s Recommendations successfully and join in the battle against money laundering with a plan for their development which would contain the following elements: i) Providing the countries with economic experts from the UNAMLO who will work alongside these countries to help them create new opportunities for development, ii) Providing these countries with additional development loans and funds from the World Bank, aside from the ones that they may already have, G. Send a group of the UNAMLO’s most-qualified researchers to these nations and territories in order to make sure that they are fully implementing the FATF’s recommendations, and if the researchers find that any of these countries is not implementing every single task in the FATF’s recommendations then the researchers will: i) Find out which recommendations are not being implemented by the country, ii) Work alongside the government of this country in order to encourage it to carry out whatever task or tasks it is not carrying out in order to stop money laundering. H. Recommend to the World Bank - that if any of these countries fail to implement the FATF’s recommendations and continue to commit the criminal act of money laundering, then the World Bank should cut any development loans that it is providing them with until these countries decide to execute the FATF’s recommendations, I. Create a black list with the names of these countries printed on it as being non-cooperative in the fight against money laundering, J. Recommend to major lenders not to extend their credits to any of these countries if they do have credits in them.
Submitted by: Fawwaz Al Khaled Delegate: Turkey Issue: Development in Iraq
Having Studied that Iraq was 68.7% Developed at the days of Saddam Hussein, but now it seems that Iraq is 24.3% developed only. Even though all the help the country gets from countries all over the world, bu5t still, the country is not developing yet,
Alarmed by that some Iraqis do not have the shelter or place to live in. Tents and movable bunk-rooms are starting to spread over the days at most of the Iraqi villages by the American and British Armies,
Expressing its appreciation thanks to S.B.O.I
(Shelter Building Organization in Iraq) Which tends to build shelters, homes, and living areas for the homeless all over Iraq. The organization is located in Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, and Syria. Where all the help is given to the cities next to each country, and all workers are sent from the listed countries.
1. Declares the formation that an organization called (AOD) Asian Organization for Development
2. Draws the attention to the fact that this organization will be committed to do the following things: A. Visit the most undeveloped areas in Iraqb)Have branches and offices in Iraq and most of the countries surrounding Iraq. B. The organization will also have branches in Asia and Africa, to keep all the work that needs to be done in different areas in the world, so that all the money and workers can be safe. C. The US Government is trying to do all what is mentioned, but although they are controlling most of the Iraqi territories, but still, Iraq is not under the US control, meaning that many other countries and organizations should be helping the US0.
3. Further Resolves that the outer branches are supposed to send the money and workers to Iraq on a daily basis, to secure the building of shelters and homes quickly.
4. Confirms that there should be Iraqi investigators that will be going to check the shelters and houses that are getting built. These Iraqis will be going daily to the certain areas. Anything out of order or incorrect must be told to the organization at fastest possible. Any problems that are not reported will be their faults, and they will face the consequences.
5. Emphasizes that the building of shelters should be built in a nice and most importantly built correctly. Which means that the homes and shelters do not collapse, do not tear or crack, do not break and fall apart. This would be the fault of the builders and the companies also.
Dana’s Opening Speech:
A foot in Europe and the other in the Middle East… How can a country be more cultured and fascinating?
Well, Turkey is a truly remarkable country that will surely capture your heart. The Turkish people have an unrivalled reputation for hospitality, the cuisine is to die for, the coastline is a dream and many Turkish cities are dotted with spectacular mosaics and castles. Walking around the streets and staring at the magnificent carpets, amulets to ward off evil, belly-dancing tips, an appreciation for its history, or just a tan, you’re likely to want to go back for more. You might be wondering how an amazing country was formed to being what it is.
Well, Turkey, the birthplace of the Ottoman Empire is enriched with culture, and arts. The Ottoman principality became the strongest state within the Islamic world by the 14Th. century. To this day Turkey beholds some of the greatest Islamic masterpieces in the world. The Ottoman Empire in decline was called the "Sick Man of Europe."
Sadly to say that all the problems occurring around us are covering all the wonderful things that make Turkey, that’s why we are here today to stop one of the most important things that has been effecting our world, which is sickness. Turkey joining the EU will of course contribute to helping us solve these problems. Sickness might be the thing that is killing people and populations and even breaking down the economy with a blink of an eye. Let us put our hands together to be able to stop this once and for all.
Sarah’s Opening Speech:
Far off into the desert a laboratory is illegally accomplishing a task for a group of criminals. This task would soon allow these poor criminals to make billions and billions of dollars. What is this task? It is refining non-heroin opiates into heroin a drug, which is later on sold to drug-addicts in all corners the world, be it Europe, Africa, Asia, America, or Australia and infinite amounts of money are illicitly made. Uh-Oh! How are these poor criminals going to explain to the authorities the fact that overnight they turned from poor people into multi-billionaires. In the eyes of this crime-group there is only one solution - money laundering!
Honorable delegates every year between $500 billion and $1 trillion are laundered globally. Left unchecked, money laundering can erode a nation’s economy by changing the demand for cash and making interest and exchange rates more volatile - this hampers the development of a nation. Also, money laundering is a fertile soil for terrorism. Throughout the past years even after several nations have implemented the FATF’s (40 + 9 Recommendations) in order to combat money laundering, it is noticeable that money laundering has not decreased, rather it has increased. Why?
It is because of you! Every single one of you.
You, the members of the Economic and Social Council, were not able to pass a single effective resolution that can combat money laundering.
Therefore, honorable delegates, the Republic of Turkey implores that by the end of this conference we should pass as many effective resolutions as possible that will benefit our world.
In the words of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Turkey’s national hero, "Turkey wants action from you, not words!"
Fawaz’s Opening Speech:
When all the love of Asia and the fantasy of Europe combine, the combination turns to The Republic of Turkey.
"T" for Tremendous. The tremendous and beautiful nature, the tremendous castles, and the fascination of its history.
"U" for the urge, where Turkey urges people to work and study. Lots of money is spent by the Turkish government to provide its people with a solid education.
"R" for rapid, where Turkey rapidly grew to a very strong militant country, and is rapidly developing.
"K" for Kernel, where Turkey is the outer shell of the world. It can be in nature, technology, peace, and beauty.
"E" for Europe, which has scarred Turkey’s heart because until today the EU has not made Turkey a member in the organization.
"Y" for yearning. The love and passion of the people, the love of life and help to other. All these words are just a little too little for a high standard and powerful country like Turkey.
I am Fawwaz Al Khaled. I am represented Turkey for Amman’s MUN event. Where I became the delegate of Turkey for the General Assembly B. I don’t think I’ve done my best, maybe because of fear, or maybe because of being shy. The event moved smoothly and greatly. I hope I’ve made you and made Turkey glad because of what I have done, and I wish many people can represent Turkey in a better way than I did, because Turkey deserves sincere and dedicated for a high and caring country like Turkey. About the event, like many people, I have made many friends, where we met new people every day; conversations were different from one friend to another. Amman was fabulous, where we went to Jarash and to the Dead Sea. It really does make you float, and the salty water doesn’t just taste salty but it does taste bitter. Last but not least, I would like to thank you for all the support you have given us, and I was delighted to be Turkey and to learn about Turkey and about its people with its culture, it has been a great opportunity to meet the people from Turkey and learn about its fascinating history, which I really enjoyed knowing about. All my sincere regards to Turkey and the people from Turkey.
Sarah Abu Sha'ar
Your Excellency, Ahmet Necdet Sezer
First and foremost, I would like to thank your Excellency for providing me this opportunity to represent the wonderful Republic of Turkey at the recent AMMUN conference. I would also like to report to you on my performance during the AMMUN conference. There is no real need for me to really explain myself to your Excellency, seeing as my award simply speaks for itself: BEST DELEGATE. Basically, after attending the conference I was officially dubbed as best delegate of the ECOSOC forum and I was gifted a piece of Flake Chocolate. I would presume that my performance probably shocked all the counties attending, since, in the president of the ECOSOC's opinion, it was one of the most active performances that Turkey ever had in the history of Turkey, or may I say, in the history of the United Nations itself. In my entire forum, one person had only received an award - out of the 30 or so people present, and that person was I.
In addition to this, throughout the conference, I was continuously receiving notes from other delegates expressing how they felt about my performance. One note that I will cherish forever is one that I had received from the delegate of the USA, who wrote: I think you are the smartest delegate here! Finally, and in closure, I was able to carry out the most important task of all, I was able to pass my resolution regarding the issue of money laundering, as a main submitter and with some of the most powerful countries of the world as my co-submitters, including countries like, England, Russia, China, etc.… etc.… Of course, during all of this time, the words of Mustafa Kemal Atuturk continuously replay themselves in my mind, "I want action from you, not words," and that's exactly how I got myself caricatured in one of Amman's most important magazines, Ammunition. Your work is greatly appreciated - Thank you, Sarah Abushaar
Dana Khader, Ambassador
The AMMUN event was a success for BBS especially for turkey. I, Dana Khader, was the ambassador of turkey for the AMMUN event in Jordan year 2006. We represented Turkey in forums GAA GAB and ECOSOC. As Turkey in GAA our resolution was about governmental measures taken towards pandemic. The Ambassador of Turkey was the main submitter of 1 resolution and a co-main submitter of another resolution. The resolution that me, Turkey, was the main submitter of passed with an overwhelming majority. All in all Turkey did a great job in the event and was proud to be turkey in the event.