Delegate: Shahad Dashti
Event: CACMUN 1999
The head of government in Australia is the Prime Minister; therefore, he is the highest-ranking minister and in practice the chief executive. In addition, Australia is a monarchy like Great Britain; moreover, the British monarch is also Australia's monarch and head of state. However, Queen Elizabeth II has diminutive power in the Australian government. Primarily, she serves as a symbol of the historical bond between the 2 countries.Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations also it is a founding member of the UN.
Australia is an island continent located southeast of Asia. The Timor Sea and the Torres Strait bound the continent from the north. From the east, it is bordered by the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea, on the south by the Bass Strait and the Indian Ocean, and on the west by the Indian Ocean. The area of the continent alone is 7,614,500 sq. km, making Australia the smallest continent in the world, but the 6th largest country.
The huge interior of Australia is mostly desert or dry grassland and has few settlements or uses.
The climate in general is warm and dry. The climate differs from one part to another. It lies south of the equator, and so its seasons are opposite those in the Northern Hemisphere.
Australia enjoys an abundant chain of natural resources. Its farms are highly mechanized therefore they require minimum human labor. Their leading farm products by far are cattle and calves, wheat, and wool, followed by dairy products, fruits, and sugar cane. These products are also the country's chief agricultural exports. It is the largest producer and exporter of beef, sugar, and wheat in addition to barley, eggs, sheep and lambs, and vegetables. Consequently, it produces and exports large amounts of farm goods as well as minerals that include gold, iron ore, diamonds, coal, natural gasses, nickel, petroleum, and uranium. For many years, Great Britain was Australia's chief trading partner, but as time passed it began to develop new trade agreements with China, Japan, and other Asian countries. Australia is one of the world's most developed countries. Furthermore, its income from these exports has made it possible for most of the people to have a high standard of living, it produces nearly all the food needed by it people, marking it as a self-sufficient country.
Australia was once a British colony. Therefore most of the people are of British ancestry. The population consists of about 94% Europeans, about 18% are of other European origins, and 5% of the population include Asians and Middle Easterners. The population gets along well and there aren't any noted obstacles among them.
Australia has no single established church, and its constitution guarantees freedom of worship. The population is primarily Christian, Jewish, Buddhist, and Muslim worshippers make up a small portion of the population. However, the number of Buddhists and Muslims is increasing, and that reflects the changing immigration patterns since the 1960s.
The monetary unit of Australia is the dollar. The first Australian bank was established in Sydney in 1817. The banking system now includes the Reverse Bank of Australia, which handles the functions of central banking. Also a number of privately owned banks are available as well as foreign banks. Australia doesn't rely on international debt because it is self-sufficient and quite wealthy for its population. Therefore, it financially supports itself. Also, its wealth comes from farming and mining. In other words, Australia is dependent on raw material and at the same time it is seeking progress in industrialization. However, it is yet to adapt the factors required to reach that goal.
The armed forces of Australia consist of the Australian Army, the Royal Australian Navy, and the Royal Australian Air force. These three services make up a united command called the Australian Defense Force that holds a total of 70,000 men and women. Although small, the armed forces are equipped with modern weapons. On the other hand, Australia is a fairly neutral country; therefore, its defense system is quite small.
Australia has an alliance under the ANZUS treaty (1952) with the US for support and defense in case of attack, and Australia also maintains its own defense agreements with New Zealand.
Australia is a founding member of the UN; however, it isn't involved in other blocs and groupings. On the other hand, as it continues in its desire to grow, expand, and progress it will eventually strengthen its connections and expand in all fields of economy and power. In particular Australia is intent in expanding its Internet as well as other global communications services to achieve its goal of expansion. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, which is an association of political entities that give allegiance to the British crown. Its formal political consultation among the member governments is the periodic meeting of their Prime Ministers to discuss common problems. It isn't a member of NATO; however, it has defense agreements with the US (ANZUS treaty) and New Zealand. In addition, Australia is an observer at ASEAN and is yet striving to be a member. As a result, Australia oftentimes takes an independent line not with Great Britain or the US. In which case, Australia is in the process of carrying out a referendum in order to become a republic within the next few months. In other words, it is taking the necessary steps to reach its complete independence.
Europeans first sighted Australia during 1606 A.D; however, by 1770 James Cook explored the region and claimed it for Great Britain. By 1788, the land was established as a prison colony, where by, convicts were sailed to the land. The operation continued until early 1868, when the practice was finally ended. Moreover, the number of settlers in the region increased and the people demanded their right for self-government. Finally, in 1890 their rights were granted. By that time, the people realized that they would be better off if they united as a single nation with a unified government.
In 1897 and 1898, a federal conference was arranged to establish the constitution for Australia. Furthermore, on Jan. 1, 1901 the 6 colonies became states of a new nation, the Commonwealth of Australia. Therefore, Australia is a federation of states that follows a written constitution. The Australian Constitution grants certain authority to the federal government and gives all other power to the state. Thus, all powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the states. In addition, the federal government oversees the functioning of all state governments. Therefore, it is stronger and it has a leading responsibility towards the operation of the divided states. Australia has a parliamentary system of government. The political party controls the national government; the leader of the majority party heads the government as Prime Minister.
In 1972, Gough Whitlam became Prime Minister. However, by 1975, inflation and unemployment were increasing as a result of the insufficient flow of government money. Therefore, Australians strove to force Whitlam to resign, paving the way for new elections. In November, the governor general, Sir John Kerr removed Whitlam from office. Late on, John Malcolm Fraser became Prime Minister. However, inflation issues and unemployment remained serious. Afterwards, in 1984 Robert Hawk became Prime Minister. At this time, Australia's Prime Minister is John Howard.
Australia continues in its efforts to achieve economic growth. Thus, it has significant trade agreements with several Asian countries marking economical relations. Therefore, the Asian Breakdown did effect Australian economy, however, the effect is considered minor because it has other ties with the US and Europe.
With regards to this issue, Australia is a chief supporter of refugees. Australia believes that regional organizations must set up committees to study the conflict and take effective steps towards finding a settlement before people are driven from their homes, set up funds, provide international legal protection. Also, it believes that their rights must be fulfilled during their refuge. Furthermore, significant actions must be resolved in their name that include relief funds for their assistance and protection, receive them in neighboring countries, and organizations must endeavor to settle the situation. Furthermore, regional organizations must take up the responsibility of ensuring their safety and create a situation where people can live in peace.
For example, momentarily Australia is supporting refugees in West Timor, "The Australian government has promised to work hard for an arrangement with Jakarta to ensure safe passage to East Timor for the refugees once peace is restored to the territory." Therefore, Australia works for return of refugees worldwide.
According to the question of settling international conflict, Australia believes that regional organizations should look into serious conflicts within countries in order to settle them and prevent the predicaments of civil wars that lead to economical and political breakdown that crash countries worldwide.
For example, Australia is momentarily striving to resolve the issue in Indonesia and end the bloodshed. Thus, Australia's perspective of this issue is entirely encouraging and supportive, and it believes that of the percentage of the United Nation dues directed to organizations such as UNCEF, UNHCR, etc that percentage should be increased to aid the aforementioned organizations and resolve international conflicts.
Concerning the 3rd issue, Australia's point of view of the growth of technology on global communications is content and satisfied. For it will be holding the ISOCON99 conference and exhibition, which is an event designed for those serious about providing Internet access for profit and for use within companies. Accordingly, "The result is a focused event with highly qualified attendance of Internet Service Providers involved in the technical or management issues of Internet access." On that account, Australia proves to be a supporter of technological growth and implementation on global communication. Australia believes that technology is the future, therefore, the UN should finance the progress of technological global communication because the expansion of such services is the key to progress and power. Consequently, the aforementioned factors are the cure to some economical and political issues.
Defining refugee is one who flees or is driven out of his homeland to a neighboring country seeking protection,
Recalling the crisis of the Kosavar refugees in Yugoslavia earlier this year, when Albanian refugees were driven out of their country based on their religious status,
Viewing with Appreciation the efforts of neighboring countries in receiving refugees and providing them with food and shelter, in particular the US's decision of nationalizing Kosavar refugees,
Noting that refugees are victims of violence and injustice,
Fully Alarmed by the growth of refugee issues and it yields a serious dilemma in present time,
Deeply concerned of the Indonesian situation which is battling the refugee crisis in East Timor,
Appreciates the UN efforts in endeavoring to settle the Indonesian situation and taking all necessary steps to restore order in East Timor,
1. Emphasizes the increase in number of refugees in regions all around the world, (21,459,550 in 1998) their increase in number elucidates intensifying conflicts and strife among members of the same state,
2. Affirms that regional organizations must take part in accumulating the necessary funds required to settle these issues,
3. Resolves that the voluntary contributions to the UN's Office of High Commissioner to become compulsory in order to gather the funding from members of its General Assembly and private agencies, these funds should reach a total amount of 1% of their yearly income, the funds will be divided among the following UN organizations, 1) These funds should be put to use by the UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner Refugees) in order to take effective steps towards finding a settlement to refugee issues before the damage augments and people are endangered within their homes and provide necessary resources: a- Stable shelter or refugee camps, b- Food, drink, clothing, c- Medical care, 2) Also, another division of the voluntary contribution (1% of the member's yearly income) should be directed to the Commission of Human Rights in order to carry out the principles of the declaration of human rights and establish those individuals' fundamental freedom, 3) The final division should be aimed towards UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund) to accumulate the funds for young victims,
4. Suggests that effective agreements be written to ensure the safety for refugees before their situation is settled and also once peace is achieved: 1) Their rights must be fulfilled, 2) They must be granted refuge from neighboring countries, 3) All countries supporting refugees must be granted financial support for their efforts directed for the refugees,
5. Deplores that refugees are in some cases, such as that of Iraq, are used as human shields by their own government,
6. Further Resolves that those governments 1) Sign a treaty to assure the restoration of Human Rights, Freedom of religion, Race, Political opinion, 2) If the agreement was violated, meaning that more than 5% citizens are driven out of their country, then economic sanctions should be placed on these nations, prohibit trade, and Cut off all economic aid,
7. Urges the collaboration of international organizations to restore peace, freedom, and human rights.
Ladies and gentlemen:
"G.day mates." From the land of the kangaroos and koala bears, the people of Australia welcome everyone to this meeting, and hopes that all countries will collaborate to solve the major problems of our present time. Hopefully, our meeting will be productive and beneficial to all, and everyone will be satisfied with the resolutions and decision that will be passed.
Australia would like to point out the major issue of refugees that has been expanding and augmenting in our present time. Refugee issues present great dilemmas that concern their welfare and rights, therefore a settlement is crucial to resolve the issue. Australia would like to bring special attention to this issue because it concerns all members meeting today. Furthermore, this issue marks great importance and requires immediate action because any carelessness will lead to relapse of all countries worldwide. There are several issues that support the aforementioned point: Refugee situation in East Timor, Refugee situation of the Kosavars, and the Refugee situation in Turkey. Consequently, this issue should be discussed and studied to reach an agreement among all countries meeting today depending on their opinions and viewpoints.
And once again Australia welcomes all countries to this meeting, may our efforts achieve and fulfill the dream of prosperity and peace.