Event: CAIRO 1999
Student: FAISAL AL SHATTI
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The Kingdom of Bhutan is the world’s only Buddhist kingdom. Its government type is monarchy, but is under special treaty relationship with India. The king has the real power in Bhutan unlike other kingdoms. Bhutan’s capital is the beautiful city of Thimphu. Bhutan got independence from India on 8 August 1949. However, its National Day is on 17 December, when Ugyen Wangchuck became first heredity king. Bhutan has no written constitution, but uses the 1953 Royal decree for the Constitution of the National Assembly. Its legal system is based on Indian law and English common law. The executive branch in Bhutan is divided into three parts: chief of state, head of government, and the cabinet. The chief of state is King Jiqme Singye Wangchuck. King Jiqme Singye Wangchuck is also the head of government. The cabinet consists of the Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) and is appointed by the king. Bhutan’s legislative branch consists of the unicameral National assembly or Tshogdu. Members of the Tshogdu serve three years. The Tshogdu contains 150 seats: 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35 are designated by the king to represent government and other secular interest. The judicial branch, the Supreme Court of Appeal, is the king, High Court, and judges appointed by the king. There are three pressure political groups in Bhutan, Buddhist clergy, Indian merchant community, and the ethnic Nepalese organization who leads militant antigovernment campaign.
Bhutan is a small landlocked country with a strategic location southern Asia, between China and India. Bhutan controls several key Himalayan Mountain passes which makes some importance in the area. To the north of Bhutan is the huge Himalayas and then China, to the south its India, to the east is Bangladesh, and west of Bhutan is Nepal. Bhutan covers up an area of about 47,000 sq. km, nearly half the size of Indiana and about the size of Switzerland. Climate varies in Bhutan; it’s mostly tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in the Himalayas. The terrain is mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna. Bhutan is invaded by some natural hazards in the form of violent storms coming down from the Himalayas. These storms are the source of the country’s name which translates as Land of Thunder Dragon. Also there are some frequent landslides during the rainy season.
Although its small area, its mountainous terrain enables Bhutan to have many important natural resources but in small quantities. Some of these include, high-grade limestone and slate, marble, dolomite, graphite, deposits of copper, gypsum, lead, tin, tungsten, zinc, coal, beryl, mica, pyrites, tufa, and talc (besides abundant hydroelectric power sources). Also agriculture – including fishing and forestry - occupies a great percentage in the economy of Bhutan. It is traditionally self-sufficient in food production. Major crops are corn and rice. However, rice imports increased in the late 1980s due to the increase of population and the constancy of rice production. Abundant forests, which cover 70% of the country, are a great source for lumber. Cash crops include oranges, apples, and cardamom. Bhutan’s livestock is raised through the country and aren’t used as a food source because Buddhists don’t eat cattle. Fresh water and hatchery fishing are also important dietary supplement.
About 1,908,307 people live in Bhutan, whom 50% are Bhote, 35% are ethnic Nepalese, and 15% are indigenous or migrant tribes. 40% of the structure is aged between o-14years, 56% is aged between 15-64years, leaving 4% of65 years and over aged people. Life expectancy is 52.31 years for the total population at birth. There are two major religions in Bhutan, Lamaistic Buddhism that is followed by 75% of the population, and Indian and Nepalese influenced Hinduism, which is followed by 25%of the population. The official language is Dzongkha, but Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects, and Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects. In many ways, Bhutan seems to teeter between contemporary and medieval: monks transcribe ancient Buddhist texts into laptop computers, traditionally-dressed archers use alloy steel bows and arrows, and video rental shops do a brisk trade while there is no television. Bhutan has been described as a ‘living museum’ because its ancient dzongs and temples are still the focus of modern life.
Bhutan has an underdeveloped economy with ties to India as a result of geographic position and historical relationship. Predominantly agriculture, limited industrial activity, and services- particularly related to tourism- are the main characteristics of the growing part of its economy. Development of hydroelectric capabilities for domestic use and export also increasingly important. Increasing domestic concern and international cooperation with respect to environmental protection and resource conservation. Foreign aid – once 100% from India but increasingly from domestic sources, European countries, and international organizations (72.5% in 1987-92) – are major components in economic development. Trade union activity is illegal, and less than1% of the population is involved in industrial work. The economy is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about 40% of the GDP. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India’s through strong trade and monetary links. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan’s hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources. The Bhutanese government has made some progress in expanding the nation’s productive base and improving social welfare. Each economic program takes into account the government’s desire to protect the country’s environment and cultural traditions. Detailed controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment. Bhutan’s currency is Ngultrum (Nu) which equals to US$ 18.329. Its GDP is US$ 85 million, and the GNP is US$ 150 million. In summary, Bhutan has a very weak economy, entirely dependent on India and foreign aid, but is gradually becoming independent economically.
Two great countries in the field of defense, China and India surround Bhutan. Bhutan’s major policy in its military relationship with those countries is with India against China. It serves as the second line of defense – after the great Himalayas – for India against China as it was once under Indian rule. There are two military branches in Bhutan, the Royal Bhutan Army and the Militia. The Royal Bhutan Army was organized as a regular military force in the 1950s with the encouragement India and in response to china’s takeover of Tibet. Military training was given to all able-bodied men. In 1990 the Royal Bhutan Army was composed of 6,000 men and was backed by a growing militia. The army’s primary mission was border defense, but it also has assisted the Royal Bhutan Police in performing internal security duties. Most if not all the army’s weapons in the 1980s were manufactured in India. The army has traditionally been a small, lightly armed conscript force. The majority of its officers and noncommissioned officers were trained by IMTRAT, which was commanded by an Indian Army brigadier at the Wangchuck Lo Dzond Military Training School. A 5,000-strong militia was raised in 1958 as part of the defense strategy against China. Army officers who had been trained at the Indian Military Academy trained militia personnel. Their primary function was as a first line of defense along frontier areas with China.
Views on World Problems:-
Bhutan looks at the world’s problems through the eyes of India. When civil war broke out in Pakistan in 1971, Bhutan was among the first nations to recognize the new government of Bangladesh, and formal diplomatic relations was established in 1973. An event in 1975 may have served as a major impetus to Bhutan to speed up reform and modernization. In that year, neighboring Sikkim’s monarchy, which had endured for more than 300 years, was ousted following a plebiscite in which the Nepalese majority outvoted the Sikkimese minority. Sikkim, long a protectorate of India, became India’s twenty-second state. Sikkim joined India instead of Nepal because Nepal didn’t want them, and because India is stronger than Nepal in most of the fields, so typically they joined India. Many of the countries with which Bhutan established relations with provided development aid. To further ensure its independence and international position, Bhutan gradually established diplomatic relations with other nations and joined greater numbers of regional and international organizations. Examples of some organizations are: CP, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, IOC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, WHO, WIPO, UPU, and Intel sat.
Archeological evidence suggests that Bhutan was inhabited possibly as early as 2000 BC. Buddhism was probably introduced in the 2nd century although traditionally its introduction is credited to the first visit of Guru Rimpoche in the 8Th. century. Before the 16Th. century, numerous clans and noble families ruled in different valleys throughout Bhutan, quarrelling among them and with Tibet. This changed in 1616 with the arrival of Ngawang Namgyal, a monk of the Drukpa Kagya School of Buddhism. He taught throughout the region and soon established himself as the religious ruler of Bhutan. He repelled attacks from rival lamas and Tibetan forces and transformed the southern valleys into a unified country called Druk Yul (Land of the Dragon). While the political system he established lasted until the beginning of the 20Th. century, the announcement of his death in 1705 was followed by 200 years of internal conflict and political infighting. Instability lasted until 1907 when Ugyen Wangchuck was elected, by a unanimous vote of Bhutan’s chiefs and principal lamas, as heredity ruler of Bhutan. Over the following four decades, the country was brought under the monarchy’s ect control. Upon independence in 1949, India recognized Bhutan as a sovereign country.
In 1986, one thousand illegal foreign laborers, mostly Nepalese, were expelled. This started the conflict with the Nepalese refugees, which is now growing. After three years, 1989, unrest among Nepalese minority brings the government efforts to ameliorate differences between ethnic communities as well as additional government restriction were announced. In 1990, antigovernment terrorist activities initiated, and violence and crime increased as a consequence of the ethnic Nepalese activities. King Jigme Singye Wangchuck, in 1991, threatened to abdicate in face of hard-line opposition in National Assembly to his efforts to resolve ethnic unrest, and cancels participation in the annual SAARC conference. Till now, the conflict with ethnic Nepalese is the major cause for chaos in Bhutan.
Issue #101: The condition and treatment of refugees:-
Bhutan is increasingly worried about the irresponsible actions done by refugees that threat the peace and discipline of the country. We agree that refugee is defined as, "person taking shelter from pursuit or danger or trouble especially in a foreign country." All countries agree that the issue of refugees is increasing in the world and threats the world’s economy. As refugees increase, their needs increase, which causes the refuge country to have more supplies to them and this will effect that country itself. We also agree that this refugee has the right to be treated as any other citizen and have the rights that each citizen has. He must live in an average condition with food, shelter, occupation, security, and the right to go to his previous home available. The refuge country is, in most cases, supplying the average living standards for the refugees that enables them to have a pleasant life. Sometimes, these refugees misuse their right and start to make a chaos in the country. This chaos might arrive to using force and forming an antigovernment side that affects the settlements at the country. If that refugee stepped on these rules that country has the right to practice some consequences.
A great example is Bhutan. Bhutan is annoyed with ethnic Nepalese’s, who are treated as refugees, actions that tend to form an antigovernment side, and break the unity and order of Bhutan. Bhutan strongly supports the idea of punishing refugees who break the refuge country’s laws by returning them to their previous country, treating them as criminals and throw them in jail, or any other suitable punishment the government sees. Bhutan applauds the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR), but asks for more focus on how the refugees are treating the refuge country and vice versa.
Issue #102: The role of regional organizations in settling internationalconflict:-
Bhutan, as a member of many regional and international organizations encourages their role in settling most international political and economical conflicts. Defining regional organizations as, "an organization or committee of all the countries in one region, who strive to make the total cooperation and problem-solving in all political, economical, social, and environmental fields," shows the importance of these organizations if they did their job in the way described. Regional (and international) organizations are thought to be weak institutions as they don’t solve all, if any, problems.
In the case of Bhutan and other countries, which are members in some regional organizations, these organizations play a major role in the settlement of that region’s countries economically more than politically. Bhutan depends greatly on foreign economic aid that helps its economy and rescues the life of its people. This economic aid is given by many regional organizations Bhutan is a member in, besides other countries like India. On the political side, Bhutan’s security depends on its two gigantic neighbors, China and India. Organizations that include India and Bhutan help the regional security to be settled, although there is quite a tension between Nepal and Bhutan that no one has solved. Otherwise, Bhutan strongly supports Th. role of regional organizations in settling international conflict.
Issue #103: Growth and implementation of information technology onglobal communication:-
Bhutan believes that the growth and implementation of information technology has a major positive impact on global communication. These two items are proportionally ect as the increase of one will result in the increase of the other. The growth of information technology will make the world seem like a small town. It will also have a big role in solving worldwide conflicts and making communication easier, focused, and with a result. It will help in the development of the world in all fields.
Although a poor country that lacks information technology, Bhutan is aware if the significance of that device in improving the world. Despite that, Bhutan asks the aid of other countries with experience in that domain to add it in Bhutan and other underdeveloped poor countries. In order for the information technology to grow, it is suggested that communication through media is improved, news are given on air from the place of event, and communication is grown easier with no obstacles no matter who wants to communicate with who in what time, as long as that serves the world. Bhutan strongly endorses the idea of growth of information technology on global communications.
FORUM: General Assembly DELEGATION: Bhutan QUESTION OF: Condition and Treatment of Refugees
Definingrefugee as " a person who has been forced to flee from danger, like flood, war, political persecution, or flee because of hard living status in his/her original country,
Deeply disturbedto know that there are over 11.5 million refugees in the world according to the UNHCR estimations (1998),
Taking into considerationthat Asia hosted the largest number of refugees (41%), Africa (28%), Europe (23%), North America (6%), and finally Latin America, The Caribbean, and Oceania (1% each),
Bearing in mindthe huge efforts of the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) in assisting refugees worldwide,
Congratulatingthe UNHCR for being able to decrease number of refugees by 4% from 1997 to 1998, and bringing the refugees to their lowest number in 10 years,
Expressing with appreciationthe emergency assistance, care and maintenance, voluntary repatriation, and local settlement assistance of the UNHCR to assist the refugee population worldwide,
Recallingthe Rwandan, Kosovar, and East Timor refugees crises, which resulted in a great increase of total refugees worldwide, and made the UNHCR’s job harder in supplying assistance to these groups of refugees,
Observingthe harsh treatment and condition of refugees by some refuge countries, and vise versa,
1.Drawsattention to the massive UNHCR efforts in decreasing the number of refugees worldwide by emergency assistance, care and maintenance, voluntary repatriation, and local settlement assistance,
2.Deplorescountries who treat their refugees badly, and refugees who treat their refuge countries badly,
3.Asksfor consequences for countries treating refugees badly and suggests: One.Applying economical sanctions on those countries (like Iraq with Kurdish refugees, Serbia with the Kosovar refugees, USA with the Cuba refugees, Israel with Palestinian refugees, and some African countries) and on them, Two.Isolating the preceding countries and forbidding any communications with them,
4.Recommendsfurther punishment for refugees who make chaos in the refuge country and form an antigovernment side, and suggests: One.Stopping the UNHCR and other assistance to them, Two.Returning them to their original country even if it leads to the use of force, Three.Permitting the refuge country to punish them as normal citizens by putting them in jail,
5.Strongly recommendscountries of refugee to expel any refugee that is spreading terror in the refuge country, or that came to the refuge country in an illegal way like the Nepalese refugees to Bhutan,
6.EncouragesUNHCR to assist poor countries with under developing economies to supply a good condition for the life of refugees in it,
7.Requeststhe UN to send forces to take control over people crossing borders illegally to weak countries and put them in a special camp where they only have the humanitarian rights, not political rights,
8.Suggeststhat each refuge country supplies all data needed about all refugees in that country and send it to the UNHCR,
9.Calls uponall refuge countries that can’t supply a good living condition for the refugees to inform the UNHCR,
10.Requestsall countries to cooperate with the UNHCR in solving the refugee crisis by, One.giving them all the information they need about refugees. Two.making the UNHCR’s job in that country easy by supplying all transportation needed, and give the UNHCR permission to do what ever they want on that country with regard to the refugees’ crisis.
11.Remindsthat all refugees must be treated as citizens and given citizens’ rights like: One.education Two.housing Three.occupation Four.food, water, and other assistance
Ladies and Gentlemen, delegates, and honorable judge,
Good Evening; from the Land of the Dragon, from the Kingdom of Bhutan. Bhutan would like to welcome you all in this meeting and hopes to get the most benefit of, and the most helpful solutions to make our world a peaceful, better one.
Bhutan is a country in Southern Asia, between the gigantic countries of China and India, and surrounded from the north by the great Himalayas. It has various geographies and climates, which collects the world in the small sized Bhutan. Its natural resources are mostly crops and agriculture, with little industry and manufacture. Bhutan has magnificent natural scenes and a variety of prolific vegetation, which makes it the paradise of the east. Although it has one of the smallest populations and military forces, Bhutan’s people are very kind and helpful specially with tourists. Bhutan’s small army is a great proof of its peacefulness. Bhutan also would like to have the opportunity to thank the whole world in general, and specifically India for their help and aid, which supported the government and economy of Bhutan.
The kingdom of Bhutan would also like to gain the opportunity to highlight an important issue involving today’s world, which is the issue of refugees. The refugee population is increasingly large and presents a great threat for underdeveloped countries and their economies. Although the UNHCR’s efforts, the refugee crisis is getting more complex and unsolvable. This issue is concerning many countries, which include Bhutan. Bhutan is very annoyed with the refugees that are abusing their rights and forming terror in Bhutan. Therefore Bhutan asks for a solution for this international issue to make the world a more comfortable and peaceful place to be.