Reem Behbehani, Ambassador and Human Rights
Najwa al Bishir, Social
Fay al Tukhaim, Disarmament
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The government type in Morocco is constitutional monarchy. Its executive branches are: chief of state (King Abdulla), head of government (prime minister Abderrahmane Youssoufi), and the cabinet (council of ministers appointed by the monarch). The monarchy is hereditary. The legal system in Morocco is based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court. The constitution also builds up the law in Morocco, it was first set on 10/10/1972, revised on 4/9/1992 and amended (to create bicameral legislature) in September 1996. The bicameral parliament consists of an upper house or Chamber of Counselors; members elected indirectly by local councils, professional organizations, and labor syndicates for nine-year terms. Also, there are numerous numbers of different parties and organizations in Morocco. In that regard, lately, influential members of parties forming the Moroccan socialist-led government criticized the cabinet for being unable to implement hoped-for developments and changes. In addition, the politicians decried the government's, who has the final say in things, "wait and see" attitude. The government in Morocco focusing on developing the country. However, they haven't succeeded so far. The present situation is far from being a success of change, modernity and reform, Sassi said, adding it is rather part of "continuity with new instruments."Geography:
Morocco has a warm weather. On the coast, the sun breeze prevents great summer heats. In winter, the average temperature never goes below 10 degrees (Celsius) and there is hardly ever any frost. Inland, the climate is continental hotter in the summer and colder in the winter the range being wider between diurnal and nocturnal temperatures. Rainfalls are irregular and diminish progressively from the north to the south from the west to the east. Morocco is located at the northwestern tip of Africa. Morocco displays the following three meaningful characteristics: it's an Atlantic, Mediterranean and North African country. The great axes of the relief are so conspicuous that different areas easily stand out. The Mediterranean coast stretches along 468 km, facing Spanish shores. The Atlantic coast stretches along 2,500 Km where huge sand beaches spread between the cliffs.
The most important cultural factors in Morocco are derived from religion and history. In terms of religion, most Moroccans are Muslims. Therefore, a lot of their culture and traditions are from Islam. Moreover, Morocco was occupied by Italy as well as France for long periods of time. Due to that, Moroccans are native speakers of French In fact, their everyday life reflects that clearly, for they speak to each other in French. Also, in ministries and formal places contracts are written in the French language. Clearly, it is the upper class people that speak French, the lower classes On the other hand, Moroccans speak Arabic, obviously because they are Arabs and because its Islam's language.
Foreign Trade is important in the Moroccan economy. Morocco is a member of the World Bank and the Paris Club of creditors. Foreign trade is important to the Moroccan society because it has the ability to improve education and attracting foreign investment to improve living standards and job prospects for Morocco's youthful population. Morocco's export partners are EU, Japan, India, Libya, and US. Morocco exports food and beverages, semi-processed goods, and consumer's good. Their import partners are the EU, US, Saudi Arabia, and Brazil. Morocco imports semi-processed goods, capital goods, food and beverages, fuel and lubricants, consumer goods, and raw material.
Although Morocco has no known exploitable oil reserves, it does have 75% of known world phosphate deposits and high international price of phosphates during the 1970s. That promoted significant expansion of segment of the economy at that time. The mining sector also benefits from such byproducts as phosphoric acid and superphosphates. During the 1980s fertilizer consumption declined the world prices from this sector. "Moroccanization" of manufacturing and trade enterprises formally owned and administered by foreign concerns increased substantially in the years following independence and phosphate mining is a major area of the economy which remains under state control.
The defense structure is headed by the king as supreme commander and as chief of the general staff. The line of command runs through the military cabinet on one hand and the ministry of defense and chief of staff on the other. The royal guard is directly under the king's personal command. Manpower is provided by nation's conscription, established in 1966. The age of military service is 18, and the duration of military service is 18 months.
Morocco depends on other nations when it comes to military actions. France and Spain provide Morocco with military equipment. The French military aid continued till 1977. The French troops aided Moroccan troops against the Algeria-backed Polisario forces. The Moroccan army has been trained in the United States under the Military Assistance program (MAP).
Views on World Problems
Morocco is a nation that seeks world peace. Therefore, this becomes obvious in its relations with different countries, even Israel. Unlike other Arab and Islamic countries, Morocco has actually signed treaties with Israel. In addition, Morocco has fairly good relations with its neighboring countries, and other countries of the world. It has been supportive to many countries during times of war, such as the case in the Gulf War.
Morocco feels that terrorists in the world should be strictly punished because their "work" negatively effects the world. This becomes even a more serious issue when terrorism works against the recognized governments in different countries and try to over throw them.
1. The relationship between disarmament and development
The more developed the country, the higher rate of disarmament is in a country. We see it's the world's definition for disarm to be " reduce one's own armed power". Morocco thinks it's very important for countries to be able to defend themselves. The relationship between disarmament and development is pretty obvious. Disarmament is one of the roots to develop a nation. Disarmament and Development both are two important factors each nation should have.
Morocco seeks to be a better development nation and the increase of disarmament.
2. Conventional arms control, including measure to curb the illicit traffic in small arms
Morocco believes it's important to control illicit traffic in small arms for the safety of this world. We see it's the world's definition for illicit traffic to be "prohibited trade of weapons". Unfortunate, we don't live in a safe world. It's important to be able to control the illicit traffic in small arms to prevent unwanted wars and terrorism. The UN and other regional organizations should be strict in controlling the illicit traffic in small countries by having armies surround all countries' border and sea border.
Illicit traffic will harm most nations. Illicit traffic could also affect the development of a certain nation and will cause major conflicts with other nations and regional organizations and the UN, which affects the country's best interest.
3. Follow-up to the advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice on the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons, including effective international arrangements to assure non-nuclear weapons states against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons.
Nuclear weapons are indeed a threat to the nations. We see it's the world's definition of nuclear weapons to be "atomic energy instrument for use in fighting". The International Court of Justice discriminates the use of nuclear weapons. Morocco agrees with the International Court of Justice, but all nations including the US should stop using nuclear weapons. If the US and other nations that use nuclear weapons still intend to use them, then nations such as Morocco has the right to use them and defend themselves. The International court of Justice rules should be applied to all nations without the exception of any " power nation".
1- Elimination of racism and racial discrimination
Morocco believes that the elimination of racism and racial discrimination is very crucial to the welfare of any nation, because that will directly effect the society's structure. Therefore, people belonging to different races should be treated equally so that conflicts due to discrimination wouldn't arise. Our Islamic Religion is a very strong reinforcer of the elimination of racism, because it is a peaceful religion that calls upon justice and equal rights.
Furthermore, Morocco sees that it is the duty of regional organizations to remove people who are being oppressed in their countries, and place them in more suitable environments. Those people are better defined as asylum seekers, not political refugees, and should be given basic human rights.
2- The human rights and welfare of asylum seekers
Morocco is totally in favor of giving asylum seekers all their human rights and it sees that the governments of the countries should work to guarantee that those people get decent jobs, shelter, medical care and education. The aforementioned will provide asylum seekers with their basic human rights, and an acceptable standard of living. Asylum seekers should get assistance from the countries they run away to because they couldn't even have the basics rights and standards of living in their own countries.
In addition. Asylum seekers should be granted citizenship when possible, for they should have the right of being part of a whole. However, political refugees should not be welcomed or supported in any country.
3- The rights of people to self determination
Morocco feels that people should have their rights to self determination as long as they don't interfere with their nations welfare. This is believed because self determination is clearly part of the human rights. However, like in all cases, this right can be used in false ways in which people try to overcome the governments of their countries in the name of seeking independence. Also, the right to self determination shouldn't be exceeding the borders of the country's welfare. Which means that the right of self-determination should not interfere with the governments' political views or actions.
4- Review of the work of the high commissioner of Human Rights
Morocco believes that the work of the high commissioner of human rights should not be reviewed. It is a waste of time and effort. Also, governments should have the flexibility to deal with its internal conflicts the way it sees fit. This becomes extremely important when dealing with terrorists in a country.
Issue #1: Measures To eliminate international terrorism
Terrorism is something that is destroying many parts of the world now a day. Morocco believes that it has great effects on the environment, innocent people and children. Also, Morocco believes that the United Nations should increase its efforts in stopping terrorism around the world. The United Nations should follow up with the efforts of UNICEF and UNESCO and should fund them in order to keep up with their work in helping the children who are in need around the world.
Issue #2 Strengthening the coordination of humanitarian and disaster relief assistance, including special economic assistance
Morocco strongly thinks that disaster relief assistance should be a big part of economic assistance. Morocco believes that any nation who undergoes natural and humanitarian disaster, especially developing and poor countries, be aided by the other capable members of the United Nations. In addition to that , Morocco strongly encourages the United Nations to coordinate relief programs for countries that have undergone natural and humanitarian disaster such as strong earthquakes and disastrous hurricanes.
Morocco would like to see the number of people killed by natural disasters each year to be minimized a lot.
Issue #3 Review the implementation of the United Nations Program on Human Immuno-deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS)
Morocco is deeply aware of the fastest-growing disease in the world now a days; AIDS. Morocco believes that the United Nations and the world as a whole should take into the consideration this issue carefully. Morocco believes that the United Nations should implement this program as much as possible. Morocco would like to see the poorly-equipped hospitals be aided by this program.
Issue #4 International Cooperation in Drug Abuse Control and Rehabilitation Programs
Unfortunately, Morocco is an illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the increase for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe. Drugs are widely spread in Morocco. However, the government is trying their best in solving this problem by punishing drug abusers.
The government of Morocco aids all countries that are taking action against drug abuse and who further develop rehabilitation programs.
Forum: Human Rights Committee Delegation: Morocco Delegate: Reem Behbehani Question of: Asylum Seekers
Defining asylum seekers as people, who have no history or record of being involved in groups that work against the political status in their country of origin.
Defining political refugees as people, who flee their country of origin seeking support from other countries, and want to over throw the recognized government in their countries.
Taking Into Account the situation of the people in Palestine, who were forced to leave their country because of war. Those individuals lack food, shelter, health care, jobs...etc.
Emphasizing that all people regardless their color, sex, religion...etc. should be given all their basic human rights to be able to live in peace.
Deeply Concerned with the condition of asylum seekers around the world.
Expressing Appreciation for the US role in helping asylum seekers.
Reminding that asylum seekers, when placed in suitable environments and provided their human rights, can be effective hard working individuals in society.
1- Requests that the UN helps asylum seekers settle in a country where they are best treated and provided basic shelter, food...etc.
2- Urges countries who are able to provide basic human rights for asylum seekers to welcome them.
3- Demands that the UN sets an organization that investigates and makes sure that those applying for the aid of other countries are not political refugees or terrorists.
4- Further Requests that the aforementioned organization cooperates with the countries that accept asylum seekers, and ascertain that those asylum seekers are not criminals seeking back up.
5- Resolves that the countries accepting asylum seekers should grant them: citizenship, food, shelter, health care, jobs, and education;
6- Congratulates governments that consider accepting asylum seekers in their countries giving that those individuals are humans who are in need and seek peace.
Delegation: Morocco Forum: Disarmament Question of: The relationship between disarmament and development
Defining disarmament as "act of reducing or depriving of arms"
Taking into consideration that not all countries are able to provide themselves with disarmed forces in their borders for security due to their economical condition or simply their interests.
Keeping in mind that the increase of disarmament in the nation will cause more secure in the area by having certain weapons and forces to secure the area and being more conscious, but might lead to minor wars between bordering countries.
Noting with deep concern that not all countries have a strong military power, which might weaken the security in the area. Also not all countries afford certain type of weapons to secure the area.
Fully Believing that having disarm forces and more variety of weapons and nuclear weapons will prevent us as a nation from terrorism, danger, and any kind of attack. 1) By providing the country with strong weapons to prevent terrorism either by the country itself or by the help of regional organizations. 2) Having strict rules on the use of disarm forces 3) Allowing countries to have all right to use nuclear weapons as long as other "powerful" countries such as the US to use them.
Draws the attention that certain countries such as the US are using nuclear weapons, while other countries are not permitted to use them. This is completely unfair and all counties should have the right as any other power state.
Encourages the establishment of private sector regional chamber of Commerce and business council to facilitate inter-regional trade relations. Such organizations will be instrumental in solidifying ties between private and public sectors of various economies.
Congratulates the Council on Foreign Relations to the world Economic Forum for their substantive contribution to the organization of the Casablanca Summit.
Further recommends Middle eastern and North African countries to participate together as a nation to build a foundation for a Middle East and North African Economics Community which involves, at a determined stage, a stronger disarm forces, and a stronger invention of weapons as well as the free flow of goods, capital and labor throughout the region.
Further resolves that all nations should provide themselves with a stronger disarm forces for the development and safety of the country. This way, nations will be builder up with strong military forces and be provided with stronger and powerful weapons.
Urges countries to spend money on developing their country either business wise, using foreign trade, medical appliance, and on education, rather then spending it on buying weapons.
Declares African Countries to consider about developing it's nation wisely using the increase of technology, instead of wasting money on weapons that'll only declare war in the region.
Forum: Social Committee Delegation: Morocco Questions of: Measures to Eliminate Terrorism
Defining terrorism as acts or threats of violence designed to overthrow recognized governments,
Deeply disturbed by the United Nations for not taking care of this issue and is slow in terminating terrorism,
Taking into account Resolution A/RES/60, which is written to eliminate terrorism,
Fully alarmed by the continuous increase of terrorism around the world.
Noting With deep concern the effects of terrorism on the environment, innocent people and children psychologically,
1) Calls upon all nations and members of the United Nations to stop all acts and practices leading to terrorism,
2) Resolves that the United Nations form a special team to investigate which countries have terrorism and must come up with good evidence provided: a) That the host country request such assistant, b) That the investigative team does not interfere with the country's other internal affairs,
3) Proposes that the United Nations form a new organization that can be called The United Nations Organization for Eliminating Terrorism (UNOT),
4) Further resolves that the United Nations: a) Donate necessary funds to the United Nations Organization for Eliminating Terrorism (UNOT), b) Donate as much funds to organizations that help save the lives of innocent people such as the United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF) and The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural organizations (UNESCO),
5) Asks the United Nations to be aware of the refugees that may overthrow a recognized government,
6) Congratulates all Nations that are concerned with the issue of eliminating terrorism and are in fact taking action to end it.
Honorable chair and delegates,
Morocco is glad to be present here today. In general, Morocco has good relations with almost all countries. Unlike other Islamic and/or Arabic countries, it even has peaceful relations with Israel. Morocco feels that the issue of terrorism should be dealt with very seriously, because its impact on different countries could be disastrous. Moreover, Morocco supports all actions taken against terrorists, especially those that attempt to over throw recognized government, as the case in Western Sahara. Finally, we hope that the end of this conference will render solutions for the problems presented.
As a delegate and the ambassador of Morocco at MUN-KFSAC, I believe that I have left the audience present there with a positive impression about the country that I have represented. I am very delighted by my accomplishments at the Human Rights Committee. Firstly, the resolution for which I was a co-submitter was debated in the committee and passed by the majority's vote. Secondly, after voting procedures, again, our resolution passed and was chosen to be debated at the GA. Thirdly, I was given the chance at the Human Rights Committee to make three speeches.. again, I believe that I have strongly stressed on Morocco's views, needs and significant issues, such as the Western Sahara. Unlike some delegates, I was open to points of information whenever possible. In addition, my opinions toward the issues discussed illustrated the friendly relations Morocco has with many countries. Besides that, as a participant at the MUN-KFSAC, I was also affective in which I have submitted a resolution for the SC on the question of the Kuwaiti POW's. fortunately, the conferences were very productive. I have enjoyed the event and gained great experience.
Faye Al Tukhaim: Disarmament:
I represented Morocco in the disarmament committe. I supported the resolution represented by the delegate of Gambia about the issue on the relationship between disarmament and development. not to mention I was able to confuse one of the delegates speaking about landmines. Also i spoke in the GA speaking for the resolution represnted by Cuba talking about landmines.Social: Najwa al Bishir During the KFSAC that was held in the American School of Kuwait, I Najwa Al Bisher was a delegate representing Morocco in the social forum. During our social forum meeting, we as a forum discussed four issues. The four issues were : Issue #1: Measures To eliminate international terrorism Issue #2 Strengthening the coordination of humanitarian and disaster relief assistance, including special economic assistance Issue #3 Review the implementation of the United Nations Program on Human Immuno-deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Issue #4 International Cooperation in Drug Abuse Control and Rehabilitation Programs.
I as a delegate of Morocco was able to say three speeches during the meeting. I had a speech on issue #1 that was submitted by Cuba. Basically, I emphasized in my speech that the resolution did not respect the national Sovereignty of a country because they ask for harsh penalties, such as economic sanctions on governments. This resolution failed. I also had another speech on issue#2 that was submitted by The Republic of Peru, Russia, Yugoslavia and Denmark.. In my speech I pointed strong clauses that was in the resolution and gave a brief summary on why this resolution was good and should pass. The resolution was detailed, had actions, effective for our next generation and most importantly respected a country's political sovereignty. Fortunately, this resolution passed! In addition to that, I had a speech against an amendment that was proposed to one of the resolution because it clearly didn't change anything. Luckily, this amendment failed! Unfortunately, I wasn't chosen to speak more, but I had other speeches ready on other issues. I asked a couple of points of information.