Country: Syria


Student: Nada Abduljadder

Event: Mini-MUN 2000



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The Syrian National Anthem



Syria


 

Country Profile


Political Structure:

In 1971, Hafez al Asad, the present president of the republic of Syria became its leader. An assembly of his choosing elected him as a king for Syria. In 1973 there was a constitution that gave the president the whole control of the country. Where every seven years presidential elections took place. The president chooses the Prime Minister and a committee of about 12 persons (the numbers vary from time to time), and there are no making laws permission required. The people making law assembly consist of 195 members, whom submit laws, discuss sub committees programs, and approve the countryís budget. They also have Vetoes by two-third votes, but so far they havenít used it yet. The president should be a Muslim that isnít that religious. All adults can vote, and the candidates mustnít be from the Baíth Party. The Baíth Party is a 21-person Regional Command chaired by the president. The regional command has many organizations, but the military has itís own branch. Anyone that wants to be a candidate in the Syrian government must make it to the Baíth Party, where he can show his loyalty to his country and president. Most of the best jobs of the government are given to the presidentís relatives, or people that are from the same place Hafez al Asad is from.

Syriaís justice system is based on a French model. There are two courts, the civil and the criminal. The state security court is only for persons that are political opponents. Courts governing the peopleís status such as marriage, birth, etc. are done according the religion of the person. Syria political system is known as the most autocratic system in the world. Most Syrian have dishonesty and a strong libertarian clause toward the government. Syrian believe that he government does not understand their problems. people of high social standing are the only people that like the government because they are the only ones that benefit from it.



Geography:

Syria was part of a country that is now four different countries. This country was known as Bilad al Sham. It consisted of Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Palestine. Now, Syria, known as Syrian Arab Republic is independent.

Syria borders several countries. It borders Iraq on the southeast and east, Jordan on the south, Lebanon on the west, Palestine, which the Jews invaded, now known as Israel is on the southwest, and Turkey on the far north.

Syria has a Mediterranean climate. distinguished by hot and dry summers, and mild and wet winters. Yearly rainfall ranges from about (20 to 40 in) in the coastal area, from about (10 to 20 in). It is humid in the coastal areas. Syria, therefore, has a fitting climate for each season.


Natural Resources:

Petroleum, natural gas, phosphate rock, asphalt, and salt are the main Syrian minerals found in sufficiently large quantities for commercial exploitation. Small deposits of coal, iron ore, copper, lead, and gold exist, primarily in mountainous regions. Good farmland is located in the coastal region and in parts of the valleys of the Orontes and Euphrates.



Culture:

Most of the Syrian population are Muslims (Sunni). The non-Muslims of the population are Christians, and around 4,000 are Jews.

The mother language is Arabic, whereas their second language is either Kurdish or Armenian.

There are many Libraries in Syria. Where theyíre all around Syria in Damascus, Hims, and Latakia. These libraries are from the oriental, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic art. These Libraries represent the culture of the Republic of Syria.



Economy:

Syria is basically a state-dominated country. it dependent on the help from the major Arab oil-producing states. The economy of Syria was benefited from the Gulf War. It also benefited from the increased amount of oil exports. The war led to an aid which was a pleasant surprise, where it got nearly US$5,000 million from Arab, European, and Japanese donors. Most positive economic choices stalled in the early 1990s due to the badness of the Gulf War boom and a domestic financial crisis. Oil production is likely to slow down by the end of the century, and much depends on the sufficiently of the economy, which showed some improvement in the mid-1990s, and on political developments, a very successful peace settlement with Israel. The GNP of Syria in 1995 (World Bank figure; 1993-1995 prices) was US$15,700 million in 1991, or US$2,120 per capita. The estimated annual national budget in 1994 included the earnings from the US$2,500 million and overdoing of US$3,400 million.

There are disadvantages of the economy of Syria. The disadvantages of the economy is that itís a socialist country, where the government-run operation are still very controlling and unstable, and there isnít any modern banking systems, so that makes foreigners not want to invest their money there.

Some problems of the economy of Syria is that there are high taxes, and people canít afford it because the salaries are low. On the other hand, there are big differences between the imports and the exports, whereas the import rate is growing day by day. Also, the groundwork is too weak. The roads, bridges, and buildings are old-fashioned. Despite thproblems, Syriaís economy is growing thses days.


Defense:

Syria has a large Military. The armed forces are around 500, 000. A strong military is needed to protect the government, therefore Syria has many armed forces. The fact that Syria just got out of war with Israel, proves that it has enough armed forces; it also has about 30,000 of their armed forces on the borders of Lebanon, that shows that Syria is trying the best to maintain peace in the world.

All young men have to serve in the Military at least for two years and a half. If a mother only has one son then this law is drawn for this son. Syria had a law that says if a person doesnít want to serve in the military, he can buy his entrance back. Whereas, in the early 1990ís it cost the man about 5,000$.

Syria, as stated before, has an army and an air force, but hasnít any Navy. Presidential guards are usually from Asadís family. Syria also allows women to serve the military, if they volunteer, and there is women military schools.



View of World Problems:


Actually, Syriaís problems are rare. Syria faced many problems previously, but got over them. These days, one problem Syria is facing is that its governing system is bad. It doesnít give the citizens the rights to do many things. Itís a democratic country viewed for the world. Meanwhile, inside Syria itís obvious that itís completely the opposite. People of Syria are lacking many rights. One of these rights is to democracy in their laws. Going further, Syria also has problems with two of the bordering countries. Israel is trespassing on "Julan" and taking over it. Meanwhile, itís Syriaís property. Secondly, Imposed Sanctions on Iraq are harming Syriaís economy, yet itís security is stable. Other countries that usually trade with Iraq used to pass through Syria. Now, the profit Syria used to have is no longer there. Therefore, itís harming the economy very greatly. Not ignoring the fact that the sanctions imposed on Iraq are preventing Saddam to be a threat to Syria and neighboring countries. Another problem for Syria is that a high average of the population a re poor and arenít finding any job chances in Syria. Therefore, the take the chance of leaving their countries and go work in the Gulf region, where the salaries are high. Maybe there are more problems that Syria face, but now weíll stick up with those.



History:

Syria has leavings of empires and numerous civilizations. Syriaís history is interesting, and has many things to say about. Syria has leavings of empires and numerous civilizations. The modern state of Syria was not established until 1946, after the Second World War, but it is a land, which has been inhabited since ancient times. The Egyptians, Babylonians, Hittites, Chaldeans and Persians have successively ruled ancient Syria. In 636 AD Syria was again conquered, this time by the Arabs, and became part of the fast growing Islamic Empire. Damascus became the capital of the Umayyad dynastic empire, when it was the seat of several powerful Umayyad caliphs. Rule by another Muslim dynasty, the Abbasids, followed. By the end of the 11th century, the Crusaders had arrived in the region and incorporated part of Syria into their Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem. When Salah al-Din (Saladin) defeated the Crusaders, he took Syria and overthrew the Kingdom of Jerusalem at the end of the 12th century. The Mamelukes then ruled Syria and, after 1516, became part of the Ottoman Empire, which held fast until the beginning of the First World War. At that time, an alliance between Britain, France and the Arab people resulted in the expulsion of the Turks from Syria.

Despite hopes for independence, the League of Nations declared a French mandate over Syria in 1922. This resulted in much hostile feeling towards France by the Syrian people.

"A long struggle resulted and, when the British left Syria in 1946, the country became both a republic and a charter member of the United Nations. Political instability followed the birth of the republic, with one military coup succeeding another. In 1963 the Ba'ath party came to power and the country began to stabilize. Another coup in 1970 brought to power the then Defense Minister, Hafez al-Assad, who has remained as President to the present day."


Policy Statements


The issue of external debt crisis:

Syria believes that the debt crises are major problems in the world. These problems can ease under certain circumstances, which are when the countries that owe other countries would give off the debts for the countries that canít afford to pay these debts. Further, the poor countries should have a chance to upgrade their country and live in a society were all human rights are covered. Going back to Syria, it has some debt crises. These debts come from the gulf countries such as Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Where these Gulf countries know that Syria needed that money to cover the needs of the people of its country. Therefore, these countries that Syria owe donít take the debts. Syria, however, asks the United Nations to let go on the debts of the countries that used this money to cover the needs of the country.


The issue of the review and implementation of the UN program on AIDS:

AIDS is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, where the bodyís immune system becomes weak, and so the body canít fight diseases. Although Syria doesnít have that big problem with AIDS it sees it as a major problem that threat the world. Syria believes that worldwide countries should have as more awareness of the spread of AIDS. Syria also thinks that even though AIDS doesnít have any cure, a least they can do is to make sure that there isnít any prostitution going on in countries, especially poor ones. Further on, Syria screams loudly for the United Nations to have an organization that teaches the education of AIDS where it develops the country educationally and by that the country is slightly aware from AIDS.


The issue of the international Cooperation in drug abuse control and rehabilitation programs:

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In general, Syria is not a country known for the spread of drug addicts or drug dealers around its society. Syria is a peaceful country, although, it sees drugs being as important as any other case in its society. Syria understands how important it is that the world is aware about drug abuse and believes that there should be a punishment on any drug addict or drug dealer no matter what the circumstances are. Syria is a country that proves how not having drug problems in a society is helpful to a countryís development. Finally, Syria asks the world to be alarmed about the problems drugs cause on a society that would weaken a country.



Resolution

Forum: ECOSOC (General Assembly)
Delegation: Syria


Delegate:Nada Al Abduljader
Question of:
The issue of external debt crises

Defining debts, as a state of obligation to pay something owed.

Believing that debt crises are one of the major problems in the world.

Realizing that the percentage of the amount of external debts is increasing within poor countries.

Keeping in mind that these countries that have external debt crises are having difficulties paying their owes back.

Deeply disturbed that the United Nations isnít taking this problem seriously.

Viewing with appreciation that the Gulf Countries are helping most of these countries that are suffering from external debt crises and canít afford paying their owes.

Fully believing that the rich countries will try their best to help these poor countries paying back their debts.

Expecting that the countries that owes the poor countries will not ask for their owes to be paid back to them.

Desiring that the United Nations would create an organization to solving this problem of external debt crises.

1-Acceptsthe donations of the developed countries to help the poor countries that suffer from external debt crises to solve the following:
1-Fulfill the needs of the people that live in a country that suffer a lot from debt crises. By that this country will be able to develop its self financially and educationally.

2-Further encourages the well developed countries to vote with the idea of creating an organization that will give money and other needs that can help poor countries into making their societies a better able society to live in.

3-Strongly condemns disagreements between developed countries in creating this organization and that will certainly lead to a higher rate of international conflicts between countries.

4-Congratulates the Gulf Countries for their cooperation and helpfulness toward other countries that strongly need their help in paying their owes.

5-Further congratulates the government of Kuwait for forgiving countries they owe money to because of their humanity and understanding in relationships with many worldwide countries.

6-Expresses its hopes to develop good relationships with poor and rich countries. In order for that rich and developed countries would fulfill the poor countriesí needs to their highest development goals.

7-Resolves that developed country would be able to help poor countries with their debt crises. To do the following they should:
a. Donate money that will fulfill the economic needs of the country.
b. The rich countries should not be hard going on poor countries and forgive them to pay the money they owe them
c. All countries worldwide should be standing as one hand to help countries that needs their help.
d. Countries should meet each other and plan how they are going to create the organization that will help poor countries fulfill itís utmost goals and gets rid of the external debt crises.

 

Opening Speech


Honorable chair, respectful delegates, remarkable guests, and helpful assistance, good morning/evening. Syria is honored for being here today. Syria is standing before you today in favor of an important goal it would like to achieve. This goal is to help to obtain peace for all the countries of the world. Syria will try its foremost effort to make the earth we stand on today a better place for all mankind living on it. But before Syria does that it would want to feed the listeners a background of the its country.

Syria is a country located in Asia and the Middle East of the world. Its president Hafez al Asad rules Syria. Syriaís main exports are petroleum and vegetables. Syria is known to be the country that has all the civilization of the world since it has the most significant position on the map. Most of the Syrian population is Muslims (Sunni). The non-Muslims of the population are Christians, and around 4,000 are Jews. The mother language is Arabic, whereas their second language is either Kurdish or Armenian

Syria is a country that tries its utmost goals in achieving peace and fulfilling the peopleís needs which are part of human rights. Syria is the mother of humanity, giving, and peacekeeping on the earth. Starting from this point, Syria would loudly like to announce that if and only if it had the money to help countries that needs it, it would give that money with no regret to save countries, people, and even a just born baby. This is because Syria strongly believes that lives of mankind are the most significant thing on earth. Syria believes that the world, meaning by that the countries on it, are not trying their best in making this world a better place for us, the people, to live on. Therefore, Syria finally ends its speech by saying that all economically capable countries should at least try its best in keeping the world a place were no person or country could or would suffer from poverty.