Dhow-MUN 2001/KFSAC 2001
Talal Al-Rashoud Ambassador, Disarmament Committee
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The Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic under strong presidential administration. It became a parliamentary democracy at independence from Great Britain on the 1st of October1960, yet in 1966 there was a military coup that installed the first in a series of military governments. This lead to a period of massacres, destruction, and utter chaos, in which a part of Nigeria declared itself the independent Republic of Biafra, leadingto an all-out civil war that lasted for three years before Federal Nigeria reintegrated Biafra. Nigeria was under military rule for a long time and it did not begin its transition back to civilian rule until 1998 at the hands of Major General Abubakar. This transition has not fully been completed and it is still taking place.
The president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is President Olusegun Obasanjo (since the 29th of May 1999). He is the first elected president since the beginning of the transition to civilian rule. The president of Nigeria is both chief of state and head of government. Presidents are elected by popular vote to serve no more than two four-year terms. The last election was held on the 27th of February 1999, the first free election in Nigeria since the end of military rule. In this election, Olusegun Obasanjo received 62.8% of the vote, while his opponent Olu Falae received 37.2%. The next election will take place in 2003. The cabinet to the president is the Federal Executive Council.
The legislative branch of the Nigerian government is the bicameral National Assembly, which consists of the Senate and the House of representatives. The Senate is comprised of 109 seats; three are filled by each state while one is filled by the Federal Capital Territory. Members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The last elections were held on the 20th-24th of February 1999 (next to be held in 2003). The results were (percent of vote by party): PDP 58%, APP 23%, and AD 19%. The House of Representatives is comprised of 360 seats and its members are elected by popular vote. The last elections were held on the 20th-24th of February 1999 (next to be held in 2003). The results were (percent of vote by party): PDP 58%, APP 30%, and AD 12%.
The Nigerian judicial branches are the Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the Provisional Ruling Council), and the Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee).
Nigeria’s political parties and their leaders are as follows: All People’s Party or APP [Alhaji Yusuf Ali]; Alliance for Democracy or AD [Yusuf Mamman]; People’s Democratic Party of PDP [Barnabas Gemade].
The current capital of Nigeria is the city of Abuja. On the 12th of December 1991 the capital was officially moved from Lagos to Abuja, and many government offices still remain in Lagos pending completion of facilities in Abuja and funding.
Nigeria’s form of democracy, although supposed to be like that of the US, is somewhat unclear because of the newness of the current Nigerian political system. As stated earlier, the transition from military to civilian rule is not yet complete, and there has been only one election. Many suspect fraud in the voting, yet this happens in many democratic countries.
Nigeria is a country with many resources, yet petroleum is the most abundant and profitable. Other resources include tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, natural gas, hydropower, and arable land. Agriculture also makes up a large part of Nigeria’s economy and a large part of the population depends on it for income. Nigeria’s agricultural resources are: cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, timber, and fish.
Although Nigeria is rich with agricultural products, it currently does not have the capability to feed its entire population, and it imports food and live animals. 61.69% of Nigeria’s electricity is produced by fossil fuels (mostly petroleum), while the remaining 38.31% is produced by hydroelectric power. Nigeria does currently provide itself with electricity.
The most populous country in Africa, Nigeria accounts for one-quarter of West Africa's people with a population of around 123,337,822. The variety of customs, languages, and traditions among Nigeria's 250 ethnic groups gives the country a rich diversity. The dominant ethnic group in the northern two-thirds of the country is the Hausa-Fulani (29%), most of whom are Muslim. They are the largest ethnic group of Nigeria. Other major ethnic groups of the north are the Nupe, Tiv (2.5%), and Kanuri (4%). The Yoruba (21%) people are predominant in the Southwest. About half of the Yorubas are Christian and half Muslim. The predominantly Catholic Igbo or Ibo (18%) are the largest ethnic group in the Southeast, with the Efik, Ibibio (3.5%), and Ijaw (10%) comprising a substantial segment of the population in that area as well. Persons of different language backgrounds most commonly communicate in English, although knowledge of two or more Nigerian languages is widespread. Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo are the most widely used. The religions of Nigeria are, by percent: Islam (50%), Christianity (40%), and indigenous beliefs (10%). The division of Muslim and Christian areas is, roughly, north vs. south with the Muslims predominantly in the north and the Christians predominantly in the south.
With over 250 cultures, Nigeria has witnessed many serious and bloody conflicts between the various ethnic and religious groups. Many of these conflicts still exist today, and many believe that the people of a country so ethnically diverse will never come to peace with each other. There always exists a high probability of internal conflict in Nigeria.
The Nigerian Military is composed of four branches: the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Police Force. The minimum age for military service is 18 and only males can serve in the military. The amount of population (aged 15-49) available for military service is 29,082,802. The amount of population (aged 15-49) fit for military service is 16,708,344. The amount of population reaching military age annually is 1,360,023. The amount of Nigeria’s total military expenditure is $236 million, which accounts for 0.7% of the GDP.
Although the military history of the West African region extends back a millennium or more, Nigeria's present-day armed forces, like those of most African states, are the direct descendants of colonial military units. The officer corps was made fully indigenous (meaning made up of native population) by the mid 1960s, and in 1990 the Nigerian armed forces were among the largest and most professional in Africa. The military and political functions and international peacekeeping roles of the armed forces have expanded significantly but remained subject to several constraints. Nigeria was still heavily dependent on foreign arms but had embarked on a program of military industrialization. Voluntary military service made recruitment easy, and training was highly professional.
Compared with its neighbors, Nigeria possesses overwhelming military strength. Its sizeable and relatively well-equipped armed forces were capable of defending the country against any likely external threat and of projecting power in the region. In fact, prior to the Persian Gulf war of 1989-90, Nigeria was the only country in west central Africa to mount and sustain military operations abroad. Although the army had been cut by more than one-half since 1970, its firepower and mobility have increased considerably. The other services have grown little, but their combat systems increased in number and sophistication. The navy expanded its mission from coastal defense to sea-lane protection and acquired modest amphibious and antisubmarine warfare capab. Likewise, the NAF developed and improved its capacity for ground attack, air support, interdiction, air defense, airlift, and air mobility operations. Nigeria's military capabilities were subject to several systemic constraints, however. Economic difficulties and budgetary limitations slowed the pace of military modernization, delayed new equipment procurements, hindered defense industrial growth, reduced training, and magnified logistical and maintenance deficiencies. The country’s transition from a military to a civilian government also further added to the constraints.
Nigeria currently has no military enemies. However, being the dominant military power in the area and the head of ECOWAS, Nigeria’s army is in a state of constant alert due to problems in neighboring countries, such as Liberia.
Nigeria is located in West Africa and covers a land area of 923,768 sq km (land 910,768 sq km water 13,000 sq km). It is bordered by Benin to the west (773 km), Cameroon to the east (1,690 km), Chad to the northeast (87 km), and Niger to the north (1,497 km). To the south lies the Gulf of Guinea (bights of Benin and Biafra) with 853 km of coastline. Nigeria’s maritime claims are 12 nm of territorial sea and 200 nm designated an exclusive economic zone. Nigeria’s size is comparatively slightly more than twice the size of the state of California. It lies in the GMT +1 time zone.
Nigeria can be divided into five major geographic divisions. The first is a low coastal zone along the Gulf of Guinea. This is then succeeded northward by hills and low plateaus. The third is the Niger-Benue river valley, which can be called the center of the country. The fourth is a broad, stepped plateau stretching to the northern border with the highest elevations reaching over 1,200 meters. The fifth and last is a mountainous region along the eastern border. The lowest point in Nigeria is the Atlantic Ocean (0 m) while the highest point is Chappal Waddi (2,419 m). Arable land accounts for 33% of the country, while permanent crops occupy 3%, permanent pastures 44%, and forests and woodland 12%. Nigeria’s climate is primarily tropical.
The capital of Nigeria is now officially Abuja. The country is still in the process of moving the government offices from the former capital Lagos. Other major Nigerian cities include Kano.
The Nigerian economy, rich in its oil resources, has long suffered from it’s political "instability", "corruption", and "poor management", but the new civilian administration is undergoing considerable economic reform to expand the economy away from over dependence on the capital-intensive oil sector after the failure of the former military rule in doing so. Plus, the rapid population growth has largely affected the agricultural sector by exceedingits ability to keep up with the growth, and now, Nigeria, formerly being a large net exporter of food, must now import food.
The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) that Nigeria holds in money is $110.5 billion with an annual growth rate of 2.7%. That gives the per capita income of about $970 per capita. Also, the GDP composition covers 33% agriculture, 42% industrial, and 25% services. The population below poverty line is 34.1%, and the inflation rate is 12.5%.
The Labor force provided in Nigeria is 42.844 million, with a percentage of 54% of the labor in the agricultural sector, a 6% on industrial, and a 40% on services, that, plus an unemployment rate of 28%.
The industries that are provided by Nigeria are the crude oil industry, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, and the steel industry.
The Agricultural products include cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; and fish.
The net exports in Nigeria estimate a $13.1 billion, and its supplies include petroleum and petroleum products (which is 95% of exports), cocoa, and rubber. Its export trading partners include US (35%), Spain (11%), India (9%), France (6%), and Italy.
The net imports in Nigeria estimate a $10 billion, and its commodities include, machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, and live animals. Its import trading partners include the UK (13%), US (12%), Germany (10%), France (9%), and the Netherlands.
In conclusion, the external debt in Nigeria estimates at about $39.2 billion, and its economic aid estimates a $39.2 million. Nigeria is generally able to pay its debts.
View on World Problems
The Federal Republic of Nigeria is a dominant power within the African continent and a country with considerable influence on the world stage. Nigeria uses this position wisely, and endeavors in many efforts and organizations worldwide that help bring peace, economic stability, and a higher degree of cooperation between countries. Nigeria is a proud, upstanding member of the OAU and other regional and international organizations. Nigeria maintains healthy relations with its neighbors, the West African nations, and many other countries worldwide.
Nigeria participates in the following international organizations: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNTAET, UNU, UPU,WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WtrO. ECOWAS, the Economic Community of West African States, is an organization headed by Nigeria that encourages economic and military unity between the West African states.
Nigeria is a party to the following international environmental agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands. Nigeria has ratified all agreementsit has signed.
Nigeria’s international disputes include: The delimitation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, has been completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; A dispute with Cameroon over land and maritime boundaries around the Bakasi Peninsula, which is currently before the ICJ; A tripartite maritime boundary and economic zone dispute with Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon, which is currently before the ICJ. Other transnational issues include the facilitation of the movement of heroin en route from Southeast and Southwest Asia to Western Europe and North America, and being a transit route for cocaine from South America intended for European,East Asian, and North American markets. Nigeria endeavors to keep an open mind and a will to negotiate, and it does what it can to bring any transnational problems to rest.
The states of Kanem and Borno (which flourished from about AD10) on the shores of Lake Chad were the first imperial states in the region; their wealth was founded on control of trans-Saharan trade routes (i.e. through controlling the trade in the region). From the 11th to 14th centuries the Islamic Hausa city-states were also adominant influence, whilst in the Southwest the Yoruba cities of Ife, Oyo and Benin became major trading centres.
In the 15th century, the Portuguese began trading – first for spices, later for slaves. The Portuguese were later supplanted by other European trading nations. The slave trade (i.e. the presence of European powers, predominantly the Portuguese) disrupted the balance of power in the region as did, in the 18th century, the southward expansion of the Islamic faith and the arrival of Christian missionaries. This disrupted any loose unity that the area had.
At the end of the 19th century, the British conquered the territory of present-day Nigeria. After the Second World War, the first step towards decolonisation was the introduction of a federal sof government. A Muslim northerner, Alhaji Abulbakar Tafawa Balewa, became the first Prime Minister. After a period of internal self-government, full independence from Britain was achieved in 1960.
Nigeria does not have a long history as one country or power, but the region that Nigeria now encompasses has a long history of trade and other interaction.
Security Problems in West Africa
As head of the ECOWAS community, Nigeria is well aware of the security problems in West Africa. Between the former civil war in Liberia, the Sierra Leonean conflict, and the strife in Guinea, West Africa is facing a serious dilemma. The ECOWAS organization, as well as being Economical, is strongly associated with the regions security as well. Nigeria and the ECOWAS are perfectly competent in dealing with these situations, although it welcomes any good-intentioned outside help at all times. Nigeria’s armed forces, and those of other West African states that contribute security forces to the ECOWAS, are large in number, competent, and well equipped. The ECOWAS has an advanced military intelligence and monitoring system present in each West African country, a center of which has recently been opened in the Republic of Benin. Furthermore, The ECOWAS and Nigeria are also prepared to lend their full support to the UN peacekeeping forces in the region.
The only reason why these issues have not been solved is their complication. The ECOWAS forces are prepared to keep the peace; the countries themselves must co-operate, as we cannot, say, overthrow a government. With countries backing rebels, Mafia selling weapons, and the migration of refugees, these issues are trans-borderal. There is always the question of authority, and the differing goals of each state and/or group. Despite this, Nigeria and the ECOWAS will do all within their power to bring an end to this chaos and anarchy.
Specifically, Nigeria condemns the actions of Liberian president Charles Taylor and deems him highly irresponsible. Nigeria also condemns all sides not willing to lay down their arms and work for peace. Nigeria highly appreciates the efforts of the republic of Guinea in holding talks between the three war-torn nations. In the end, it is our duty to provide peace to our West African brethren as it is their god given right.
- Effective international arrangements to assist non nuclear states against the use or threat of nuclear weapons:
Nigeria is a prominent military power in the African continent, but not a nuclear power. Nuclear weapons are powerful and destructive devices that an increased number of governments are getting their hands on. Should these weapons fall into the wrong hands, itcould spell utter chaos and destruction. It is the belief of Nigeria that strong restrictions should be applied on the use of nuclear weapons, and that nations that do not posses them should have the right and capability to defend themselves.
- The relationship between disarmament and development:
Many military governments have come into power in the Republic of Nigeria. Since the beginning of the transition from military back to civilian rule in 1998 at the hands of Major General Abubakar, Nigeria has become well acquainted with the relationship between disarmament and development. The Nigerian army has seen large reductions, and Nigeria has developed as a democratic nation. Although disarmament is not always needed for development, in many cases it helps a great deal. Disarmament may be a good solution to the current strife in West Africa.
- Compliance with the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti Ballistic Missile systems:
The limitation of ABM systems is an important issue with the permanent SC countries. Nigeria has no form of such defenses, or any weapons that this defense targets. Nigeria believes that a country has a right to defend itself, but not to the degree that makes it near invincible. Nigeria hopes that the countries involved in the debate on this issue will reach a fair and just compromise.
- Reducing availability of firearms to civilians and stopping illegal trafficking of such firearms:
This issue is very important to Nigeria and the West African nations. The abundance of firearms has allowed fighting to spark in such nations as Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea. As criminal arms dealers take advantage of this situation, illegal weapons trafficking has spread in many African nations, further adding to the violence. Nigeria believes that strong restrictions should be applied concerning civilian possession of firearms, and that the illegal arms market should be shut down at all costs.
- Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security:
As head of the ECOWAS community and a significant military power in its own right, Nigeria has had experience in the field of information and telecommunications regarding military intelligence. Also, in cooperation with the UN and some countries, Nigeria has always played a large role in peacekeeping missions worldwide. ECOWAS has a state of the art intelligence system covering important points all over West Africa, and the ECOWAS organization and the government of Nigeria are prepared to lend an experienced hand to the international community concerning this issue.
- Use of Herbicides and defoliants in drug control programs:
Herbicides are a well-used mean to decrease the amount of weeds grown in fields. This is very helpful because herbicides would actually reduce the amount of drugs that is being planted in Nigeria, and that is most definitely helpful for Nigeria’s problem in drug control.
- Land Reform Policy with particular regard to Southern Africa:
Nigeria, as a fellow African country, has come to the full attention of the crisis that is going on in Zimbabwe. It understands the delicate situation that the people of Zimbabwe are trying to solve. Therefore, Nigeria will support Zimbabwe to reach an adequate and reasonable solution to end this crisis, and it hopes that both sides will reach a fair and just compromise.
- Measures to control population growth:
Nigeria is one of the most populated countries in the world, with a population of 127 million; it has been ranked the 10th most populated country, this is, in Nigeria’s benefit, not good. Nigeria’s once largely subsistent agricultural sector has failed to keep up with the rapid population growth, and being once a large net exporter of food, must now import food. Not only that, but the rise of the HIV/AIDS effected people rate has also increased to 5.06%, with 2.7 million people affected with it from1999. Nigeria seriously needs policies that would help decrease the fast population growth and the decrease in funds to help aid this increasing population from diseases such as HIV/AIDS.
This problem is not an ethnic problem, but a national problem, and all ethnic and nationalist Nigerian’s should come together to fight this problem. Nigeria would most definitely support policies that would lead to the decrease in the amount of the population such as supporting the UNFPA, and the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (1994). It would also certainly support policies such as limiting the number of births per family and paying a fine in result of crossing the limit of births.
- Effective implementation of anti poaching policies in wildlife reserves:
Nigeria, as a country with wild life, has taken effective measures to protect the wild life of not only Nigeria, but of Africa as a whole. It has asked for help from different organizations such as the GRA (Game Rangers Association of Africa) that have helped in decreasing poaching throughout Nigeria and other countries as well. Nigeria proposes that all countries should help protect the wildlife from extinction due to careless poaching.
- Freedom of speech and the control of racism, pornography terrorism and incitement to violence on the Internet:
Nigeria believes that it’s very important to give oneself the freedom ospeech in order for people to express their thoughts and feelings. On the other hand, racism in today’s world has been partially controlled, and Nigeria believes that it must take role in further controlling racism to achieve world peace. Pornography in Nigeria is not an issue to be concerned about. Due to partial lack of technology among much of the population, pornography, thankfully, have not reached a state of concern. Terrorism however, has to be controlled thoroughly. In the past years Nigeria have witnessed incredibly disappointing terrorist acts, which made Nigeria believe that something must be done towards that. The incitement of violence is a problem not only in Nigeria, but also in most of the African countries. Thankfully, it has no reached to the incitement of violence in the Internet. After all, Nigeria will accept any humanitarian approach toward world peace.
- Questions of capital punishment:
In Nigeria, Capital punishments have taken role to criminals that commit serious crimes such as murder. This is a reason why Nigeria does not suffer from prison overcrowding. Nigeria believes that a criminal must be punished for what he has done. In Nigeriaexecution has played a great and successful role against crime. Also, Nigeria’s Muslim population has influenced its approach toward capital punishments, and the‘Sharia’, or Islamic law, has been implemented in one of the states. Nigeria would gladly urge other countries to imply capital punishments to decrease crime rate and ensure that justice is served.
- Limitations and restrictions on the right of freedom of speech with regard to the restriction of coverage of military and police actions:
Nigeria believes that freedom of speech is a huge step toward social development. Although in the past the government intervened in freedom of speech, it no longer does. Nigeria, today, gives its people the complete freedom of speech, taking into account the limitations of the Nigerian constitution. Moreover, it stopped the government from interfering with speakers. Therefore, Nigeria encourages the freedom of speech, for it is a way to success.
- Use of children in warfare:
Nigeria believes that using children in warfare is extremely inhumane. Nigeria has seen other countries’ children caught up in warfare (Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea). They usually have little choice but to experience, at minimum, the same horrors as their parents; children have always been particularly exposed. When food supplies have run short, it is children who have been hardest hit, since their growing bodies need steady supplies of essential nutrients. When water supplies have been contaminated,it is children who have had the least resistance to the dangerous diseases. Moreover, the trauma of exposure to violence and brutal death has emotionally affected generations of young people for the rest of their lives. Therefore, Nigeria is strongly against exposing children to warfare.
Global code of ethics for tourism:
This issue basically talks about tourists that go to countries for bad reasons. A strong and obvious example of this is what’s happening in Thailand. Many tourists go to Thailand to engage in sex with children and prostitutes. The government is aware of this but does nothing because they want to attract tourists and not repel them. Nigeria does not have many tourists that visit it compared to other tourist countries in Europe and Asia. Nigeria does have a problem with prostitution but it is mainly internal because there are only few tourists that visit our country. This is a problem Nigeria is striving to solve.
Internationally speaking, Nigeria does not support any resolution that actually supports this issue, but supports resolutions that aim to solve this problem. Nigeria would vote for a resolution that seems to do what is right and does not stand against Nigeria’s general policy.
- Elimination of debt burden in less developed countries:
Nigeria and all African nations are with the idea of elimination of debt burden in less developed countries. Almost all African nations fall under the category of less developed countries and most of those countries are in debt to western nations such as France, USA, and England. Although Nigeria is not facing problems with debts to other countries, it is taking this position because this is the position all African countries would take, and one of Nigeria's main policies is African unity.Another reason Nigeria takes this position is because it believes in regional economic cooperation and development, so by African countries not paying debts, they will be able to improve the regional economic cooperation and development with fellow African nations. The last and probably most important reason is that elimination of debt would allow countries to trade more within Africa which would lead to economical growth and development.
- Exploitation of children in the labor market:
Nigeria does not deny that this is a problem in the world, and in Africa especially. Nigeria believes that the reason that children are being exploited in the labor market is poverty. Parents and adults are forced to exploit their children in the labor market because theirresources are not enough to cover all their costs, so they depend on their children as another way to make money. Nigeria believes that the only solution for this problem is to ask all developed nations to give the African region a hand in facing this problem, either financially or morally. Nigeria believes that when developed nations share their resources and knowledge with African countries, then instead of Africa falling under the less developed category, they would be upgraded to developed countries. Nigeria also believes in the nonintentional interference in the internal affairs of countries. So developed nations should give the goods to the government, and they governments will distribute the goods. Nigeria applauds UNICEF and other private and governmental organizations that are striving to eradicate this problem.
- Implementation of the UN program on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS):
Nigeria, or Africa mainly, is at war with AIDS. Because some African nations can not solve this problem independently due to financial deficiency and many other reasons, AIDS is widely spread as an outcome. Nigeria recognizes the current UN program but is also aware that even though it is in effect, nothing much has been done since. Nigeria asks the sponsors and co sponsors of this resolution to give this program all it needs, whether monetary or non-monetary help.
- Human cloning and organ harvesting:
Nigeria does not consider this issue vital or give it any importance. Nigeria always looks out for the best interest of modern science, yet in this case there is a moral issue involved. Cloning has many problems that go hand in hand with it. It is considered by some to be inhumane and also considered a crime in some regions. Nigeria does not differentiate between human cloning and organ harvesting on this issue, as both have the same concepts involved. Nigeria is skeptical on this issue, yet would not rule it out completely.
Delegation: The Federal Republic of Nigeria
Question of: Reducing availability of firearms to civilians and stopping illegal trafficking of such firearms
Defining firearms as a weapon, especially a pistol or rifle, capable of firing a projectile and using an explosive charge as a propellant;
Defining illegal arms trafficking as any unlicensed selling, purchasing, and/or transporting of weapons without the consent of the prevailing government/s;
Noting with deep concern that illegal firearms are killing innocent civilians, increasing crime, and sparking ethnic, religious, and political conflicts worldwide;
Alarmed by the escalating conflicts worldwide as a result of illegal possession and use of arms, namely: Israel and Palestine, Kashmir, Northern Ireland, the Balkans, Sri Lanka, etc.;
Bearing in mind the tragic bloodshed in countries such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Rwanda caused by armed conflict and rebellions;
Supports all peace-loving countries that are willing to place their differences aside and work together to abolish this highly destructive trade;
Notes that it is the right of our peoples to live in peace without the fear of armed conflict;
1-Draws the attention of the international community to this severe problem and the importance of solving it;
2-Notes with appreciation the efforts of international and regional organizations such as Interpol (International Police) and ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) that are helping to abolish this illegal activity;
3-Resolves that all countries voluntarily apply or revise the following laws concerning restrictions upon civilian possession of firearms (these laws will only be instated if they agree with the countries constitution):
1st) All persons wishing to own and/or use a firearm must first obtain a license from the government. This procedure would contain taking a written test and divulging personal information.
2nd) No persons under the age of 21 will be allowed to obtain a firearm license or purchase weapons or ammunition.
3rd) Civilian possession of weapons should be restricted to small arms no more powerful than a high grade hunting rifle. The government will rate the power of firearms before making them available to the public.
4th) By no means should a civilian posses any of the following weapons:
- Explosives and explosive projectiles (i.e. missiles, grenades).
- Nuclear weapons.
- Biological weapons.
- Chemical weapons and poison gas.
- Anti-aircraft weaponry.
- High power machine-guns.
- Cannon and artillery.
- Napalm and flame throwers.
5th) Countries reserve the right to ban other weapons not mentioned above if the need arises;
4-Acknowledges the efforts of IANSA (International Action Network on Small Arms) to prevent the proliferation and misuse of small arms and light weapons. IANSA is an international network of over 340 organizations from 71 countries containing human rights monitors, relief and development agencies, security and gun control groups, and religious and public health groups;
5-Asks all countries to lend their full cooperation and to contribute if possible, to the UN and IANSA efforts concerning disarmament/weapons destruction programs such as the one recently implemented in Sierra Leone by the UN;
6-Further resolves that IANSA and all participating countries form an sub- organization for intelligence and research called IOMIA (International Organization for Monitoring Illegal Arms) that’s main goals are:
1st) The monitoring of trans-borderal illegal arms trafficking and arms-Mafia activities.
2nd) The gathering of intelligence on trans-borderal arms-Mafia organizations.
3rd) The sharing of this information between member states through meetings and telecommunications.
4th) The development of disarmament/weapons destruction programs for the use of member states;
7-Requests that selected countries with high illegal arms traffic, operations, and/or armed conflict voluntarily allow IANSA and/or IOMIA to set up branches on their land;
8- Encourages countries to tighten border control and to inspect shipments arriving from air, land, and sea carefully. Intelligence provided by IOMIA will form a large basis for these inspections;
9-Urges countries with sufficient funds to provide aid to less fortunate countries for development of security standards and technology. This money will also be used to implement disarmament/weapon destruction programs created by IOMIA;
10-Strongly urges all countries to implement weapons collection campaigns from the civilian population such as the one implemented in Kuwait after the Gulf War conflict. Civilians will turn in arms in return for compensation fees. All weapons collected will be destroyed, as is the custom with most UN weapons collection programs;
Delegation: The Federal Republic of Nigeria
Delegate: Bader Al-Tukhaim
Question of: Implementation of the UN program on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS)
Defining HIV as "the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome", and AIDS as "a serious (mostly fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles" ;
Noting with concern the continuing spread of HIV/AIDS, particularly HIV/AIDS-associated deaths in 2000, which represent about 25 per cent of all HIV-related mortality since the beginning of the epidemic;
Pointing out that According to CNN’s program "AIDS in Africa" which premiered on Sunday 21st of April, showed that AIDS is a humanitarian disaster in which 20 million Africans are predicted to die;
Deeply concerned of the fact that African countries can’t do much by themselves about this disease;
Recognizing that special efforts are needed to help developing countries combat AIDS;
Bearing in mind that according to CNN’s program "AIDS in Africa" which premiered on Sunday 21st of April, reported that 73% of the African population are suffering from AIDS;
Noting with concern the increasingly dramatic situation of millions of children worldwide who are living under threat of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and welcoming the theme of the World AIDS Campaign on Children Living in a World without AIDS;
Noting with appreciation the progress achieved in the implementation of the activities of the Joint and Co-Sponsored United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS by its co-sponsoring organization, and acknowledging the continued efforts made by Governments in response to HIV/AIDS at the national level as well as the financial support provided by countries for these efforts;
1. Urges the co-sponsors of the Joint and Co-Sponsored United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and other related organizations of the United Nations system to strengthen their commitment to the response to the epidemic by collecting and unifying HIV/AIDS components throughout their operational activities at the global, regional and country levels and in their follow-up activities to global conferences;
2. Requests co-sponsoring organizations and the program to spread clear guidance to country staff on the role and goals of the United Nations theme groups on HIV/AIDS and their significant roles in providing technical assistance, and to report back to their governing bodies on measures undertaken in their assistance;
3. Requests the United Nations to strongly and financially support the HIV/AIDS program so it can carry out its efforts of preventing AIDS in different countries around the world of which Africa is known to be a major one, because what Africa is doing isn’t good enough;
4. Resolves that all co-sponsoring countries send in aid of some sort to:
a.) help cure and treat the disease,
b.) increase productiviof the World and African population,
c.) prevent the spreading of the disease more over new victims,
d.) fund anti-aids research;
5. Expresses its hope that all supporting nations will not delay or disrupt the aiding process, so that the nations plagued will have a better recovery in order to prevent any further unnecessary death losses for the current situation;
6. Appeals to governments, the co-sponsors, and all interested contributors to broaden their program activities in the area of HIV/AIDS in order to cover all aspects of the epidemic;
7. Calls upon all donors to continue their support and those not contributing to substantially increase their support to the Programme;
8. Urges that first world industrial countries participate monetarily in all campaigns held against AIDS affiliated with the Programme;
9. Welcomes the support of other countries and organizations, and urges all those in a position to do so to contribute to the Programme;
Country: Federal Republic of Nigeria
Issue: Measures to control population growth
Defining population as "all of the people inhabiting a specified area",
Defining population growth as "the increase in the members of a species in a particular area",
Defining the UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund) as an organization that helps developing countries find solutions to their population problems through funding and helping developing countries find solutions to their population problems,
Aware of the fact that the most populated countries are the countries that are the poorest and least prepared,
Expressing Its Appreciation towards the UNFPA for its continuous effort in trying to stabilize population growth through their missions that is:
a. "Extend assistance to developing countries, countries with economies in transition and other countries at their request to help them address reproductive health and population issues."
b. "To ensure universal access to reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, to all couples and individuals on or before the year 2015."
c. "Is guided by, and promotes, the principles of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (1994)."
d. "Convinced that meeting these goals will contribute to improving the quality of life and to universally accepted aim of stabilizing world population",
Draws the attention to the fact that the world population increases by 77 million per year,
Deeply concerned about the fact that the population has doubled since 1960 to reach a population of 6 billion according to the UNFPA sources,
Confident that if all countries cooperate with the UNFPA, the population crisis would eventually decrease dramatically within a short period of time,
Emphasizing that the United Nations should take effective measures to improve the UNFPA through various policies to help control the worlds increasing population rate,
1. Notes that the UNFPA began operation in 1969, and is the largest international source of population assistance with about a quarter of all population assistance from donor nations to developing countries is channeled through UNFPA;
2. Congratulates the UNPFA for its activities and programs that are helping decrease the rate of population growth;
3. Regrets that fact that some nations aren’t doing anything about their increasing population rate;
4. Further recommends that all countries worldwide should concentrate more on the issue of population growth;
5. Calls upon all countries to cooperate and join the UNFPA in order to control the rate of population growth before the year 2015 according to the UNFPA target;
6. Resolves that the UNFPA should increase its activities, programs, and responsibilities to further heights through various programs that include:
a. Increasing education throughout member countries and especially the most populated countries by:
i- Adding sex education classes to public and private schools.
ii- Lecture campaigns and awareness programs in schools and public places.
b. Increase awareness through media programs that include: television advertisements, radio advertisements, and street posters and signs;
7. Further resolves that the UNFPA will be responsible for providing member countries with diverse methods for safe sexual activities such as:
a. Providing condoms for all member countries to help achieve safe sexual activities by distributing them throughout community centres, first for free, and the then for a small amount of money.
b. Provide other birth control methods such as pills, etc, with the presentation differing from culture to culture;
8. Encourages the UNFPA, through research, to place a suggested limit to the amount of childbirths for citizens of each overpopulated country according to the population of that country. This is an effective solution to the problem and it has been seen working in countries such as China. The country then may voluntarily employ this law; it does not have to. The law works in that if the limit of offspring allowed has been crossed, a monthly fine will be the result to those who cross the limit;
9. Further recommends that any nation that joins this program be awarded with a grant from the World Bank that is equal to 2% of the country’s GDP. Countries that implement the above mentioned law will receive a further 2%.
10. Expresses its hope to a world with a controlled population rate that would help countries regain their power and overcome poverty that results from the overflow of the population.
Delegate: Nada Al Abduljader
Commission: Human rights
Issue: The Question of capital punishment
Defining Capital Punishment as a legal infliction of the death penalty,
Bearing in mind that murder rate in nations applying capital punishment has decreased by a rate of 85%,
Have studied the Old Testament of the bible and the holy Qur’an and found that they both state/believe that capital punishment is necessary to promote peace,
Recalling that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that the ideal of free human beings "enjoying freedom from fear", and therefore Capital Punishment must be put to action,
Taking into consideration that many nations such as our brother African Nations, China, the United States of America, and the Middle East nations use capital punishment as an important part of its laws and constitutions,
Fully believing that capital punishment will set an example of what will become of committers of high crimes,
Viewing with appreciation the study of the economist Stephen K. Layson, published in 1985, at the University of North Carolina that showed that every execution of a murderer deters, on average, 18 murders. The study also showed that raising the number of death sentences by one percent would prevent 105 murders,
Referring to an article written by "Richard Worchop" that states that death penalty has risen 80% since 1998 which clears that all nations should be concerned on applying capital punishment on high degree criminals,
Noting with regret that certain European and world nations do not employ capital punishment because of certain confusion that it is against human rights,
Welcoming all nations willing to support this resolution,
1- Draws the attention to the importance of the implementation of capital punishment in all nations;
2- Looks down upon the acts of nations who employ alternative sentencing on high degree criminals who deserve the death penalty;
3- Requests all nations that do not imply capital punishment to consider changing their constitution and voluntarily adding the death penalty law;
4- Further Requests countries that implement capital punishment to meet up in a summit with the countries that don’t, where there will be a clear presentation of the law. The summit will be held in Geneva in Switzerland on the 10th of January 2002;
5- Resolves the formation of ICCA, International Criminal Court Agency, that’ll be a sub committee within the UN, which will do the following:
One) Hire expert lawyers/ detectives that majored in criminal justices/investiwho will:
a) Study and investigate the cases of high degree criminals sent to the court by member countries.
b) Decide if the criminal is eligible to go through capital punishment, if so they search for reason (cause and effect) of the crime.
c) Choose an alternative sentencing if and only if there is a reasonable doubt of a criminal being innocent (after meticulous investigations on the case).
Two) Set an arbitration committee consisted of 12 experienced judges that will make a final decision on the criminal (taking into account the different laws according to the constitution / religion of each country) by:
a) Reading a report of the case submitted by the lawyers’/detectives’ studies and investigations against this criminal
b) listening to what the criminal has to say
Three) Send the punishment’s decision to the criminal’s member country’s ministry of justice, so that they would apply the capital punishment on the alleged criminal.
6- Expresses its hopes that all countries present in this event will vote for this resolution on the question of capital punishment that will promote peace and justice in the world.
Honorable chair, fellow delegates, and all those present, Ek’abo, Nno, Saanu. These greetings represent only a minor faction of over 250 African ethnic groups, conversing in over 250 languages, united and standing before you today addressing the assembly with one voice; the voice of Nigeria; the voice of Africa.
Ladies and gentlemen, imagine a region continually disturbed by war, a region where blood continually flows, children are continually hungry, and the sound of weapons coupled with cries of anger, fear, hate, and pain are continually audible in the night air. Ladies and gentlemen, if you are imagining this, you are imagining a large area of West Africa ravaged and raped by war. You are also imagining countless other battlefields on the face of this earth:Kashmir, Israel and Palestine, Afghanistan, Rwanda, Northern Ireland, Columbia… If the list of these countries were to be continued, this would be a very long speech indeed.
Nigeria stands before you today as an ambassador of peace, a hopeful soul for a peaceful Africa and a peaceful world. Brothers and sisters, it is the right of our peoples to live in peace, free from hunger, free from bloodshed, free from suffering, and free from fear. Nigeria urges all true peace loving nations to work together to achieve abetter degree of understanding and to work out their differences in the name of peace, for there is no greater a cause.