Delegate: Dalia Al Awad
Event: Dhow-MUN 2002
Australia is a island that is one of the largest countries in the world, it is surrounded by many pacific and oceans, the commonwealth one of Australia memberships is made up of six states which are: New South Wales, Queen land, South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and Western Australia. They also consist of two territories: Australians Antarctic Territory and the Northern Territory. The capital of Australia is Canberra.
Australia is a democratic country, it is also an independent self-governing state, and it’s a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Its constitution is based on British parliamentary tradition and includes element of the United States system. The head of the government is the Australian Prime Minister, who is responsible to the Australians parliament. Australia is a member of the United Nations.
Australia is rich in mineral resources such as iron ore, nickel, gold, lead, zinc and silver. The huge diamond deposit is located in Kimberly’s in 1979, and made Australia the world’s leading supplier by volume and value of diamonds. Australia has some of the world’s largest known uranium reserve, in Queen land, Northern Territory, New South Wale, and South Australia, but there was objection of using the uranium for the environmental reasons and the anti-nuclear policy. Australia has both fossils and renewable energy resources such as coal and natural gas. Tasmania is the most mountainous part of Australia, and it covers most of the electricity needs, also Australia has powerful windmill, used during the pioneering days of white settlement. Australia is self sufficient in most minerals of economic significance and one of the most world’s leading producers, Western Australia has the largest share of total mineral production. Australia covers 12% of the gold production in the world. Their trade centers are the United States and Japan and the others are China, Canada, South Korea, Germany, New Guinea, New Zealand, Italy, United Kingdom
Sydney is the first city that remains the largest, its the country’s leading financial and commercial centre and one of the most important parts, it also contain the world’s largest area of suburbs. Other important cities in Australia are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaible. Canberra the built national capital and the only one of Australia’s largest cities, is located inland, it had a population of 328,000 in 1994.
Australia has no established churches and guarantees freedom of worship, however the majority of the population characterizes are Christians, there are small Jewish, Buddhist, and Muslims, by 1970’s the Buddhist and the Muslims increased by changing the immigration’s pattern.
The first Australian’s were the aborigines, Anthropologists believe that aborigine emigrated from Asia and they stayed in Australia more than 40,000 years ago. When the sea level was low and it was like a bridge between the two continents, so many aborigines immigrated and settled in Australia.
The system of defense employed by Australia dates from 1911, when the commonwealth government instituted compulsory military service. The first enemy attack on Australia territory was the aerial bombing of Darwin by the Japanese early in World War 2, Australians troops also participated in both World Wars, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Gulf war. The Australian military consists of active armed forces personnel was 56,100. The army numbered about 23,700, the navy, and the air force, both men and women cooperated in the Wars. Australia focused on their defense policy, since the early 1950’s the mutual defense and support treaty (1952) with the United States of America and New Zealand. Australia depends in America and New Zealand for defense in wars or battle, but mostly New Zealand helps Australia in battles and wars since their militaries are tied together.
Australia is a island continent that is located between the Indian and South Pacific oceans south-east of Asia, The continent is bounded on the north by the Timor sea and the Torres Strait, From the east the Coral Sea and the Tasman sea, on the south the Bass Strait and the Indian ocean, and on the west by the Indian ocean. The area alone is 7,614,500 sq km, making Australia the smallest continent and one of the largest countries in the world.
Two thirds of Australia is a desert or semi desert and has a very high rate of evaporation. The country’s climate is hot and dry although it’s topical in the north and cool temperature in Tasmania. It can have different climates depending on the area like in highland area is too small and low so it has a cooler weather.
Australia is a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, it is a rich country, and it has many natural resources such as gold and coal, the people enjoy having the highest standard of living.
Agriculture and mining are the main role in the historical development of Australia, and it’s one of the world’s outstanding producers of primary products. They are self-sufficient in foodstuffs, and they export dairy products, wheat, meat, and wool. Australia produces more than 25% of the world’s yearly output of wool and they produce and export minerals and coal.
The Australia dollar is the unit currency of Australia. The currency was converted in 1966 from the old Britain system. The stock exchange in the six state capitals merged in 1987 to form the Australians stock exchange.
To protect the Australian tariff policy they agreed in 1990 to remove the barrier between Australia and New Zealand, and to trade with some of the commonwealth countries.
Japan and the United States of America are Australia’s major partners. Other leading Australians exports are: New Zealand, United Kingdom, Germany, South Korea, New Guinea, Canada, China, Italy, and Papua. Metalliferous ores, coal, non-ferrous metals, oil, wool, and cereals are Australians main exports. Meat is also an important export item.
View on world problems:
One of the main problem facing Australia it’s relation European Committee, especially in the trade relation. Australia is trying very hard to compete Europe in exporting agriculture and especially wheat, but European committee creates problems for the Australian culture exports by imposing many tariffs and the same time Europe subdivide for it’s wheat export, which consequently the European wheat price become very competitive to the wheat price of Australia. Australia is presenting this problem at the World Trade Organization and accusing European committee by imposing difficulties, to the Australian agriculture export. Now World Trade Organization studying this problem and trying to accommodate the European committee and Australia by finding a solution would could be acceptable by the two sides.
In the 15 century, the Portugal was seeking a trade root to South Africa and India, but they stopped to go any further because of the strong head winds, and the 16 and 17 century the Spanish empire sent new expedition from Peru searching for gold for the Roman Catholic Church, but they failed and they made no more new expeditions.
In October 1616, Dirk Hartog became the first ship to land European on Australian soil. In the 17 century great Britain lost many strategic colony’s in America, so they thought of growing their commercial and naval interest in a forgotten continent, and it will solve the over crowded domestic prisons in Britain.
Sydney was named after the Britain’s home secretary, Lord Sydney. The governor, Lachlan Macquarie (1809-1821) he did many improvements in the economy and gave the government greater stability by employing the x-convict and architects, to design churches, hospitals, and movement building in Sydney, and after the Britain’s defeat of Napoleon, 1814, there was an increasing number in population, and the convict served as labors. Australian colony were officially Anglican in religion, Roman Catholicism is the faith of the Irish convicts. Educations was neglected in the Beginning of the 18 century, only the wealthy colonist who employed private tutors for their children.
By discovering gold in 1890, it was a fortune of Western Australia reserve. Between 1830 and 1840 as quarters established huge sheep runs which help it increase wool export. There was a threat for the Australians from the Chinese immigration who came to seek for gold in 1856, and the Polynesian laborers for sugar canes plantation in 1860’s. In 1788, the Aborigine used the land around Sydney as campsite and hunting domains, but the white settlers destroyed the Aborigines committees in a large scale, and they forced them to retreat in to the drier interior. When Macquarie governor came, he established schools and provided work for the aborigines.
Policy Statements: Australia
Australia consists of many monitories; from parts of Europe, China, Africa, and Middle East etc… Australia equally is responsible for all human rights, Australia have different laws that provides protections for human rights in Australia, and the government encourages migration by skilled migrants, family members and refuges. The law prohibits in the race, religions, disability, language or social state, in 1975, Australia prohibits on the race, color, decent, or national. The governments are focusing at the aboriginal and Torres Straits islander commission is the main responsibility, and are trying to improve their human rights in Australia, although Asians are less than 5% of the populations, they account 40% of the recent immigrants, and in the surveys it shows that Asians indicate the most growing criticism of immigrations.
Australia believes that Palestine should have their own country by the same time they also believe that Israel should have their own Jewish state next to the Palestine, and both countries should live in peace and harmony, and they should settle their differences by peaceful mean and not by fighting. Many Australians protestors were against Sharon’s policy, and how he is destroying Palestine’s camps. In April 6th 2002, thousand of protestors crowded in Sydney’s street demanding the Australians government to make peace on Palestine. During that day fire-workers were set off. Missiles thrown, and cheers of 5000 people and the flags of Israel, America and Australia were burned. Many police tried to back away protectors from breaking the open doors of the Israeli consulate.
Australia is against drugs since it the increasing role in Australia, it usually comes from caffeine or alcohol, one quarter of the population use tobacco and the other half used illicit drugs like marijuana. ADCA supports the National Drug Strategic Framework, but they believe in increasing in the resources that is provided for prevention and treatments of the misuse of drugs. Australian mostly takes illegal drugs like Cannabis, 44% of Australia take those kinds of drugs. There is an objective from the primary about the Australia Drug Law Reform Foundation that includes urgent adoption of drug policies that are based of harm minimization throughout Australia, and this objective of the Drug Law Reform is to encourage the problems that are created by drugs and drug use in Australia. Australia has a poor record of options treatment for alcohol and other types of drugs. The government is trying their best to make new resources of making new treatment options, it is important of the National Drug Strategic Framework to find a treatment for people who are indicted to drugs or alcohol. Many governments are trying to stop people on talking illicit drugs from the criminal justice system into treatment.
Australia is against international terrorism in any form and they supported the UN security counsel resolution 1373, which was adapted two months ago. Australia does not believe in any form of terrorism to achieve people’s goal, thy believe in peaceful means. Australia cares for the security of their families and country, and keep their problems in private, because it is their own concern. The Afghanistan war is a war against terrorism and perpetrators, Australian are obliged to help the UN, because they are art of the ANZUS treaty, though they know that they will have many difficulties and dangerous missions through going this type of war, and it’s possible that they have many casualties during this operation.
Dalia Al Awadi
Issue: The question of Palestine and the peace process in the middle east
Aware of the Palestinian’s problem, since 1948 which resulted in many displaced people, which created the problem of the Palestinians refugees, by driven art of their land, Un helped to solve this problem by:
a ) creating UNRWA to help settling and caring for the Palestinian refugee by creating hospitals, schools, shelters, camps, and food in Jordan, West bank Gaza Strip, Lebanon and Syria,
Believing that the Palestinians question is political and humanitarian problem, which has to be solved by the United Nations by making:
a) Making Israel implement the UN’s resolution 181 which was in 1948 that calls upon the creation of two nations: one is an Israeli state and the other Palestinian state, but Israel accepted this resolution but did not allow the creation of a Palestinian state,
b) The UN adapted a resolution 194 asking Israel for the right of the Palestinians for self-itemization and to create their own state,
Bearing in mind various United Nation, resolutions concerning Palestinians question since 1948 until 2002, by :
a) Making more than 50 resolutions by 1948-2002, but the Israel never accepted any.
Recalling many resolutions has been passed by security counsel and general assembly of the United Nations , they have failed to fulfill the ambition of the Palestinian people since :
a) Israel refused to all this resolutions which contain self-determination, human rights, return to their homeland and creating their own state.
Recognizing all the consequences of not reaching any just and lasting peace for the Palestinian aspiration, which resulted to many conflicts and wars, which resulted to many victims mostly by re civilian.
Aware of this problem, the well committee has a obligation to face and to seek a durable solution which meet the minimum demand of the Palestinian people for having their own homeland.
1. Recalling all the United Nation resolution and realizing and achieving their objectives and goals, the well committee must put pressure on economic and political to convince Israeli government to consider and recognize the aspiration of the Palestinian people since it was:
a) necessarily after all this effort that have been fair to convince Israel to accept all these resolutions, security counsel should apply the charter 7 of the UN, which imply economic embargo on any state refuses, to implement any resolution which was adapted by the UN
2. Deeply concerned and fully alarmed of the latest development in the Palestinian occupied territories and deplore fully refusal of the Israeli government to cooperate with the United Nation resolution 1404, which was adapted on April 2002, which the:
a) Israel refused to accept resolution 1404, that encourages violence and terrorism on both sides, which will result intension and instability under region;
3. Conscious that the United Nation general assembly deplored Israeli government refusal to cooperate, decided and demand Israeli government to allow the investigation committee freedom of investigation and to repeat to UN on Israeli policy toward the occupied territories.
4. Aware that lasting peace in the region will be achieve only by meeting the aspiration and self determination of the Palestinian people and by creating a Palestinian state side by side by the Israeli state so:
a) To achieve that Israel must accept all the Un resolutions and be implemented. This way will have peace and justice, between Israel and Palestinian people.
Good Days Mates,
From the land of the kangaroos and koala bears, Australia would like to welcome all of the honorable delegates to today’s meeting to solve the major problems of this present time…Hopefully everybody will be satisfied with their resolution and may all counties may pass a beneficial decision…
Australia would like to point out the issue of Palestine, which is currently suffering because of the Israeli occupation of it. Australia would like to draw attention to this issue since is one of the great concerns of some of today’s meeting members. This issue shows importance and needs cooperation to resolve it.
Furthermore, Australia welcomes all countries to this meeting, and may we all achieve our goal of peace.