Republic of Azerbaijan
Done by:Sara Al Dalali
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Azerbaijan was developed by Medes from about the 8th century BC. It became a part of the Persian Empire later on. Arabs conquered Azerbaijan in the 7th century and the Islamic culture was all over the area. In the 11th and 12th century Azerbaijan was controlled by Turkic tribes. It was again under Persian control in the 17th century, but this time it was abandoned by Persia and given to Russia through agreements in 1813 and 1828. After the Russian revolution in 1918 Azerbaijan became an independent state. It was announced a Soviet Socialist republic (SSR) united with Georgia and Armenia to create the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (SFSR). When that ended in 1936 Azerbaijan became a part of the USSR. At last, the Azerbaijan republic announced it independence after the collapse of socialism in the USSR in 1991.
Azerbaijan is a republic that is based on democracy its main principle is the equality of its citizens. Azerbaijanís government is based on the separation of powers: Legislative, executive and Judiciary. In 1992 the planning of a new constitution to restore the 1978 document based on the soviet constitution began. The adoption of the constitution took place on November 12 1995.
The legislative power is taken care of in Milli Mejlis, which is a one-chamber parliament made of 125 seats; members are elected to serve for a five-year term.
The president is the head of state, the executive power is vested in the president, and president is elected for a five-year term. However, the same person cannot be a president for more than two repeated times. The judicial power is settled in independent courts of Azerbaijan such as the Supreme Court and the high economic court.
In addition, the source of state power in the Azerbaijan republic is the people of Azerbaijan, all citizens of Azerbaijan are equal which means there is no difference between any citizen and all adults have the right to form political parties.
After the war with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan became a sufficiently stable country in both areas political and economical.
Azerbaijan is rich in mineral resources; oil is one of the most important resources in Azerbaijan. Additionally, Azerbaijan is also rich in iron ore and alunite, pyrite, zinc, copper, cobalt and precious metals.
Since the independence of Azerbaijan, Turkey had become the republics main trading partner. Azerbaijan has major trade relations with Russia; it imports transportation, spare parts and wheat from Russia while electricity, tobacco and cotton are itís main exports to other countries. Trade relations with developed countries such as Germany, United States, United Kingdom and Italy have been increasing. However, trade with Iran changes notably from year to year.
Azerbaijan is not a very self-sufficient nation. Its imports are much higher than its exports. self-sufficiency nowadays is not viable because the world now depends on other countries by exchanging goods, services, mineral resources and education.
According to the 1998 est. the largest ethnic group is the Azerbaijanis, which make up 90% of the population, while the Dagestanis, which are people that come from Russia, make up 3.2%, Russians 2.5%, Armenians 2% and other nationalities comprise about 2% of the population. The Azerbaijani people are descended from the traveling Turkish tribes that immigrated west across Transcaucasia in what is now called Turkey more than one thousand years ago.
In addition, the roots of modern Azerbaijan draw back to the fourth century BC., with the appearance of the two kingdoms of Caucasian Albania in the north, and the Atropan in the south.
Although freedom of religion is allowed, the principle religion in Azerbaijan is Islam. Muslims make up 93.4% of the people, while Russian Orthodox make up 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3% and other religions comprise about 1.8% of the people.
Some of the countries musical traditions are shown by ashugs, poet singers, who play the kobuz (a stringed instrument) as they sing of the actions of ancient heroes. Another common type of music in Azerbaijan is mungam, which is created by voice, wind and stringed instruments, which is often compared to jazz.
In addition, Azerbaijan is famous for its carpets, but also for its embroidered materials. Artists use colorful threads and beads to create magnificent geometric patterns on a thin wool fabric called tirme. Azerbaijanis various bright-plumed birds and other animals have also appeared in designs. Rugs, veils, shawls and towels are also popular Azerbaijani textiles.
One of the first steps following Azerbaijanís independence was to form a ministry of defense. The armed forces were formed after independence and the total number of people in the force was 66,700 in 1997, 53,300 of them were in the army, 2,200 were in the navy and 11,200 were in the air force. The military branches are the army, navy, air and air defense forces and the bodyguards. Military service is for a 17-month term, can be extended for ground forces.
The presence of Russian forces in Azerbaijan is difficult or problematic because they helped the Armenians in an attack that resulted in the death of hundreds of Azerbaijanis. The last Russian withdrawal from Azerbaijan took place on May 1993, which is a year ahead of the schedule, both countries set in 1992. Obviously, Azerbaijan was depending on Russia for help in defending its country, while Russia betrayed Azerbaijanís trust by its withdrawal.
On February 9,1999 Azerbaijanís top foreign policy presidential advisor declared that Azerbaijan will not renew its membership in the Commonwealth of Independent States Collective Security Treaty, because "Russian Policy intended to increase combination ties with previous Soviet Republics and opponents to Russiaís military activity in some of the CIS countries.
Azerbaijan has stated its interest in closer cooperation with (NATO) in specifically the US and Turkey. In addition, Azerbaijan is a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.
Azerbaijanís capital is Baku, Azerbaijan is a republic in the Transcaucasia area of western Asia, its bordered on the north by Russia on the north-west by Georgia, on the south-west by Turkey, on the east by the Caspian Sea, on the south by Iran and on the west by Armenia. Azerbaijan is about half mountainous, most notably greater mountain ranges to the north, flat lands are located in the middle and along the Caspian Sea.
In Azerbaijan the climate differs from subtropical and dry in central and eastern Azerbaijan, to subtropical and humid in the southeast, pleasant alongside the seashores of the Caspian Sea, and cold at higher mountain altitudes. Baku enjoys gentle weather averaging 4įC in the month of January and 25įC in July. Azerbaijan receives slight rainfall (average is 152 to 254 mm yearly). Farming areas needs supply of water. Heaviest rain occurs in the higher altitudes of the mountain range and in the Lenkoran Lowlands in the far southeast. Where the annual average is more than 1,000mm.
Views on World Problems
Azerbaijan has developed contacts with Europe, as a supply of investment balanced to being neighbors with Russia and Iran (which make up a large Azeri population) Russia and Iran are all interested in developing Azeri oil fields in the Caspian Sea. Turkey with its popular history, language, religion and culture is truly a natural ally.
Azerbaijan is a member of various blocs and groupings, Such as: Untied Nations (UN), the Partner ship for peace and the International Civilization Aviation Organization, (ICAO), ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, NAM, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, IOC, UNCTAD.
The monetary unit of the Azerbaijan republic is the Manat. Only the National Bank has the right of introducing money into circulation, and removing them from the circulation. The National Bank of Azerbaijan republic belongs completely to the state. Use of other monetary units besides Manat within the countryís territory is prohibited.
Since the independence of Azerbaijan, Turkey has become Azerbaijanís most important trading partner, while trade with Russia remains important. Azerbaijan exports mainly crude oil such as diesel, kerosene and gasoline to Turkey, Russia, Iran and last but not least Georgia. Additionally, Azerbaijan exports electricity, tobacco and cotton to many of the developed countries such as Germany, the United States, United Kingdom and Italy. While it imports transportation, spare parts, and wheat from Russia.
Azerbaijan has not yet finished discussing with Russia its shares of the earlier Soviet Union foreign debt. Azerbaijanís other outside debt. Is to the Turkish Export Bank. The total amount of outside debt is $550 million dollars.
Azerbaijan is a member of numerous trade organizations such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)
Azerbaijan, a stretch of land southeast of the Caucasus Mountain ranges, and is part of the middle ease geographically. Although it is a borderline, not part of a heartland its borderland characteristic has been a main impact in shaping the countryís history. Azerbaijan shared its destiny with Iran and kept its Iranian character after the conquest by Arabs in mid 7th century AD. And the Islamic culture spread fast all around the region. Azerbaijan became under Russian control, it was then divided along Araz River with a large part of its residents remaining in Iran, which was the northern part of Azerbaijan. The passing under the control of European powers would be the turning point of he Azerbaijan history. Development of the Azerbaijan oil resources has improved quickly. The oil in Azerbaijan became a very important factor of the Azeriís life. In World War I, the Baku became the aim of operations for all armies acting in the region, and the city was passed from Russia to Ottoman Turkis and then to British hands. Azerbaijan was ready to announce its independence in 1918. Two years later the invasion by read army took place to take away the Baku fields in April 1920. As a Soviet republic, Azerbaijan shared knowledge of other parts of the Soviet Union including: agriculture, industrialization according to the needs of the USSR, educational progress ands political domination.
Azerbaijan became an independent state because of the disappearance of the USSR, at that time the president was Ayaz Mutalibov. First years after independence were politically unstable meaning that wars and disagreements with other countries took place and that with Azerbaijan and Armenia when they were fighting over Nagorno Kabakh, the failure in getting back Azerbaijanís lost territories led to the replacement of the president. Heydar Aliyev, a communist leader filled the power space and ended the war with a settlement of peace.
1) Measures to ensure the rights of minorities within a country:
There are minorities all around the world, which live in many countries. Some countries respect those minorities and give them their rights while others countries donít. Azerbaijan is one of the countries that respect their minorities and give them their rights.
In 1992, Azerbaijan tried to support ethnic minorities by giving an order that the government must support the political, economical, social and cultural rights and freedom of non- Azerbaijanis, and by setting up the Consultative Council on Inter-ethnic Relations as part of the presidential method.
2) The question of Palestine and the peace process in the Middle East:
One of the biggest issues in the world is the conflict between Israel and Palestine. Israel is living on a land claiming that it is theirs, while it is really part of the Palestine territory. Israelis are planning to conquer the rest of Palestine and are trying to conquer the rest of the Islamic world. The question of Palestine must be put into consideration; it must be given a lot of attention because it rests in the middle of the peace process in the Middle East.
Israelis cannot conquer Palestine. Azerbaijan is one of the many countries that are trying to prevent this chaos. It is an Islamic country that set eyes on Palestine as being the root of where the Islamic culture began. Azerbaijan played a role in supporting itís fellow country Palestine. It voted on the Palestinian rights committee , on the prevision for Palestinian rights, The Department of Public Information, the Peaceful settlement of Palestine, and also on Jerusalem. Azerbaijan was also part of the 159 countries that voted on the Middle East peace process.
3) The question of drug usage, drug trafficking and rehabilitation programs:
Drug usage and trafficking is a deep concern in todayís world, Azerbaijan supports the world on this view but unfortunately Azerbaijan specifically, remains the only country among the sub-commission members, which is not a participant in the 1961 convention.
The drug situation in Azerbaijan is difficult because 20% of Azerbaijanís territory is occupied by Armenians and the appearance of 1 million refugees and transferred people. Full consideration was taken by the leadership of Azerbaijan to help insuring stability, enhancing laws and orders, and reducing crime in the country. A fight took place to prevent drugs production but unfortunately resulted in drug production. An increased number in revealed drug-crimes and drug addicts also a greater number of illegal drug methods took place in the last five years. More help would be provided to get better results in fighting illegal drug trafficking, at both national and regional levels. This help is help is very important because the border-guards and traditions of a developing state donít have enough experience in holding back drug crimes.
4) The question of international terrorism:
Terrorism is one of the main problems in the world. Many countries are striving to prevent terrorism, while other countries are with terrorism. Azerbaijan is one of the countries that are against terrorism and are trying with all their might to stop terrorism in the world. The Republic of Azerbaijan strongly condemns the terrible crime committed against innocent civilians on September 11. These terrorist acts became a big challenge not only to the people of the United States but to the entire world. But Azerbaijan believes that we shouldnít attack whole nations to get back on one person.
Azerbaijan was one of the countries that suffered from terrorism; it had a conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, which is part of Azerbaijanís territory. This conflict resulted in the death and injury of many innocent people and the collapse of many houses. On 7 October 1989 the road bridge across the river Halfalichai on the southern edge of the town of Khankendi, was blown up by Armenian terrorists. Additionally, on 18 February 1990, an explosion that took place in an inter-city bus on the Shusha-Baku line injured 13 people. More over, Armenian terrorists blew up the Nabiyar- Shusha pipeline, resulting in the decrease of mineral water, this pipeline was once the source of drinking water for the town of Shusha but it no longer is because of those cruel acts of terrorism, those poor people canít drink water from there hometown.
Forum: ECOSOC Ė General Assembly
The question of: Palestine and the peace process in the Middle East
Delegate: Sarah Al-Dalali
Defining Palestine as a historical region of southwest Asia at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea that has been deprived of its freedom by Israel,
Believing that people all around the world are not aware of the suffering of Palestinians due to the blasted western media, which caused people to feel sympathy towards Israel,
Deeply disturbed that 857 Palestinians were killed (Shuhada) between Sep 29th 2000 and November 27thth 2001
Noting with regret that in the 1948 war 85% of all Palestinian villages were ruthlessly destroyed,
Applauds France and all other nations that support the formation of a Palestinian state,
Viewing with appreciation all attempts made by all members of the UN to form a Palestinian state,
Condemning Israel for the massacre of innocent young lifeís in Jenin and for its occupation of Palestinian territory,
Deeply concerned that the Israeli forces arrested 8,000 Palestinians for no reason whatsoever,
Deeply disturbed about the attack of the Palestinian villages Sabra and Shatila, when the Israeli army killed 3500 Palestinian civilians in 16/9/1982,
1-Draws the attention to this crisis and the importance of solving it because this issue lays in the core of the peace process in the Middle East;
2-Strongly urges all members of the UN:
a) To put pressure on Israel to withdraw their forces from Palestine,
b) Increasing talk to compromise.
c) Increase awareness about the real issue and the massacre of Palestinian lives.
d) To encourage Israel to reach a peaceful agreement with Palestine,
e) To convince Israel that if they reach a peaceful settlement they might have trade agreements with Islamic countries.
f) Organize more meetings to discuss this crisis,
3-Requests all members of the UN to cooperate with each other and help in reaching a settlement to resolve this crises, without involving military forces and violence;
4-Further recommends that the UN should launch a campaign to increase awareness by:
a) Advertising this issue by posters, billboards, TV, radio, etc.,
b) Introduce issue in newspapers,
c) Provide more talk shows to discuss this issue;
5-Urges all nations to consider
a) The formation of a Palestinian state.
b) The implementation of UN. Resolution 242, which was drafted in 1967 and calls on Israel to pull out of territories occupied in the Six-Day War in exchange for Arab recognition of Israel's right to live within secure borders.
6- Requests that all military forces should withdraw from Jerusalem
7-Further requests that all countries should cooperate to provide Palestine with:
a) Schools, because every child has the right to get an education,
b) Roads, as an easy flow of goods, services and transportation,
c) Homes, to provide Palestinians with a safe place to live in,
d) Shelter, so that Palestinians should live in a safe and secure place away from military acts.
From the land of the flying carpets where people that worship rugs, veils, shawls and towels are overjoyed and amazed by the stunning scenery of embroidered material and glorious accessories, to the breathtaking, dazzling music called the mungam which is often compared to jazz, lays the republic of Azerbaijan.
Honorable chair, fellow delegates, and distinguished guests, Salaam aleykum, may peace be upon you. Itís a great honor for Azerbaijan to be here today.
Azerbaijan suffers from a very significant problem that occupies many countries in the world; it suffers from a big percentage of illegal drug trafficking and also a great percentage of drug addicts, as well as an increased volume of confiscated illegal drugs. Azerbaijan is struggling to solve this issue, and is hoping that all countries will cooperate to prevent the world from this massacre.