Event: Pearl-MUN 2002Student: Noufah Al Sabah
Brazil's long official name is the Federal Republic of Brazil, but they call it Brazil for short. Brazil's government is a federal republic, which has broad powers over the country. Brazils government wasn't always this way; it had been military rule for more than 2 decades (1645- 1985) and then returned to democratic civilian rule. The constitution was eventually reenacted and revised a October 5th, 1988.
The government administrates and has power over 26 states and 1 federal district. Brazil established a presidential system, which acts through 3 branches, Legislative National congress which consists of a federal senate, containing 3 representatives from each state), Judicial Branch (made up of judges that serve for life), and the cabinet (made up of ministers which are appointed by the president and confirmed by the senate).
There are a lot of political parties in Brazil that pressure the decisions and policies made by the Government. The most important ones are the "Left Wing of the Catholic Church", "The Landless Workers Movement", and the many different labor unions.
The leader of Brazil is the president, who is presently Fernando Henriquez Cordoba and his vice Marco Meciel. The president is both me chief of sate and head of the government and gets re-elected every 4 years.
Brazil is blessed with a variety of natural resources that include bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese nickel, phosphate, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum (negligible), hydropower, timber, tobacco, coffee, rotational crops, wheat, rice, con, nuts, sugar cane, area beef, and fruits.
Brazil is one of the leading exporters of agricultural products. It's the world's biggest exporter of grain with production in 1996 was 73 million tons), it is also the world's second largest exporter of sugar cane (which produces sugar and in addition to ethanol, mainly used in foil, which is made from crushed sugar cane), rubber (is found in the rain forests of brazil), coffee, tobacco, iron, steel, fruits (that include oranges, lemons, passion fruit, and tangerines), and soybeans.
As for its industry, it accounts for roughly 60% of Brazil's exports. Brazil has an emerging industrial and construction power. n constructs giant public works like the trans-Amazonian highway, new capital city of Brasilia, and one of the world's largest hydroelectric damn. It exports and manufactures textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron on steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and their parts, and machinery. The industry in Brazil is growing and expanding every day, the growth rate for the year 2000 was 69%.
Brazil's main export partners are the US 23%, Argentina 11%, Germany 5%, and Japan 5%. Brazil exports in 2000 made $55.1 billion US dollars. Brazil also imports goods as well as oil and is the only Latin American country besides Chile to import oil. The importation of oil cost it $6.4 billion US dollars in 1996. Its main import partners an the US 24% (half of its imported manufactured goods come from the US), Argentina 12%, Germany 10%, Japan 9%, and Italy 5%.
Brazil's population last estimated in 1998 was about 360,960,(81 people. The natural population growth rate was 1.4·% from 1992-1998. The population density is 18.8 persons per square kilometer although the majority is crowded around coastal cities. The fertility rate is 2.3 children born per woman and Brazil has passed a planning law in 1996 that ensures family planning as a right for every citizen.
Brazil has a diverse mix of cultures that all unit: together as one. The Brazilian population is made up of 55% Whites (immigrants from Portugal, Germany, Spain, Italy and Poland), 31% Mixed Caucasians, 6% Blacks (brought in the 18th century as slaves), and 1% Others (which include Arabs, Japanese (has the biggest Japanese community in the world outside Japan), and Amerindians (Native Indians that used to live in Brazil, they do not have ownership of lands but have 94.6 million hectares of land made by the government as reservations.
Brazil also has a variety of religions. Roman Catholics make up 70%, Protestants 20%, and 10% other religions, which include Islam, Judaism (Brazil has a lot of Jewish communities in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Buddhism, etc. There are also a lot of religious practice based on African, Stave, and Native Indian traditions and hoodoo and voodoo, etc. which are widespread between the ethnic groups.
The official language of Brazil is Portuguese, which make it the only country in South America to have Portuguese as an official language. Other spoken languages include Spanish, English, and French.
Brazil's military is made up of the Brazilian Army, the Brazilian Navy (which includes Naval Air, and the Marine, the navy is the bet structured branch of the armed forces in terms of quality and hoop preparation), the Brazilian Air force and the Federal police. 328,816 service men are divided geographically into 11 military regions each with its own military headquarters The military regions subordinate into seven military commands: Southern Command Platte Military Command, Amazonian Command, North Eastern Command, Eastern Command, South Eastern Command, and Western Command. Brazil has the most advanced nuclear capabilities in Latin America and constantly competes with Argentina in this.
The Brazilian army is constantly involved with the UN (United Nations) peacekeeping forces and plans. Brazil sent forces and troops to a mission at Mozambique in 1993-94, which was successful. It sent forces to Namibia upon the United Nations request to help with peacekeeping at 1995, it sent hoops to Bosnia to control the violence and then sent missions to Angola in 1996. The Brazil's army is in constant search for new missions and ways to serve the United Nations.
Brazil is located in Eastern South America, bordering me Atlantic Ocean. The are of Brazil is 811,965 square kilometers (Land: 8456510 square kilometers, and water: 55455 square kilometers) making it the largest country in South America. It is slightly smaller than the US and occupies 47% of the continental are of South America Brazil has a coastline that overlooks the Atlantic Ocean and is 7491 kilometers in length. It also has oceanic islands like Archipelagos, etc. Brazil borders every country in South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia French Guinea, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, and Venezuela) except Chile and Equador.
The Brazilian terrain is mostly flat but there are some plains, hills and mountains. Its highest point is Picode Noblina (3014 meters above se level) and its lowest point in me Atlantic Ocean (O meters above sea level). Brazil's principal mountain mines parallel the Atlantic coast. It consists of dense forests, rugged hills, mountains and rolling plains. The world's largest rain forest which is known as the "Amazon Rain forest," is found in Brazil. The largest river in water volume and one of the tallest rivers in the world is found in Brazil and it is the Amazon River. Brazil's climate is mostly tropical but temperate in the south. It is tropical in the north where it is seldom cold but more temperate in the south where it snows in some places.
Brazil's economy is by far the best in South America and is expanding its presence in world markets. It wasn't always this way as me. Lately it has met goals and ended high inflation. The Brazilian government men established "new real plan" in 1994, which sought to break the inflationary expectancy. This was done by converting the real (Brazils Currency) into US dollar, which made inflation decrease into small annual figures, but on the other hand this change made Brazilian goods more expensive than other goods internationally, which made it have large account deflects.
Then in 1999 the Brazilian government announced that the real (Brazil's Currency) would rejoin and the US dollar would be rejected from then on. This helped balance tile demand of economic growth in 1999 and eventually stabilize. The government men tightened fiscal and monetary policies. It continued to recover in 2000 with an average inflation and expected growth of 4.5%. Brazil's budget is $151 billion US dollars in revenues and $149 billion US dollars in expenditure.
The currency of Brazil is the real (BRL). A management board determined its official rate from 1994-1999 but since 1999 it's rated independently with respect to the US dollar. The Brazilian economy overall has some defects. They are an inability to solve basic political and economical problems, controlling run away inflation, servicing foreign debts and consolidating democratic institutions.
View of World Problems:-
Brazil has a significant role and influence in me world. It is a peaceful country and doesn't have any disputes with other countries. Brazil, however, used to have boundary disputes with its neighboring countries Uruguay and Paraguay, but they were solved peacefully.
Brazil is a member in a lot of international groups like the United Nations (TNT) and its specialized agencies (in 1945 it joined me UN and has marked several Security Council meetings in a lot of occasions), international Commodity Organizations, Multinational leading institutions, Missile technology control treaties, World Trade organization (now it administers to GATT, the OAS, MERCOSUR, and many environmental international agreements (like the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992). The Rio Summit drew the world's attention towards the deforestation of the Amazon rain forests. Agreements were signed by Brazil like the ozone layer protection agreement, nuclear test ban, endangered species agreement, law of the sea, and many more.
It has a lot of relationships with marry regional world groups and countries, but they are mostly economical. Its relationship with me Middle East countries was a normal relationship between any 2 countries, but was tightened after the 1973 petroleum crisis for the sake of Palestine. Brazil in spite of all this is in moderate standing on the Arab/Israeli contact, but in 1973 it stood more with the Arabs due to the deepening petroleum crisis and because a was searching for Petrodollar investments. In 1990 during the Iraqi War 35% of Brazils oil imports came from Iraq, and it was accused of selling Iraq Uranium in 1981. Then again the US accused Brazil of selling Iraq nuclear arms technology in 1991 during the Gulf War, which made Brazil stand in a delicate position in the conflict. It did not participate in allied operations in the Gulf war because it had technicians and workers in Southern Iraq working on an oil operation and they were returned safely home.
Brazil has economic relationships with Africa Asia Europe, and America Many Small American companies have investments that are made in Brazil in the mining sector and industrial sector. it also exports a lot of goods to Africa In Asia however Japan and other countries like Sri Lanka, China India, and Korea have partnership investments with Brazil. Brazil is an important trade partner with the European Union (EU) from the 1970s. Brazil strives also to have strong relationships with the US (Unites State of America) in every aspect; it has a strong and close relationship with the US. Brazil has a leadership role and a lot of close relations with other Latin American countries. These relations are economical social, etc. Brazil is a member of many regional trade and cooperation organizations like me South American trade association (SATTA) The association that Brazil proposed to make, OAS in 1994, and many more. Their first circles of relations are with its Latin American neighbors.
In the 1500th century Portuguese navigator Pedro Alaro Cabral discovered Brazil. Portugal conquered Brazil and began colonizing Portuguese people in it They called it Brazil because me Portuguese people saw the Amerindians (the native Indians that used to live in Brazil) using Brazil wood that was prized and precious in Europe and making it into red dye. They called it Terra de Brazil, meaning "land of Brazil wood."
This was then shortened to Brasil, spelled "Brazil" in English. Then when Napoleon invaded Portugal in the early 1800s, Dom Pedro (King of Portugal) fled to Brazil with the royal family. The Portuguese court continued to run the empire in Brazil. Ports were open to international commerce (mostly British) and the colony grew substantially. In 1799, one of Brazil's first movements for independence was crushed; it became a national symbol of liberty. Several other movements followed. and the Brazilian people started to protest against the Portuguese rule. independence was finally proclaimed in 1877 and Brazil became an independent state. Its first emperor war Dom Pedro who reigned 49 years until in 1899 when the country became a republic. Slavery was abolished in 1888.
In 1891 a new constitution was established and Brazil was made into a federation of states that would retain most powers for themselves but was governed by a President. Also in 1911 the first president was elected. His name was Fonscca. From then on Brazil continued to be a Federal republic.
POLICY STATEMENTS: -
1. Ensuring the rights of Minorities within a country.
Everyone is equal in the eyes of the law and should have equal rights and privileges. People are judged by their accomplishments and personalities, etc. rot by their appearance, religion, ethnic background, etc. No one should try to change other peoples cultures, religions, etc. it should be out of personal choice not by force. To do this is to be II racist. Racism is an action or hate towards people or groups thought to be physically different or in other words judging people by their skin color ethnic background, etc. Racism is an act of evil and makes people feel diminished and not as good as others.
Brazil is proud of its mixed blend of ethnic groups and cultures. It has taken a lot of cultures and embraced them together in harmony and peace like a big family. The Brazilian population consists of a lot of different cultures and ethnic groups that include Europeans, Africans, Arabs, Amerindians Native Indians), Asians, etc. They all have created synchronism (when 2 different cultures come in contact and produce something different) and are proud of these.
There is no racism in Brazil. As the constitution states in Chapter I. Article 5, "All persons are equal before the Law, without distinction whatsoever, Brazilians and foreigners residing in the country being insured of inviolability of me right to life, to liberty, to equality, to security, and property." The Brazilian Government tries to give all people equal rights and ensure their privilege. Brazil will merge and vote with all resolutions that strive to end racism, and ensure me rights of minorities. The government isn't racist and condemns a lot of racism in the world. On the other hand it believes that all people should live equally, pacifically, and harmoniously within a country.
2. The question of Palestine and the peace process in the Middle East
Palestine and Israel have been at each other's throats for more than 50 years. Their entire feud has crested violent and chaotic conflicts. They both have disturbed world peace. Palestine and Israel do not even bother to cooperate so hat my can solve their problems and put an end to this feud. Violent acts have happened on both sides. The Palestinians have committed murderous suicides, etc. and the Israelis have been responsible for a lot of racist behavior and etc. This conflict has killed millions of innocent civilians from both sides and created chaos in the world due to the savage acts of slaughter and religious harassment and abuse.
Brazil believes that with negotiations and peaceful solutions to problems end. Brazil doesn't believe in violence as a way to solve things. It condemns all acts of violence, slaughtering of innocent people, and racism from both rides. Brazil is also devastated by the destruction that is happening to the cities, homes of civilians, and religious movements like the Bethlehem Church. It urges the UN (United Nations) and other countries to work together to stop his violence and work out the misunderstanding between the two feuding governments. Brazil thinks that Palestine and Israel should be separated into 2 different countries to ensure the safety of the innocent civilians and stop the evil acts plus restore the peace. Brazil will vote for any resolution that ensures the rights of Israelis and Palestine's alike and will create peace between there two nations. This all doesn't mean mat Brazil is standing with one country against the other.
Brazil on the other hand is in moderate standing on this.
3. The question of drug usage, trafficking, and rehabilitation programs.
Drugs are very dangerous and an illegal in a lot of countries. Most people take drugs because of the way they make them feel. Once a person takes drugs, he or she gets addicted to hem, this mews chat he or she crave far drugs, and life difficult without them even though drug addiction kills people and makes them really sick. Drugs are bad to societies. Supplying drugs to addicts hits become a huge business. People who traffic drugs, sell them and charge high cash, which makes addicts do anything to get enough money to buy drugs. They steal, kill, and do illegal things for money to buy drugs. This threatens the lives of many innocent people who suffer due to the uncontrollable addicts, and their criminal behavior. Examples of illegal addictive hugs an cocaine, cannabis, hashish, heroin, etc.
Brazil sadly is burdened with drug problems. etc. If has a lot of illegal drugs that come from other countries (trafficked, or in other words smuggled). This because Brazil is a huge country, that shares borders with I) other countries, all of which ~e involved in mug trafficking and production. This makes guarding the borders against drug smuggling hard. Brazil is trying its best to stop drug smuggling. Brazil has arranged for backup and more training at me borders for the border guards and police. Drugs are also widespread in the Brazilian community. This problem is most visible and found in the "favelas," slums that are full of gangsters, Mafia drug dealers, etc. which the police have little control oval. These criminals provide (bribe) the poor people who have no money, food, etc. in return for their silence. The criminals are heavily armed, and able to sell, smuggle, and trade drugs without any problem or difficulty. Drug Trafficking in Brazil is estimated to employ at least 10,000 people in Rio de Janeiro alone and converted into a significant source of income to poor people.
The Brazilian government has tried hard to stop these chaotic: and bad acts by making laws, etc. Brazil will seen a large eradication program to control the spread of cannabis and other drugs in Brazil. Brazil will eventually try to make this into an immersion program with the help of the UN, and the program is successful in Brazil. Brazil have also organized several police assaults on the "favelas" and has pinpointed several drug lords and dealers. Brazil also has organized police training institutions to better train the police and make than stronger against the drug problem. The Government also made a special Anti-Drug National Council to provide the country with effective anti-drug policies, controlling drug related illegal activities, making rehabilitation programs. Brazil's consequences for drug dealing and abuse are imprisonment and death. Brazil calls upon the all nations to pass a resolution mat aims to create a worldwide for action against and for drug eradication, etc. Brazil also will vote with any resolution, statement, etc. that is against drug trafficking end abuse. Brazil dreams of creating a drug 6m world and will do anything to make this dream come true. Brazil has tried its best to stop drug acts, abuse, and trafficking and condemns any acts of drug abuse, trafficking king, etc. .
4. The Question of the Prevention of international terrorism.
Terrorism in a word that strikes fear in peoples hearts. Terrorism is an act of violence against innocent people. It is an unlawful use of force by a person or an organized group against people with me intentions of intimidating society or government for political reasons. The September 11th acts by Bin Laden are an example of terrorism. They have resulted in the death of millions of innocent civilians. Terrorism is bad and terrorists am evil and should be punished.
Brazil condemns all acts and of terrorism because it creates havoc, chaos, and affects innocent civilians. Terrorism is an act of violence and creates a sense of fear, fright, etc. in people's lives. Brazil condemns Bin Laden's acts and applauds me US in its current hunt for him. Brazil thinks that all evil people who want to use chaos and destruction in the world should be held in captivity so they don't hunt innocent people or themselves. But Brazil also wishes to remind people that Bin Laden is not telling the truth about Islamic jihad, etc. This is not Islamic Beliefs and traditions, they are merely made up things that he has created to suit and back up his acts while proposing and encouraging followers. Arabs and Muslims are not terrorists and enemies, Bin Laden is and they were not involved and were surprised just like the rest of the world. Brazil will vote for any resolution that aims to stop violence, terrorism, in the world and will vote against any one that encourages terrorism.
Brazil condemns all acts of violence and terrorism and thinks that terrorists should be prosecuted and put to death.
Delegate of Brazil
Question: Drug Trafficking and Rehabilitation
Defining drugs as "An illegal substance that causes addiction, habituation, or a marked change in consciousness,"
Deeply Conscious that drugs are harmful and dangerous to humans and societies,
Having Adopted that Drug abuse is "Taking more than the recommended dose of prescription drugs such as Barbiturates or using government controlled substances such as Marijuana, Cannabis, or other illegal substance without medical supervision,
Noting with Regret that an estimate of 180 million people worldwide consume drugs according to the World Drug Report,
Expressing its appreciation towards countries like Pakistan, and Thailand who have successfully ceased production and harvesting of drugs and have become drug free, in other words do not have any drug plantations, etc.
Alarmed by the fact that millions of people die every year due to drug overdose or drug related sicknesses according to BBC.com,
Bearing in Mind that the drug issue is not a national issue but an international one and one that can be solved if we all work together,
Conscious that a lot of nations have different attitudes towards drug addicts and sellers, for example some say drug usage is legal,
Expressing its Appreciation to all the UN actions and hard work towards creating a drug free world,
Taking into Consideration and Applauding the fact that the number of major drug producing countries has markedly declined over the last decades with major progress achieved in a number of countries according to me UN Drug Control Program (UNDCP),
Asking from all countries help and cooperation to solve this international and humanitarian conflict,
1. Denotes the negative effects of drug smuggling and addiction on people and societies:
A. Spread of infectious and deadly diseases,
B. Violence and involvement in organized crime to get drugs,
C. Death of innocent people,
D. Corruption and Chaos;
2. Persuades nations to try to educate their people and stop drug addiction by Mass media (television, radio, and newspaper publications about the negativity of drug addiction, etc.):
A. Provide education to all students about drugs,
B. Forming a drug awareness month that works for 31 days and educates people about drug abuse, and its consequences,
C. Provide jobs for Teens and adolescents to occupy their free time and so that they can make something out of it and not be directed to drug abuse, etc.,
D. Make more entertainment Facilities for people and children so that they can occupy time and not let people get attracted to drug abuse;
3. Asks countries to try to stop drug trafficking with the help of the UN if needed by:
A. Strengthening border panel,
B. Providing better drug detecting equipment to law enforcement agencies,
C. Providing mote and better training for law enforcers regarding drug detecting, drug eradication, etc.,
D. Making more baggage and personal checks for everyone without consideration to someone's job, title, etc.,
4. Calls Upon Nations to reduce the supply and availability of drugs therefore eliminating harvesting and cultivation of drugs by encouraging those who do so to switch to other profitable crops and alternate sources of income through:
A. Community development projects income generating projects,
B. Natural resource management;
5. Cautions that Nations will not leave drug addicts to die and suffer in jails, etc. but will try to rehabilitate them back to normal and erase drug addiction from their future lives;
6. Further Invites the UN to make more means of rehabilitation for drug addicts like setting up rehabilitation centers around the world that the UN would be in charge of Provide Psychological counseling so that addicts would lean more about addiction and eventually be convinced of their wrong behavior, etc.;
A. Provide adequate medication to replenish addicts' health,
B. Provide sufficient care for addicts so they don't hurt themselves or others while they try to break their addiction;
7, Emphasizing that often the aids that is sent to drug producing and trafficking countries is diverted to the hands of drug lords instead of anti-drug organizations;
8. Further Resolves the creation of UNDERO (United Nations Drug Eradication and Rehabilitation Organization) as soon as this resolution is passed; this organization will:
A. Promote coordination and co-operation with other regional and international organizations involved in drug control and education activities,
B. Aim to reduce and prevent cultivation, production, trafficking and abuse of drugs,
C. Network with research institutions and associations to secure information, technical expertise, and research related to drug control and rehabilitation,
D. Provide new economic opportunities and plans to regions that are changing from drug cultivation,
E. Assist Legal and Global enforcement by providing expert training, investigation techniques, and operational equipment,
F. Confront criminal (drug lords) who launder dirty drug money through financial
services, banks, etc. by assisting governments and training financial investigators,
G. Prevent, treat, and make rehabilitation programs and institutes to heal and cure addicts;
9. Have Resolved that drug addicts and dealers not be sentenced according to the countries laws (religion and tradition, etc.) due to the big disparity in each countries point of view, however by an international law which would be harsh on drug lords in particular, but which would send drug addicts to rehabilitation centers (if they were innocent and wanted to change) so as to get rid of this major catastrophe that has endangered the whole world;
10. Hopes that Nations will think wisely and clearly toward this issue and pass this resolution.
Delegate of Brazil
From the music and echoes of Rio's annual carnival, to the outstanding goals and victories of the Brazilian football team.
From the enchanted tropical and harmonious rain forests to the peaceful and steady Amazon River. The Federate Republic of Brazil greets you.
Honorable chair, fellow delegates, and attentive audience, Hola!
Though Brazil is known for its natural beauty be it from its surroundings or people, the country's limited capabilities have cheapened this beauty. Stretches of rain forests one alter another are destroyed, sewage is dumped into rivers assuming it will wash away. This is all wrong!
Brazil is frustrated and has to choose between preserving the environment, or spending money on improving the high rate of unequal income distribution. Its difficult to choose while some of our people are hungry.
Brazil calls upon all nations to take charge in environmental issues or there will be no environment left for tomorrow. Additionally do not ignore the high rate of unequal income distribution and poverty in the world.
Don't forget that this world belongs to us all and we have to take care of it.