Country: Republic of Cuba

Event: Pearl-MUN 2002

Student: Muneera Al Nibari

 

 

 

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The Cuban National Anthem


Cuba
Al combate corred bayameses
que la patria os comtempla orgullosa
no temais una muerte gloriosa
que morir por la patria es vivir

En cadenas vivir es morir
en afrenta y oprobio sumidos
del clarin escuchad el sonido
a las armas valientes corred.

English:

Hasten to battle, men of Bayamo,
For the homeland looks proudly to you.
You do not fear a glorious death,
Because to die for the country is to live.

To live in chains
Is to live in dishonour and ignominy.
Hear the clarion call,
Hasten, brave ones, to battle!

 


The Republic of Cuba

 

COUNTRY PROFILE

 

Political Structure:

Cubaís ruling party is Partido Comunista de Cuba (PCC) (Cuban Communist Party). Cuba is a communist state run by the Asamblea Nacional de Poder Popular (National Assembly of People's Power). Since a 1976 constitution replaced the exceedingly unified government structure that was immediately put together after the 1959 Castro revolution. Although the Assembly runs the local and central government, the constitution distinguishes the Communist Party as the supreme leading force of society and of the state. The National Assembly is the ultimate component of state authority and it depicts and represents the dominant inclination of the people. Within the roles that the National Assembly has is to sanction laws, it has some of the financial duties like discussing and endorsing the state budget it also supervises other state officials and officials constitutions. It is made up of 601 members whom are all part of the Communist party. The 601 members are elected every five years. The Assembly also chooses a Council of State whose components are President (Fidel Castro), a first vice president also Fidel Castro and five other vice presidents a secretary and 23 other members. Its primary duty is to distribute laws if the National Assembly is in recess. During the years most of the duties have been passed on to the to the executive committee, which is chaired by Fidel Castro. Since, 1988 the committee has taken upon itself to make some financial decisions at micro and macro level.

The Council of Ministers is above all the ruling establishment. The Council of Ministers is made up of a President, Vice President, ministers and other senior officials. Itís responsible for foreign trade and relations. Itís also responsible for setting the countries budget and is in charge of the basic organization of the military sector. So basically itís a dictatorship which is under the rule of Fidel for 40 years. He is the superior leader of every authoritative institution in Cuba.

 

Natural resources:

The agriculture, forestry and fishing sectors contribute approximately 60% to GDP and provide jobs 23% of the workforce. In the 1980s imported 80% of the food that Cuba needed along with 90% of the pesticides and fertilizers that are needed for the sugar crops to produce sugar and 50% of Cubaís fuel was imported from the quondam USSR. After the Soviet Union collapsed Cuba went through many economical problems, and the most major problem was that they lost their source for pesticides and fertilizers for the sugar crops and they lost their income for fuel. During the 90ís a lot of farmers started selling crops and now 28% of the land is cultivated. Sugar covers about 72% of cultivable land and is Cubaís most selling crop. About 95% of Cuba's coffee plantations are of the Arabic species.

Cuba gets most of its money from sugar and tourism. In September 2000 Belarus and Cuba agreed an exchange of 180,000 bags of fertilizers from Belarus for 200,000 bags of Cuban sugar. After the fall of the former Soviet Union which used to supply Cuba with oil at low prices. Cuba was left out in the cold until Venezuela became it supplier for oil at low prices too.

Cuba mainly exports sugar, nickel, citrus fruits, seafood, tobacco and products, computer screens. It exports to the following countries arranged from greatest to least is Russia, Canada, Netherlands, and Spain. Cubaís imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, food, fuel, lubricants and oil it gets these items from Spain, Russia, Mexico, Canada and Venezuela.

 

Economics:

Economically Cuba is improving and politically itís uncertain. Pressure ejected by the collapse of trading relations with the former Soviet Union and Eastern bloc countries led to the change of the prolonged period objective of widening automation. Industrial development in Cuba was part of the reason that Cuba has broadened its horizons to more than just sugar making but they have also elevating their sugar production. Cubaís sugar production was very effected after the Soviet Union parted and they lost their primary source for fertilizers and chemicals. The US embargo policy on Cuba blocks its access to funds from organizations like the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Bank. The embargo has effected Cuba majorly for itís primary consumer after the Soviet Union was the US although Cuba wants for the US to lift the embargo it wonít beg and instead of that it will do everything in itís power to be against America and try to bother it.

Cuba resorted to tourism and mining which helped to secure itís economy. For Cuba this has been a rough jounrney but the worst has past it wishes for the best to come soon.

Cuba has a $10 million debt to many nations amongst them are Japan, Spain,France and Argentina. Early in the year of 2000 the US house of Representatives voted on easing the trade embargo they now allow exports of food and medicine they have also eased the travel restrictions. Germany, Japan and the UK have delayed the time in which Cuba should pay back their debts.

 

Cultural Factors:

Cubaís population is made up of four very diverse groups which are the indigenous group who were their even before Columbus discovered it, the Spanish stayed after the revolution, the Africans were brought in as slaves and the Asians who have just immigrated their. The population breaks down to the following whites make up 66%; Mulattos and Mestizos are a 29%, Blacks 12%, Asians 0.1%.

In 1992 Cuba's National Assembly approved changes to the 1976 constitution permitting freedom of religion for the first time since1959. Many Cubans are agnostic or atheist, while unofficial estimates are of 75,000-100,000 practicing Catholics. There is smaller Protestant community. Practices based on African religions are reported to be increasing in popularity. Enthically most Cubans are spanish and from spanish decent they are many Cubans that are ethnically black for the slaves that later became Cubans came from Africa therefore they are from African decent. The pope visited Cuba and he wanted to solve the US VS Cuba issue for he is against the economic sanctions that the US set on Cuba and he also despises the way Castro rules his nation. When the pope went both sides insured that there would be no negotiation.

The countries many cities include Havana with a estimate of 2.2 million people, Santiago de Cuba 440,000, Camagüey 293,000, Holguin 242,000, Guant?namo 208,000, Santa Clara 205,000, Bayamo 138,000, Cienfuegos 132,000, Pinar Del Rio 129,000.

Spanish is the official language. The Spanish used in Cuba is more Latin American than Castillian. It differs in many ways than the Spanish spoken in Spain. English is quite widely spoken, as it is the main foreign language taught in schools. Itís their second language.

Illegal immigration is a non-stop problem. Cubans attempts to leave the island and enter the US. Using various ways to get there like; homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas. About 3,000 Cubans took to the Straits of Florida in 2000; the US Coast Guard banned about 35% of these migrants. Amongst those immigrants is Fidel Castroís brother who is the governor of the Florida. Cubans also use non-oceanic routes to enter the US. About 2,400 Cubans arrived overland via the southwest border and direct flights to Miami. Although itís not in the Cuban goverments hands to stop their people from fleeding into America Cuba still doesnít acknowledge what they are doing. It wants itís people to stay right where they belong home.

 

Defense:

Revolutionary Armed Forces (FA) include ground forces, Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR). Territorial Troops Militia (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT). The Interior Ministry controls Border Guard (TGF). A person can commit his military duties at 17 years of age. In the military there are men and woman numbers are very close that just shows equality. There are 3,090,633 men and 3,029,274 woman both between the ages of 17-49. People who are fit for military services are 1,911,160 men and 1,867,990 females. The numbers of people who are going to be ready for military in a year or so are 79,562 males and 85,850 females.

The military get 4% of the annual states funding and it lotís of things. For instince Cuba sent itís troops into Africa and their military train the PLO militants and supplies them with their needs. For decades Russia was the key military supporter of Cuba and cut off almost all-military aid in 1993.

Cubaís archenemy is America and their allies are Russia, China and Korea. America wouldnít dare inavade Cuba when the Soviet Union was around for it had much power, but after it broke up an American invasion to Cuba would be a lot easer than it used to, but Cuba has biological weapons which cause a threat to the US altough itís not a direct threat. They can invade the US naval base because it is so close and military wise they have what they need they will be shot down, but not very fast and if they do the US will invade Cuba.

 

Geography:

Cuba is the largest country in the Caribbean; itís an island. Its precise location is between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida. Its total area is 110,860 sq. km, the land itself is 110,860 sq. km and water is 0 sq. km. The total land boundaries is 29 km. Bordering countries are US Naval Base at The US leases Guantanamo Bay 29 km. therefore remains part of Cuba. The coastline is 3,735 km and for the economical zones 200 NM and their territorial sea is 12NM. The use of their land is as the following permanent pastures 27%, forests and woodland 24%, arable land 24%, permanent crops 7%, the other 18% is used in different sectors.

The climate in Cuba is like the rest of the Carribean tropical, moderated by trade winds the dry season (November to April), and th rainy season (May to October).

 

Views on World Problems:

Cuba is part of the along list of organizations like CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO.,Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interlope, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since (1962), OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WtrO.

The most important two are OAS which is the Organization of American States and Cuba has a leading role in this organization yet it was excluded from formal observation except now it can paricipate. The CARICOM is the Caribbean Community and Common Market. They support Cuba and try and help it get through utís rough times.

Cuba has a great conflict with the United States since 1961. This happened after the U.S confiscated all it properties in Cuba and then led to bad political relations. This led to a division in countries; the divisions are countries that side with Cuba, the countries that are with the US and the countries that want nothing to do with this. Cuba has some allies although the United States allies are a lot more. Cubaís allies are Russia, China, Iran, Iraq and South Korea. Itís enemies are United Kingdom and Israel and other countries that follow the US so blindly.

Cuba has a big problem with drugs although the government doesnít legalize it many manufacture it. The Cuban government has tried to solve this by coming together with many countries and itís now in the procces of getting to a better stage.

 

Economy:

The government is the primary player in the economy has taken limited reforms in recent years to stem excess liquidity, increase enterprise efficiency, and alleviate serious shortages of food, consumer goods and services, but prioritizing of political control make extensive reforms unlikely. Living standards for the average Cuban, without access to dollars, remain at a depressed level compared with 1990. The liberalized farmersí markets introduced in 1994, sell above-quota production at market prices, expand legal consumption alternatives, and reduce black market prices. Income taxes and increased regulations introduced since 1996 have sharply reduced the number of legally self-employed from a high of 208,000 in January 1996. Havana announced in 1995 that GDP declines by 35% during 1989-93 as a result of lost Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. The slide in GDP came to halt in 1994 when Cuba reported growth in GDP 0.7%. Cuba reported that GDP increased by 2.5% in 1995 and7.8% in 1996, before slowing down in 1997 and 1998 to 2.5% and 1.2% respectively. Growth recovered with a 6.2% in GDP in 1999 and a 5.6% increase in 2000. Much of Cubaís recovery can be attributed to tourism revenues and foreign investment.

Growth in 2001 should continue at the same level as the government balances the need for economic loosening against its concern for firm political control. GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and the GDP purchasing power is 19.2 billion. The growth rate is 5.6; purchasing power per person is $ 1,700. There are various sectors for GDP and the agriculture 7%, Industry 37% and the other services 56%. How much comes into the household or how much they pay out for goods and services the lowest is 10% and the highest was also 10%. Inflation rate is 0.3%. The labor force is 4.3 million they are occupied into agriculture that employs 25%, the industry, which gives work to 24% and service which employee 51% of the work force. The unemployment rate is 5.5%

Well in Cuba most of the people are poor for they have no income source some families do get money from other relatives living in the US.

 

History:

Various deviant indigenous groups resided in the island until the late 1400ís Christopher Columbus unearthed it; this islandís now demystified as Cuba. The Spanish were the first to settle in Cuba, they opened up sugar plantations and hired slaves from Africa to labor ceaselessly. The Africans contributed a great deal to the cultural evolution of the island. The British force under the leadership of George Pocock and the earl of Albemarle captured and briefly held Havana. Cuba was given back to the Spanish by the Treaty of Paris and remained among the Spanish possessions.

Cuban discontent grew and finally erupted in 1868 in the Ten-Year War. This had Spain make great promises to the people satisfy and gratify them. During 1885 the people of Cuba started to be rebellious due to the inadequate treatment they received and 1886 slavery was abolished. A Spanish- American war arose in 1898 and Cuba is independent. After the war a long chain of dictators ruled Cuba. Their rule enraged the people and then brought on the Castro revolution. Fidel Castro led his rebel army to victory in 1959; his iron rule has held the country together ever since.

The confiscation of U.S. (landholdings, banks, and industrial concerns) led to breaking of diplomatic relations in January 1961 by the U.S. government. That same year Castro declared his allegiance with the eastern bloc. Hostility to Cubaís alignment was strong in the United States, which responded with a trade embargo and was the reason of the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Which was an unsuccessful US-military sponsored invasion.

Cubaís importance in the cold war was subsequently amplified the following year when the USSR began to reinforce Cubaís military power and to build missile bases on the islands. In 1962 the Cuban missile crisis took place and the Soviets agreed to withdraw their missiles from Cuba. 1989 the Soviet Union collapsed and that led to market losses in Cuban sugar and subsided oil.

All Cuban dictartor leaders before Castro were with America but Castro came and he wasnít that kind he came swept out everyone else. The others used to side with the US and beforlife used to be peaceful but unsatisfying. Now it isnít either.

 

 

 

 

POLICY STATEMENTS: CUBA

Ensuring the rights of minorities within a country.

First, there are some words in the introduced statement that I would like to define just to make everything simpler. Ensuring is the act of guaranteeing. The rights are the privileges that people are subject to. Minorities in this case imply the people that are few in a country and therefore they are minorities and outnumbered. Secondly, this issue is a very serious issue. This is a big problem in many countries although they do deny it; they have problems against people of different origins or race.

Cuba has no racial discrimination although our neighboring sanctimonious country may accuse us of it, and yet itís not us that have ethnic idiosyncrasy. Cuba is part of the United Nations International Childrenís Emergency Fund itís former name was United Nations Childrenís Fund. UNICEF is a branch in the UN organization, whose concerns include the childrenís welfare, education, health and many other things. Its prime concern is the children of the world as recently said by the Secretary General Kofu Anan "We should not let are children pay the price of our foolish mistakes". This organization has accomplished a lot it has decreased the crime rate within children, decreased the rate of death in children by 20% since 1990. The organization tries to provide a safer place for the children of today. Itís also part of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. A country that tries to encourage our women rather than suppress them and keep them bottled. Therefore Cuba is well aware of the problems that itís public face and tries to abolish these problems from within the community. So far Cuba has succeeded in doing so and hopes that efforts of other countries will be proven as beneficial. Cuba would support what it thinks of as reproductive what will make a difference and will put an end to whatever is hurting minorities in anyway.

 

The question of Palestine and the peace process in the Middle East.

Defining the words of the proposition will make everything more apprehensible. What is meant by the question is the fact if Palestine does indeed exist after the foray of Israel; and if it does what is its current status in the world. Palestine an invaded country in the Middle East. Peace process is the agreement that is trying to stop the feuding between the Palestinians and Israelis. Middle East a group of countries in Asia and Africa. Above all I would just like to state that Cuba is and always will be against the invasion of another country and so brutally and horrendously taking away their rights is just in humane. The question of Palestine was first brought before the General Assembly in 1947 that was when the UN decided to split the country into two states the rightfully Palestinian one and the Jewish state; Jerusalem belonged to the Palestinians. This issue enraged the Arab States and wars had started trying to regain Palestine. The issue was then brought up again in 1974 and the rights of the Palestinians were given back, those rights include the right of deciding without outside intervention.

To Cuba a decision on who should get the land is very easy itís Palestine. Over the years Cuba has always had a strong perspective on this issue and Cuba plays a leading role in the international campaign against Israel. Cuba has shown its opposition to Israel in many cases. It trains and arms Palestinian militants from the PLO. During Syrian belligerence against Israel in the 1973 "Yom Kippur War" Cuba sent thousands of troops and hundreds of tanks. The Cuban embassy in Beirut was Arafatís headquarters when Israel launched Operation "Peace" for Galilee in 1982 to eliminate PLO bases in southern Lebanon. Cuban advisers have been to the PLO bases since the late 1970s after Castro met with George Habash of the Marxist-Leninist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. Also Cuba has published many books against the Zionist acts like The Other Face: The Truth about the Secret Relationships between Nazism and Zionism by Mahmud Abbas, also Zionism: The Fascism of the Star of David and Symposium on Zionist Interference in Latin America. These are some examples of Cubaís strong antagonism towards Israel.

 

The question of drug usage, trafficking, and rehabilitation programs

There are some words that Iíll define before starting. A drug is a chemical substance, such as a narcotic or hallucinogen that affects the central nervous system then causing changes in behavior and often addiction. Usage is to use. Trafficking is the illegal or improper commercial activity. Two members of The American Congress have accused The Cuban Government of being involved in the drugs issue "The Cuban Government engages in the illegal international narcotics trade etc. " The allegation itself does not have any evidence and the authority should know it. According to the Coast Guard's Seventh District in Miami, over the past few years no evidence was brought up about any official Cuban involvement in drug smuggling. Oh but quite the contrary the Cubans are cooperating with the Americans in drug interdiction.

The point is that both our efforts could be more successful if that cooperation was more efficient. The lead law enforcement agency on drugs in Cuba is the Ministry of the Interior's National Anti-Drug Department. The National Drug Commission is an interagency coordinating body headed by the Minister of Justice. The Ministries of the Interior, Foreign Relations, Pubic Health, and Customs, and the Border Guard are also represented on the Commission. Cubaís many efforts to stop trafficking which is a major problem. We enhanced many anti-narcotics cooperationís many that include countries like Columbia, UK, Spain, France and Canada. In 1999 The National Assembly adopted legislation to stiffen penalties for those found guilty of producing, transporting, trafficking, or smuggling narcotics. Possible sentences include the death penalty and life without parole.

Cuba does not have a big problem with drugs but what has made that number of arrests and prosecutions go up was due to the fact of the increased number of tourists. Cubaís efforts to stop this vary and one example is the treaty we signed with Spain, Guatemala and Columbia. These efforts show that Cuba is a country which is willing to do the best for its people and for the world for there are too many people dying because of drugs, far too many to ignore. To ignore this problem is foolish for you have to acknowledge it and then try to solve it Cuba is 100% behind banning drugs and will do anything that is benefical to it and to the other countries.

 

The question of preventing international terrorism.

Defining terrorism it an act of a country confiscating another countries assets and economically destroying it. Terrorism has been growing before our very eyes, and efforts to resolve this issue have failed to do so. After the recent September 11 tradgedy the world was sent into shock and is recovering gradually. We donít condone the acts of terrorism but we also approve of the act of terrorism that a tenacious Western nation has been persistently committing acts of terrorism dishonestly. A certain leading country of the world has taken it upon itself to punish all those countries that donít agree with it and are a threat and turn them into ashes or maybe just set an embargo on them. It perpetually handles any country that stands up to it with force, or terrorism, to overpower that country.

Cuba has reluctantly joined the war on terrorism sponsored by America, we are reluctant not because of the cause yet because of the bearer. The US wrongfully accused Cuba as one of the seven nations supporting terrorism. Other countries that have been said to condone terrorism are Iran, Iraq, Sudan, Libya, South Korea and Syria. The U.S has forgotten to mention a certain western pro-Zionist country.

 

 

Resolution

 

FORUM: OAS

QUESTION OF: Palestine and the peace process in the Middle East?

SUBMITTED BY: Cuba

DELEGATE: Muneera Al- Nibari

Defining Palestine as an invaded country in the Middle East and Peace process as the agreement that is trying to stop the feuding between the Palestinians and Israelis,

Believing that the land Israel has occupied is Palestinian territory,

Keeping in Mind that no peace talks have paid off,

Bearing in Mind that this is a very controversial issue that can be seen through many perspectives,

Recalling the UNís previous relevant resolution number 242 which was submitted by the British what is stated is that Israeli armed forces will withdraw from territories occupied in the recent conflict;

Fully Deploring the fact that Israel has resorted to force,

Confident that all countries present here donít condone the acts of a war criminal,

Emphasizing that neither medics nor the media have been allowed access and what is happening is barbarous and inhumane,

Welcoming efforts of helping our fellow suffering Palestinians

1. Expresses Its Appreciation to all Arab countries fighting for a Palestinian state and for the well deserved rights and freedom of these Palestinians

2. Deeply Conscious that www.bbc.co.uk, stated that 200 civilian Palestinians died in itís sweeping 10 day offensive on the West Bank, and since the offensive launch March 29, more than 200 have been killed and over 1,200 injured,

3. Taking Into Account that according to Al-Qabas newspaper that the loss of Palestinian souls this year only is 1700, and 42,000 have been wounded

 

 

 

OPENING SPEECH