Country: The Republic of Iraq



Event: Pearl-MUN 2002

Student:
Hamad Al Sager




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The Baathist Republic of Iraq




The Iraqi National Anthem


Land of Two Rivers

Latin Transliteration

Watanun Mede Alalufqui
Janaha Warteda Majdalkadarati
Wishaha Burikat Ardulfurataini
Watan Abqariyyalmajd Azmen
Wa Samaha Wataha

Hathihilardu Lehibun Wa Sana
Wa Shumukhum La Tudanini Sama
Jabalun Yesmu Ala Hamilduna
Wa Suhulun Jassadat Finaliba
Babilun Fina Wa Ashourun Lena
Wa Binaltarikhu Yakhdallu Dia
Nahnu Finnasi Jamana Wahduna
Ghadbat Assayfi Wa Hilm Alanbiya.

Ya Saraya Albathi Ya Usdelarin
Ya Shumukh Alizzi Walmajd Ittalid
Izahafi Kalhawli Linnasrilmubin
Wab Athi Fi Ardina Ahdarrashid
Nahnu Jeelulbathl: Fajrulkadihin
Ya Rihab Almajd Udna Min Jadid
Ummatun Nabni Bi Azmin La Yalim
Wa Shahidun Yaqatfi Khatwa Shahid.
Shatunaljabbar Zahwun Wantilaq
Wa Qila Alizzi Yebniba Alrifag
Dumta Liburbi Malathan Ya Iraq
Wa Shumusan Tajalullayla Sabaha.



English:

A homeland that extended its wings over the horizon,
And wore the glory of civilization as a garment--
Blessed be the land of the two rivers,
A homeland of glorious determination and tolerance.

This homeland is made of flame and splendour
And pride unequaled by the high heavens.
It is a mountain that rises above the tops of the world
And a plain that embodies our pride.

Babylon is inherent in us and Assyria is ours,
And because of the glory of our background
History itself radiates with light,
And it is we alone who possess the anger of the sword
And the patience of the prophets.

Oh company of al-Ba'th, you pride of lions,
Oh pinnacle of pride and of inherited glory,
Advance, bringing terror, to a certain victory
And resurrect the time of al-Rashid in our land!

We are a generation who give all and toil to the utmost.
Oh expanse of glory, we have returned anew
To a nation that we build with unyielding determination.
And each martyr follows in the footsteps of a former martyr.

Our mighty nation is filled with pride and vigour
And the comrades build the fortresses of glory.
Oh Iraq, may you remain forever a refuge for all the Arabs









Country Profile

Political Structure:

A republic ruled by Saddam Hussein. Capital, Baghdad. The legal system is based on Islamic law in special religious courts, while civil law system has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdictions. The prime minister of Iraq is Saddam Hussein. His deputies (Deputy Prime Minister) are Tariq Aziz, Himat Al Azzawi, Ahmed Al Khudayer, and Abdulwahab Al Huwaysh. The strongest political party existing in Iraq is the Baath party. It is controlled by Saddam Hussein (Chairman), and Fazzat Ibrahim (Vice Chairman). Since 1921, Iraq had 8 rulers and they are:

The Hashemites
King Faisal 1 (1921-1933)
King Ghazi 1 (1933-1939)
King Faisal 2 (1939-1958)

Post-Revolutionary Iraq
Abdul Kareem Qasim (1958-1963)
Abdul Salem Arif(1963-1966)
Abdul Rahman Arif(1966-1968)
Ahmed Hassan Al Bakir (1968-1979)
Saddam Hussein (1979-)

The Iraqi parliament, Majalis Al Watani, has 250 members, elected for a four-year term in multi-seat constituencies. The president is re-elected for every 7 years. Note: - the accepting of Saddam Hussein elects all Prime ministers and deputy prime ministers.

 

 

Geography:

Iraq's area is 437,072 km. 432,162 km is land and the rest is \water, 4,910 km. It lies in the Middle East bordering Kuwait, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Jordan, and Turkey. The geographic coordinates are 33 degrees N, 44 degrees E. It's coastline totals to 58 km.

The climate is mostly desert, while the northern mountainous regions along Iran and Turkey experience wry harsh winters with heavy snow causing extensive flooding in most of Iraq. The lowest point is the Persian Gulf that is 0 meters, and the highest point is Hajji Ibrahim that rises to about 3,600 m. The natural hazards that occur in Iraq are dust storms, sand storms, or flooding. Iraq has a strategic location on Shah al Arab and at the head of the Persian Gulf. The only problem is that it has only 58 cm of coastline.

In Iraq it is mostly plains, reedy marshes along the Iranian border, and mountains along the borders of turkey and Iran. Two rivers that flow in Iraq, Dijla and Fooorat, end at the same point in the shores of Iraq. A 1993 estimation shows that 25000 so km is irrigated land. Iraq is slightly twice the size of Idaho.

 

 

Natural Recourses:

Iraq used to trade dates with her bordering countries. It used to have about 30 million palm trees all over the towns, but that disappeared during the Iraqi-Iranian war. Now, the main natural Resources that are found in Iraq are petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, and sulfur.

Because of the wars Iraq faced, most of the agricultural land has been destroyed, but with time it is being rebuilt. Iraq still has agricultural products like dates, vegetables, wheat, etc. Most of the agricultural land lies next to the rivers to support the farms with water.

The sea is also another resource for Iraq, but Iraq only has 58 km of seashore. So, most of the fish come from the rivers. Plus, the sea shores of Iraq has been seriously damaged which makes the chances of sea fish less, or hard to get.

 

Cultural Factors:

Iraq was the pride and joy of the Islamic empire. It was the capital of the Islamic Empire. It holds the famous scientists and was very beautiful because of the rich palm trees and the gardens. It was also happy during the civilizations that came before the invasion of the Mongols. Some of them are known world wide like the Abbasids, Babylonians, and Persians. Many of the civilizations helped add more cultures to Iraq starting at Mesopotamia to the Ottoman Empire. 1 cannot deny that some civilizations destroyed Iraq, but it did. An example is the Mongol invasion.

Most of Iraq's culture was destroyed during the Mongol period. First came Hulagu Khan (1217-1265) who killed the last Abbasid caliph. He had a pleasure for making a pyramid of skulls including the skulls of religious leaders or anybody who tries to do something against him.

After the death of Hulagu Khan came Tamer lane (1336-1405). He shared the same pleasure as his rival, Hulagu. He also made a pyramid of skulls. Like Hulagu, he destroyed many cultural factors including history, Islamic arts, etc. After the Mongol period, all was lost.

Iraq's once-extensive irrigation system was destroyed, forming marshlands, and swamps at the edge of the delta. The only cultures that exist in our world are present are left from the Ottoman Empire. Iraq shares a close culture with Turkey. It shares a pretty close accent too and some words neglected from Turkey. The turbans that some Iraqi men wear were neglected from Turkey, along with other languages like the Turkish language. If you see most Iraqi men they have long and curly mustaches. For them, it is a style neglected from Turkey. That is because the two were both part of the Ottoman Empire.

65% of all Muslims in Iraq are Shias, and the rest are Sunni. Some people originate from Turkey like the Kurds, while others originate from Arabic countries. Half of the population is either Kurdish Iraqi, or Arabic Iraqi citizen.

 

Defense:

Iraq generally has two military branches, the republican army and the citizen's army. The republican army is the strongest. Best trained, well fed, and have good salaries. While the citizen's army is just a group of men, from the society joining up forming an army. Overall, they are the citizens of Iraq. During the gulf war, it was not only that Iraq were being pushed aside by greater numbers of forces, but Iraq also had starving soldiers and economic crisis during that time. The economic crisis was one of the main problems that lead to our defeat in the Gulf War.

There are many military branches in Iraq's army. They are the army itself the Republican Guard, the Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, and the Border Guard Force. The military age ranges from 1549 years old. An estimated of military manpower availability is about 5,902,215, white 3,301,880 of these men are fit for the job.

 

Economy:

The main income of Iraq is the oil sector that takes about 95% of the foreign exchange earnings. Due to the year of war between Iraq and Iran, it leads the government to borrow heavily, and reschedule the foreign debt payments for a period of time.

Iraq suffered a lot from the Iranian war causing economic losses of at least 100 billion dollars. Iraq's capture of State 19 caused the economy to reduce economic activities. Later, due to military actions, the Iraqi economy was hurt pretty badly. In December 1996, the UN's oil-for-food program helped to improve the conditions for the average Iraqi citizen. Now, oil exports are 3 quarters higher than their prewar level, but medicine, health, and care services are improving steadily thanks to foreign help.

The income is not applicable (NA) while the GDP, by purchasing power parity is $59.5 billion according to estimation in 1999. While to the real growth rate it is 13%, and the composition by sector is 6% for agriculture, 13% for industry, and 81K for services. The labor force is 4.4 million. Sorry to say that the unemployment rate is also not applicable (MA). The electricity production is 28.4 billion kW. Iraqi exports total to about $12.7 billion, white it imports $8.9 billion. The current exchange rate for the Iraqi dinar according to the US dollar is 0.3109 ID for $1.

 

 

Views of World Problems:

For a period of time, Kurds have been asking for their own independent country. Iraq cannot accept that because this is not their country. By that, it raises a precaution to Iraq against Turkey. Iraq has evidence to believe that Turkey is handing the Kurds weapons to fight back Iraqi forces that stands in their way. Iraq can't focus on one problem if it has many problems, so the Kurds are progressing with time. If Iraq doesn't act soon, a part of it's northern edge would be lost. Two big problems that face Iraq. Kuwait and America. The Gulf War has destroyed every relationship between Iraq and Kuwait. By that, Kuwait is asking America to defend its border with Iraq. That makes it nearly impossible to get back Province 19. The only way, or the main way to get in or out of Iraq is Jordan. That raises another problem to the community. If resources cannot reach Iraq in time, Iraq will be lost.

America wants Saddam Hussein dead. Bush stated that himself. He said, " The world is a better place without Saddam Hussein." That raises a risk to Iraq if Saddam Hussein is dead. Here are 3 problems that face Iraq. Iraq and Iran are two countries that have peace between them, but still the relationship has no t fully recovered. The Borders are still wanted by both sides. Each side wants to get what it lost. If you see were the Kurds are locating, you can observe that they are located in the borders of Iran, Turkey, Syria, and Jordan. In the last parliament session that took place in March 27th 2000, 30 seats of the Kurdish region have been vacant. Their mission has progressed and it or we to take it seriously)r will end up like Palestine and Israel.

 

History:

Iraq. Formally part of the Ottoman Empire. It became an independent country in 1932. Iraq was formally Mesopotamia. It was lead by a series of invasions including the Arabs, Persians, Babylonians, the Seleucids, etc. Ail of these occupiers either helped in supporting Iraq (overall) culturally, or financially. We can say that at the Babylonian period. It became wry rich by their leaders. it also started to grow and reform because of the increase of population. Darius, a leader in the Babylonian period ordered the watts to be demolished and the palace enlarged. It is the palace that he and some civilians live in. All that was in Babylonia, and it was a capitol of Assyria. If Babylonia were as it was described, Assyria would be one of the most significant places in time. Iraq would not have been so full of culture if it were not occupied by all these historic civilizations.

One of the worst historic incidents that Iraq faced is the Mongol invasion that was lead by Genghis Khan. You can say that he swiped of Iraq and he really did. He destroyed Islamic arts and killed innocent people for the pleasure of building a pyramid of skulls.

After the Gulf war, Us-led coalition forces bombed Iraq and stormed in, although they didn't find arty troops because they all retreated to Baghdad. Because of this war, the Iraqi economy, oil production, natural recourses, and financial markets has dropped causing a big crisis in many ways. The Iraqi government seeks help among the people who can help them. If they don't act now, Iraq will be lost by a great reduction of the population because of poverty.

 

 

 

 

POLICY STATEMENTS

 

1. Measures to Ensure the Rights of minorities within a country.

 

Minorities. A group of people ranging from 49% or less of the population. They live in a country that is not their own. Kurds are one of the minorities found in Iraq; along with Turkomans, Assyrians, Armenians, and other relatively small groups. They all live across Iraq, but for Kurds, they are concentrated in the borders between Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and Syria. The people come from two main nationalities. The Arab nationalism and the Kurdish Nationalism, along with the rest of the minorities. This acknowledges the rights of the Kurdish people along with the other minorities. The Kurds are a big part of the population in Iraq. By that, it gives them equal rights as Iraqi Kurds and Muslims, along with the other minorities. Kurds have lived in Iraq for the past 4 centuries. There is no difference whatsoever between them and the Arab Iraqis.

There is one slight problem. Kurds concentrating in the borders of Iraq are ordering for a country of their own. If you watch closely, you will find out that the all when they get their own country, they will make a big country of their own. Iraq has signed an agreement stating that ail Kurds should be careful with. They are the reason for killing about 200,000 innocent men by the PKK.

 

 

2) The question of Palestine and the peace process in the Middle East.

What is peace? What is peace to the countries of the world? From Israel's point of view, peace is to wipe out all the Palestinians, and then there will be peace. In our point of view, peace is when Israel is banished.

Palestine was once a peaceful country. A country full of doctors and excellent olive trees. Now, with the occupation of Israel, all has banished. We were right of detonating a bomb in Israel. For what she has done, nobody can bear. Why does America have to interfere with the peace process between Palestine and Israel? Why don't other countries interfere too? What right does that give us? What right does it give to America to bomb us after what we did to Israel? The evidence is upon your hands. l address the Arab nations to think about it wisely. For Palestine would worsen in state if we don't act fast.

 

 

3) Solving the Sanctions of Iraq.

Some movements over the sanctions of Iraq have progressed perceptively. The anti-war movement is trying to "de-link" economic sanctions from military sanctions. In this war, this will help Iraq's civilians, while at the same time support the continuation of the disarmament of Iraq.

The US has raised many sanctions against Iraq causing the society of Iraq to suffer from hunger because no imports can come to them. Also, military sanctions do not allow ally plane to fly over Iraq. Almost all of the exports and imports are denied because of the economic and military sanctions. The only income that Iraq receives is from the oil sector. And that too is not enough because 9056 of it goes to the US.

 

 

4) The question of Drug Usage and Trafficking and Rehabilitation Programs.

We cannot deny that there is some terrorist groups found in Iraq. Their money, most of it, comes from drug trafficking, smuggling, or even money laundering. In most cases, the terrorist organizations do not interfere with drugs. In other words, they do not trade drugs.

The PKK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan Workers' Party") is a terrorist organization established in 1978. Many PKK members were caught smuggling in narcotics from Turkey and Iran. Some say that these smugglers have confessed of a drug facility somewhere in Iran. If they were caught and had to be punished in Iraq, they would be punished the same way the will be punished in their country. We deny any false statements about us hurting these people.

 

5) The question of international terrorism.

In this upcoming September, the explosives of the US led forces will wipe out Iraq. They wants Saddam Hussein dead. Bush stated that himself, Many people say that Iraq is involved in many terrorist activities. While evidence shows that for the last year, Iraq has not been involved in any terrorist activities. So why are we going to get bombed? What is terrorism to us? Terrorism is an act of trying to sabotage a country or a group of people. Even if it had to involve death. What is happening to us is not fair. The amount of explosives that has been dropped on us during the Gulf War is equivalent to 2 times the power of Hiroshima that was dropped on Japan. If that was in the Gulf War, what is going to happen during September of this year?

I ask the US to consider their actions. They would be responsible for killing many people if they through the bomb in Iraq. I ask them to solve their own problems before interfering with other nations and accusing them of an act they are not responsible for. I demand that the US to leave Iraq atone for Iraq has not anticipated in any acts resulting in the terrorism of the US. Further due, the US has no proof what so ever of any terrorist actions involving Iraq.

 

 

 

 

Resolution

Hamad Al Sager

Delegation: Iraq

Form: ECOSOC

Issue: The question of Palestine and the peace process

 

Defining terrorism ;Is an act of slaughtering citizens and destroying villages,

Noting that Palestinians been suffering for many years starting from when the war started with Israel, with no major actions has been decided to solve this world crisis,

Stating that Israel has murdered many Palestinian citizens, including women and children,

Further Noting that Arab countries around Palestine are ready to attack at any moment,

Keeping in mind that for each Israeli, there are 10 Arabs if and only if the countries around Palestine and Israel plan to attack,

Have studied that Arab countries own most of the world's oil. Therefore, can stop selling oil for any country that stands with Israel.

Aware of that the US. is allies with Israel and Palestine and wants to solve this crisis. although, there has not been a considerable change that will improve the state of which the crisis is standing on.

Demands the US to not interfere in world problems unless it is asked to.

Recommends all nations of the world to explore the truth to themselves and not trust US statements or accusations unless a serious act has been done to seep this tragedy,

Urges all countries to stand alongside Iraq and Palestine to end this horrific war,

Further Demands the UN to lift of the economic and military sanctions, thus improving Iraq's state,

 

1. Calls upon the UN to concentrate on the middle east crisis because:

a It is now the biggest problem in the world,

b. Many relics involving Muslims, Christians, and Jews may be destroyed because of explosives,

2. Urges all countries to stand with Palestine, aiding it:

a Financially,

b. Rescuing the lives of the citizens,

c. Sending in medical supplies;

3. Encourages all countries to stand with side Palestine:

a It can organize a fund raising event to show we support the Palestinian people with all their needs,

b. The nations of We world can stand with and be side Palestine and defend it politically and making actions,

II They can use force on Israel. America is not We most powerful country if and only if the nations of the world that Palestine will exist again and can be assured.

Recommends all countries to witness the acts of Israel to Palestinian citizens. for it calls Palestine as a terrorist state and yet kills people right and left;

5. Further recommends all countries to avoid the US. and ignore it on all of their actions upon the Middle East crisis because they are not showing any results;

6. Demands the US either avoid the Palestinian and Israeli war or does something to stop this action in some way is now only helping Israelis by destroying Palestinian houses and refugee camps.

 

 

 

 

Opening Speech:

Honorable delegates. Respectable chair. Iraq greets all to its fabulous land. A land of culture and mysteries. Lands were all would enjoy. A land that lies between heaven and earth. From the Mesopotamian period until this day. Iraq stands defending its people from enemies, and expands technology throughout the provinces.

Sorry to say, that Iraq is partly demolished because of wars and bombings. All of the nations of the world can stop this tragedy from expanding anymore. Iraq addresses all countries to act fast. It can help in lifting of the sanctions along with organizations supporting the needs of Iraq. Iraq urges all countries to act fast.

Thank you