Student: Mishal Al Rashoud
Event: Pearl-MUN 2002Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2001-2002 Team page
Italian Brothers, Italy has awakened, She has wreathed her head With the helmet of Scipio. Where is Victory? She bows her head to you, You, whom God created As the slave of Rome. Let us band together, We are ready to die, (repeat) Italy has called us. (repeat previous four lines) (repeat entire song)
Country Profile Italy
The Italian Republic is made up of 20 administrative divisions and they are: Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d’Aosta, and Veneto.
Italy’s government has three branches. The first is the executive branch and it consists of President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (since 13 May 1999). The head of government is the Prime Minister (referred to in Italy as the President of the Council of Ministers) Silvio Berlusconi (since 10 June 2001). The cabinet, or Council of Ministers, are nominated by the Prime Minister and approved by the president. An Electoral College consisting of both houses of parliament and 58 regional representatives serve a seven-year term.
The Legislative Branch is the bicameral Parliament, which consists of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. In the Senate, 315 seats are elected by popular vote, of which 232 are directly elected and 83 are elected by regional proportional representations. There are also a small number of senators-for-life and members serve five-year terms. In the Chamber of Deputies there are 630 seats; 475 are directly elected, 155 are elected by regional proportional representatives; members serve five-year terms.
The Judicial branch is the Constitutional Court composed of 15 judges (one-third are appointed by the president, one-third are elected by parliament, and one-third are elected by the ordinary and administrative supreme courts).
Political parties and leaders: The political parties and leaders are: Center-Left Olive Tree Coalition [Francesco Rutelli]; Democrats of the Left, Daisy Alliance (including Italian Popular Party, Italian Renewal, Union of Democrats for Europe, The Democrats); Sunflower Alliance (including Green Federation, Italian Democratic Socialists), Italian Communist Party, Christian Democratic Center or CDC [Pier Ferdinando Casini]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Rocco Buttiglioni]; Communist Renewal or RC [Fausto Bertinotti]; Forza Italia or FI [Silvio Berlusconi]; Green Federation [Grazia Francescato]; House of Liberties (formerly Freedom Alliance, a center-right coalition) [leader Silvio Berlusconi] - Forza Italian, National Alliance, Christian Democratic Center, Christian Democratic Union, Northern League; Italian Communist Party or PDCI [Oliviero Diliberto]; Italian Democratic Socialists [Enrico Boselli]; Italian Popular Party [Pierluigi Castagnetti]; Italian Renewal [Lamberto Dini]; Italian Social Movement-Tricolored Flame or MSI-FI [Pino Rauti]; National Alliance or AN [Gianfranco Fini]; Northern League or NL [Umberto Bossi]; Radical Party (formerly Panella Reformers and Autonomous List) [Marco Pannella]; Southern Tyrols People's Party or SVP (German speakers) [Siegfried Brugger]; Union of Democrats for Europe [Clemente Mastella]; The Democrats [Arturo Parisi].
Political pressure groups and leaders: Italian manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura); Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Sergio Cofferati] which is left wing, Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Sergio D'antoni] which is Catholic centrist, and Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Pietro Larizza] which is lay centrist).
International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ferdinando Salleo.
The natural resources found in Italy are mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal, and arable land. The percent of arable land used is 31%. Permanent crops are 10%, permanent pastures are 15%, forests and woodland 23%, and other 21% (1993 est.). The amount of irrigated land is 27,100 sq km (1993 est.). Natural hazards include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, flooding, and land subsidence in Venice.
Italy’s ethnic groups are mostly Italian, however, they include some Slovene-, German-, and French- Italians in the north, and in the south you find Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians. Most of the population is mostly Roman Catholic but there are a large number of Protestant and Jewish people, and a growing Muslim immigrant community. Italian is the official language, there is some German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), and Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area).
The defensive branch of Italy divides into four military branches, the Army, Navy, Air Force, and the Carabinieri. The military age is 18 years of age. The available manpower from ages 15-49 is 14,248,674 (2001 est.). The manpower of people fit for military service from ages 15-49 is 12,224,166 (2001 est.). The reaching military age is 304,369 (2001 est.). The military expenditures are $20.7 billion and that is 1.7% of the GDP.
Italy is located in Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia. The geographic coordinates are 42 50 N, 12 50 E. The total area that Italy covers is 301,230, sq km, land coves 294,020 sq km, and water covers 7,210 sq km this is including Sardinia and Sicily.
Italy borders Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 232 km, and Switzerland 740 km. Italy’s coastline is 7,600 km.
Italy’s climate is alpine in the far north and hot and dry in the south. Its terrain is mostly rugged and mountains, however there are some plains and coastal lowlands. Its lowest point is the Mediterranean Sea at 0m and its highest point is Mont Blanc at 4,807 m.
Views on World Problems:
Italy was a founding member of the European Community--now the European Union (EU). Italy was admitted to the United Nations in 1955 and is a member and strong supporter of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization (GATT/WTO), the Organization for Security and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Western European Union (WEU), and the Council of Europe. It chaired the CSCE and the G-7 in 1994 and the EU in 1996.
Italy firmly supports the United Nations and its international security activities. Italy actively participated in and deployed troops in support of UN peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Mozambique, and Cambodia and provides critical support for NATO and UN operations in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Albania.
The Italian Government seeks to obtain consensus with other European countries on various defense and security issues within the WEU as well as NATO. European integration and the development of common defense and security policies will continue to be of primary interest to Italy.
Italy has a large industrial economy with about the same total and per capita output as the UK and France. This economy is divided into a developed industrial north, which is dominated by private companies, and a less developed agricultural south. Out of the south more than 20% of the people are unemployed. Most of the raw materials used by industry more than 75% of energy requirements are imported. Since 1992 Italy has gained budgets compliant to those of the European Monetary Union (EMP). Italy has managed to keep its inflation in accordance with EMU requirements with the help of wage moderation agreements by representatives of government, labor, and employers.
However Italy’s economic performance is less than that of its EMU partners and it must work on stimulating employment, promoting labor flexibility, reforming its expensive pension system, and tackling the informal economy.
Italy’s GDP is 1.273 trillion (2000 est.) and its growth rate is 2.7% (2000 est.). The GDP per capita purchasing power parity is $22,100 (2000 est.) and the GDP arrangement by sector is shown below.1-Agriculture 2.5% 2-Industry 30.4% 3-Services 67.1%
During World War 1, Italy renounced its alliance with Austria-Hungry and Germany and joined the war in the side of the Allies. Italy received some former Austrian land along the northeast frontier. In 1922, Benito Mussolini came to power and with the years, eliminated political parties, curtailed personal liberties, and installed a fascist dictatorship termed the Corporate State.
In 1940 Italy allied with Germany and declared war on France and the UK. Then in 1941 Italy with Germany and Japan declared war on the United States and the Soviet Union. After the Allies invaded Sicily the King dismissed Mussolini and appointed Marshal Pietro Badoglio as Premier. The Badoglio government declared war on Germany, which occupied most of the country and freed Mussolini, he then led a brief-lived regime in the north. An anti-fascist popular resistance movement grew during the last 2 years of the war, harassing German forces before they were driven out in April 1945. A 1946 plebiscite ended the monarchy, and a constituent assembly was elected to draw up plans for the republic.
During the 1947 peace treaty, minor adjustments were made in Italy’s frontier with France, the eastern border area was moved to Yugoslavia. The area around the city of Trieste was designated a free territory. In 1954 the free area was divided between Italy and Yugoslavia, this was made permanent by the Italian-Yugoslav Treaty of Osimo.
The Roman Catholic Church’s status was determined ad the state of Vatican City is recognized by Italy as an independent, sovereign entity.
1-Measures to ensure the rights of minorities within a country
A minority can be defined as a racial, religious, ethnic, or political group smaller than and differing from the larger, controlling group in a community, nation, etc. In Italy the law prohibits discrimination due to race, sex (except with regard to hazardous work), religion, ethnic background, or political opinion. It provides some protection against discrimination due to disability, language, or social status. However, societal discrimination persists to some degree.
Although there are laws against racial discrimination in Italy, there aren’t any laws in many countries worldwide. Italy proposes that every country should adapt policies so that minorities can not be persecuted on their land. Italy encourages the UN to take action against these countries through sanctions or even military intervention if the persecution of minorities gets out of hand.
2- The Question of Palestine and the Peace process in the Middle East
Peace is the mere absence of war or armed conflict. Italy is a member of the European Union, so it supports the official EU stance. The European Union Special Envoy for the Middle East Peace Process, Mr. Miguel Moratinos, expressed the EU’s rejection of Israel’s continuing to practice its policy of political assassinations of Palestinian figures and its policy of house demolition. The EU also condemns Hamas operations. However, Italy, like the rest of the European countries, has diplomatic relations with Israel.
Italy encourages the peace process and advocates the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Palestine. Italy also encourages Arab countries to condemn acts of terrorism like the Hamas operations.
3- The Question of Drug usage, drug trafficking, and rehabilitation programs.
Drugs can be defined as any substance that affects any body function or organ. Italy is a big gateway for, and consumer of, Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Italy are strict and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines. There are many drug rehabilitation programs in Italy. Among them is Narconon.
Italy has laws against illegal drugs. However, some countries don’t. In fact some even rely on them for their income. Italy strongly encourages the UN to provide agrarian reform programs to those countries; these programs also should include trained personnel. Italy also encourages all countries to condemn illegal drugs and to open rehab centers and fight the international drug trade.
4- The Question of International terrorism.
Terrorism is the act of terrorizing, or the use of threats to demoralize and intimidate. Italy is a member of the European Union, so it supports the official EU stand. The European Union condemns terrorism. The European Union with the United States plan to build a global coalition against terrorism and fight its root causes. The EU confirmed its support for the military operations, which began on the 7 October 2001 in Afghanistan. The EU has committed itself to implementing in full Security Council Resolution 1373 on the fight against terrorism.
Some countries, unlike Italy, support terrorism. Italy urges these rogue states to join the world community in working to effect political change in a peaceful and constructive manner and to condemn terrorism in all its forms.
Mishal Al Rashoud
Delegate: Mishal Al Rashoud
Delegation: Italian republic
Issue: The question of drug usage, drug trafficking, and rehabilitation programs.
Defining drugs as any substance that affects any body function or organ,
Looking upon all acts related to illegal drugs,
Alarmed by the fact that the drug problem is growing at a fast rate and is spreading,
Noting with deep concern Italy is a big gateway for, and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market,
Noting with deep regret the death toll from drugs throughout one year is in the thousands,
1-Requests that all nations give more support to the war on drugs since it’s a worldwide problem;
2-Supports all organizations against drugs, and all drug rehabilitation programs;
3-Urges all countries to publicize the harmful effects of drugs through the following awareness programs:
A) Mobile clinics,
B) T.V and radio ad campaigns,
C) General ad campaigns (posters, billboards, etc.)
D) Programs in schools
4-Further Requests that all nations crack down on drug trade through:
A) Tightening security on all borders (land/air/sea),
B) International cooperation between law enforcement groups and relevant NGOs,
5-Resolves that the UN Contribute aid and expertise to third world countries that depend upon drug related crops (opium poppies, marijuana, etc.) for a large part of their income through but not limited to the following measures:
A) Designing and distributing agrarian reform programs that aim to substitute commercial crops for drugs among farmers,
B) Giving low interest loans and/or economic aid to benefit the drug combat and agricultural programs to these countries;
6-Strongly urges all nations to:
A) cooperate with all drug rehabilitation programs,
B) Support all drug rehabilitation programs,
C) encourage all drug rehabilitation programs,
7-Appeals to the UN to provide the expertise, funding, and personnel to implement drug rehabilitation programs to all nations that do not have the means to do so themselves;
8-Calls upon all citizens that know a drug addict to encourage him to seek help by entering a drug rehabilitation program;
9-Encourages the UN to strongly consider this resolution since drugs have taken the lives of so many, and although this resolution can not solve the problem completely, it can certainly make a difference.
Opening Speech: Italy
Honorabili presidenti e delegati, signore e signori, un buon giorno e tanti saluti della Reppublicca Italiana.
Honorable presidents and delegates, ladies and gentlemen, good day and greetings from the Italian Republic. Greetings from the captivating islands of Sicily to the majestic mountains of the north. Italy is a place of fine wine, beautiful music, wonderful art, and exquisite dining, in other words perfect.
However, underneath all of the beauty there is a problem. This problem is not only in Italy but worldwide, and that problem is drugs. Italy is expressing deep concern towards this problem since Italy is a major gateway for, and consumer of, illegal drugs entering the European market. Italy appeals to the international community to help with this international problem.