Event: Pearl-MUN 2002, ECOSOC
Student: Amna Al Sager
Nigeria is wealthy in natural resources. The natural resources are: natural gas, petroleum, tin, columbine, iron, ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, and arable land. Most important of all, Nigeria depends on oil, as it’s number one natural resource. The oil boom of the 1970s led Nigeria to neglect its strong agricultural and light manufacturing bases in favor of an unhealthy dependence on oil for more than 97% of export earnings and 80% of federal revenue.
Nigeria’s oil reserves 25 billion barrels. But due to OPEC quota cutbacks and mounting community problems in oil producing areas, daily production has fallen to about two million barrels, of which 40% is exported to the United States.
Nigeria’s main trading partner is the United States. The United Sates is also its biggest foreign investor (almost $7 billion) mostly in the energy sector.
Once Nigeria concentrated on the oil industries and nothing else, the agriculture has suffered from years of poor management. For example 25 years ago cocoa production was at about 300,000 tons. Now it’s at about 150,000 tons, which is half the original. 70% of Nigerians work in agriculture, 10% in industry, and 20% in other services (1999 est.). The unemployment rate in Nigeria is 28%(1992 est.).
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. It has a total population of 126,635,626 Nigerians. In at least 24 cities the population are more than 100,000 Nigerians. The variety of customs, languages, and traditions among Nigeria's 250 ethnic groups gives the country a rich diversity. The average number of children a common family consists of is 6 children.
Education is not that important in Nigeria only 59% of the population is fairly educated. 32% of them are males while the other 27% are females.
Nigerians usually live until they’re 56 years of age.
The Religions in Nigeria are mostly Islam, Christian. The dominant ethnic group in the northern two-thirds of the country is the Hausa-Fulani, most of who are Muslim. Other major ethnic groups of the north are the Nupe, Tiv, and Kanuri. About half of the Yorubas are Christian and half Muslim. All together, 50% of the population is Muslim, 40% Christian, and 10% indigenous African beliefs. The different ethnic groups usually get along fine and respect the other s religions. But in some cases their arguments get out of hand, and that’s where the violence starts.
People with different language backgrounds usually communicate by talking in English. Nigerian languages are also widely spoken. The most spoken Nigerian languages are Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo.
Nigeria has approximately 76,000 personnel on active duty. The military has three branches, the army, navy, and the air force, 7000 Nigerians are in the navy. 9000 are in the Air Force, while 60000 are in the army. The army excepts males no younger than 18 years of age.
Military manpower is available for males ages 15-49: 29,940,922 (2000 est.). The men that are fit for military services are males age 15-49: 17,201,367 (2000 est.). The men that are reaching military age annually are males: 1,375,112 (2000 est.).
The military spends $360 million for its different needs. Nigeria’s military is quite powerful and can easily defend itself against intruders if it’s obligated to do so, since it doesn’t believe in violence.
Nigeria is located in western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon. It’s geographic coordinated are from 10-00 North, and 8-00 east.
The total area of is 923,768 sq. km. The land part takes-up 910,768 sq. km, while the water part is 13,000 sq. km. It is compared to be slightly more than twice the size of California. Nigeria borders Benin, Cameroon, Chad, and Niger. The measurements of the areas of the borders are the following: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km.
Nigeria’s coastline measures 853 km. The lowest point of elevation is in The Atlantic Ocean, which measures 0m. The highest point of elevation is the Chappal Waddi, which measures 2,419 m.
The total land use is: arable land: 33%, permanent crops: 3%, permanent, pastures: 44%, forests and woodland: 12% , other: 8% (1993 est.)\
The United States assisted with Nigeria's economic development from 1954 through June 1974 when it provided Nigeria with approximately $360 million in assistance.
The oil-rich Nigerian economy has suffered a lot, but is now recovering after forming the new civilian administration. The former Nigerian military rulers had failed to make the economy rely on something else, different then the oil sector. The oil sector provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues.
The agricultural sector has failed to keep up with the rapid growth of the population. So now Nigeria has to import of instead of exporting it.
The GDP composition is the following: agriculture: 40%, industry: 40%, services: 20% (1999 est.). Nigeria trades a lot. It’s main import partners are UK 11%, Germany 10%, US 9%, France 8%, China 6% (1999). Its export partners areUS 36%, India 9%, Spain 8%, Brazil 6%, France 6%, (1999). The GDP per capita in Nigeria is $950 (2000 est.)
Views on world problems:
Nigeria believes in international peace. That’s why it participated in many peacekeeping operations such as The UN (1960),as soon as it gained its independence, West African peacekeeping force in Liberia (1990), and in Sierra Leone (1997), when it sent its soldiers to defend them. Nigeria’s relationships with these peacekeeping operations is doing fine.
Since Nigeria’s main resource is oil it is also a member of OPEC. It is also a member of WTO (world trade organization), IMF (international monetary fund), NAM (non aligned movement), OAU (organization of African unity), ECOWAS (economic community of West African states), ADB (African development bank), Lake Chad basin commission
Nigeria is on a friendly basis with the countries that it shares its borders with. Except for some violent fights between the governments and the people of Benin. But still Nigeria does not believe in violence or wars.
The USA and Nigeria have a friendly relationship between them. Mainly because they are trade partners and because Nigeria’s population is mainly black. So if the US puts any sanctions on Nigeria its government would be considered racists.
Nigeria participates in the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Nonaligned Movement, and the United Nations. In fact, Nigeria helped create ECOWAS, which seeks to harmonize trade and investment practices for its 16 West African member countries and ultimately to achieve a full customs union. Nigeria also has taken the lead in ECOWAS. Nigeria has played a central role in the ECOWAS efforts to end the civil war in Liberia in 1990. Nigeria also has provided the bulk of troops for ECOMOG forces in Sierra Leone.
Nigeria has a long history behind it. Before the colonial period, Hausa kingdoms and the Bornu Empire near Lake Chad prospered as important terminals of north-south trade between North African Berbers and forest people.
In the southwest, the Yoruba kingdom of Oyo was founded in about 1400, and at its height from the 17th to 19th centuries attained a high level of political organization and extended as far as modern Tog. In the south central part of present-day Nigeria, as early as the 15th and 16th centuries, the kingdom of Benin had developed an efficient army. In the early 19th century the Fulani leader, Usman dan Fodio, launched an Islamic crusade that brought most of the Hausa states and other areas in the north under the loose control of an empire centered in Sokoto.
After the Napoleonic wars, the British expanded their trade with Nigeria. The Royal Niger Company was chartered. In 1900, the company's territory came under the control of the British Government. The British Government was successful and moved Nigeria toward self-government on a representative, increasingly federal, basis. The British helped Nigeria a lot.
Nigeria was granted full independence in October 1960, as a federation of three regions (northern, western and eastern). In October 1963, Nigeria altered its relationship with the United Kingdom by proclaiming itself a federal republic and promulgating a new constitution. A fourth region (the Midwest) was established that year.
On January 15, 1966, a small group of army officers, mostly southeastern Ibos, overthrew the government and assassinated the federal prime minister and the premiers of the northern and western regions.
In a move that gave greater autonomy to minority ethnic groups, the military replaced the four regions with 12 states. In May 1967, Lt. Col. Emeka Ojukwu, the military governor of the eastern region, declared the independence of the eastern region as the "Republic of Biafra." The civil war, which ensued, was bitter and bloody, ending in the defeat of Biafra in 1970. Foreign exchange earnings and government revenues increased spectacularly with the oil price rises of 1973-74.
General Muhammed replaced thousands of civil servants and announced a timetable for the resumption of civilian rule by October 1, 1979. General Muhammed was assassinated on February 13, 1976, and his chief of staff, Lt. Gen. Olusegun Obasanjo, became head of state. He was seeking to use oil revenues to diversify and develop the country's economy. Seven new states were created in 1976, bringing the total to 19. Adding new states continued until, in 1996, there were 36.
A constituent assembly was elected in 1977 to draft a new constitution. In 1979, five political parties competed in a series of elections Alhaji Shehu Shagari of the National Party of Nigeria (NPN), was elected president.
On December 31, 1983, the military overthrew the Second Republic. Maj. Gen. Muhammadu Buhari emerged as the leader of the Supreme Military Council (SMC), the country's new ruling body. The SMC’s third-ranking member, Army Chief of Staff Maj. Gen. Ibrahim Babangida, peacefully overthrew the Buhari government in August 1985.
In April 1990, mid-level officers attempted to overthrow the Babangida government. The coup failed, and 69 accused coup plotters were later executed after secret trials before military tribunals.
Babangida attempted to renege on his decision to hand over to Ernest Shonekan, a nonpartisan businessman. Shonekan was to rule until new elections, scheduled for February 1994. Shonekan was unable to tackle Nigeria's ever-growing economic problems.
With the country sliding into chaos, Defense Minister Sani Abacha quickly assumed power and engineered Shonekan's "resignation" on November 17, 1993.
Through-out time in 1998 the government appointed the independent National Electoral Commission (NEC) to conduct elections for local government councils, state legislatures and governors, the national assembly, and president. NEC successfully held these elections. A total of nine parties were granted provisional registration, with three fulfilling the requirements to contest the following elections. These parties were the People's Democratic Party (PDP), the All Peoples Party (APP), and the predominantly Yoruba Alliance for Democracy (AD).
1) Measures to ensure the rights of minorities within a country:
The Minorities problem in Nigeria has been one of its most important problems ever since the colonial period. Mainly because the members of these minorities often focus on what divides them rather than what unites them. The minorities exist in Nigeria because of different nationalities, different religion, different languages...etc. The different minorities helped Nigeria, many times, from falling apart. After their work is done the so-called "majorities" instantly forget the minorities and their problems.
In 1998, Nigeria established an organization called the Southern Minorities Front of Nigeria (SOMIFON). The SOMIFON helped the minorities with a couple of problems, like: Urging the minorities to form similar associations to mobilize their people, urge the different "nationality groups" to determine their future relationships…etc.
Nigeria believes in peace, and knows that in order to have peace the people should all stand hand-in-hand, together, no differences standing in their way. So Nigeria wishes to make all their people feel comfortable in their country, and cooperate to protect the country and its people, and their rights.
2) The Question of Palestine and the Peace process in the Middle:
Nigeria advises Israel to immediately pull out of Palestinian Territory. Because only after Israel pulls its forces out of Palestine will there be any kind of non-violent agreements or peace talks. On the other hand they are not happy with the suicide bombings, but that is still not a reason for Israel to attack part of Palestine. The people of Nigeria are against the killing of innocent lives, whether they are Jews or Palestinians, Christians, or Muslims.
Nigeria says that this War is not a war neither the Israelis nor the Palestinians should expect to win. And that 2 states should be established: a Palestinian one and an Israeli one. Each one with its boundaries, the boundaries must be respected and recognized. Nigeria wants peace in the Middle East, as well as it wants peace all around the world.
3) The Question of Drug usage, drug trafficking, and rehabilitation programs:
Nigeria has a big drug problem. Not only for using illegal drugs, but also for trafficking it. In an average of 3 months in 1996, 159 drug traffickers were arrested. The jail term for drug trafficking in Nigeria ranges from five to twenty-five years and, for more serious cases, even execution. The most trafficked drugs in Nigeria are: Cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. As in the past some of the head-employees in the government are involved in drug trafficking. The Main reason for that is because it brings a large profit for the trafficker. It has been proven that most illegal drugs are smuggled into Nigeria by water, on speedboats and ships from secret departure points. The Drugs in Nigeria is also causing the spreading of AIDS (by using injections).
Noting that many government officials trafficked to make fast money, Nigeria wants that problem to be solved Nigeria feels strongly about the drug situation. .As does the whole world since it is an international problem. That’s why it thinks that it can’t stop the problem by itself, that’s why it asks all the countries in the world to hold hands and fight the war against drugs together.
4) The Question of International terrorism:
Nigeria has warned that humanity risks will be destroyed if the international community fails to guard against weapons, which cause a large amount of damage, from falling into the hands of terrorists. Nigeria is also calling for an international effort to prevent nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons from reaching terrorist organizations. Nigeria describes terrorism to be a violation of human rights and a threat to stability of all societies.
Nigeria feels that the international community must be very determined and firm in their determination to defeat terrorists. Nigeria supports Russia for its convention on nuclear terrorism. It also hopes that the world will be able to defeat terrorism in its many different forms. Nigeria is definitely on The US’s side against terrorism.
Submitted by: Federal Republic of Nigeria
Issue: Measures to ensure the rights of minorities within a country.
Defining:Minorities " a racial, religious, or other group different from the larger group of which it is part",
Bearing in Mind: Minorities start of with small problems but then lead to wars,
Further recalling: That most minorities are being banned from their rights,
Having considered: 10 % to 20% of the world's population belongs to minorities (according to the UN),
Taking into Account: between 600 million and 1.2 billion people are in need of special measures for the protection of their rights,
Welcoming: the fact that the UN has launched a new guideline at the Durban International Seminar for the "Cooperation for the Better Protection of the Rights of Minorities,"
Taking Into Consideration: That Dr. Paul Egbo has noted that "Pessimists often focus on what divides them rather than what unites them,"
Alarmed by: the number of wars started by minorities and against minorities,
Deeply disturbed: that the UN has not conducted an organization that will make sure that all minorities will have their rights,
Applauding: The efforts of the Southern Minorities of Nigeria (SOMIFON) in trying to solve the minority’s problems,
Approving: that the UN has launched The Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities that makes recommendations to the Commission concerning the prevention of discrimination against racial, religious and linguistic minorities,
Fully deploring: the fact that The Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities only makes recommendations, and doesn’t act to help these minorities,
Deeply concerned: that the UN has only launched seminars about the issue of "the rights of minorities", and, until now, hasn’t launched an organization that will act to help these minorities,
1. Draws the attention: to the importance of minorities around the world since they add to the cultural structure of nations;
2. Notes: that there is no international organization sponsored by the UN that protects the rights or solves the problems of minorities;
3. Resolves: that the UN will launch an organization that will be called the United Nation’s Organization for the Protection of the Rights of the Minorities (UNOPRM), which will have: -
A. Have the number of seats for the minorities that have applied as members,
B. Have its headquarters in Abuja,
C. A meeting every 3 years in Abuja;
4. Notes: that any group of people or Tribe that is more than 3% and less than 25% of a countries population will be considered a minority and will be able to apply to be a member of the UNOPRM;
5. Confirms: that each minority will vote for a person to act as their representative in the organization;
6. Further recommends: If a minority has a minor problem that can be solved without violence or the interference of the UNOPRM, then they should solve it;
7. Further resolves: The UNOPRM will make sure that: -
A. Any minority that has been banned from its rights will be able to file a complaint,
B. If a member minority violates the rights of another member minority, it will be warned,
C. Once a member minority has been warned 5 times, it will be immediately expelled from the organization,
D. Once a complaint is filed against a majority, a representative from that majority will be asked to attend the meeting, and will be questioned and will be asked to cooperate without violence, then the majority will be asked to apologize if it has been proved guilty in violating the rights of any minority, and if it has committed a serious crime, or vandalized any of the minorities possessions they will be fined a significant amount of money that will cover the costs,
E. All member minorities will stand together and solve their problems in peace,
F. If there is an issue that takes longer than a day in one of the meeting, it will be granted as long as 5 days to be solved,
G. If there is an issue against a non-member group or tribe…etc, the group or tribe will be asked to come to the meeting that will be continued the next day,
H. If a member minority has showed any violence against another tribe or minority or majority as an act of revenge or any other reason that is not acceptable, it will be expelled immediately from the organization;
8. Further Invites: all minorities that wish to participate in this organization to feel free to apply and most probably be accepted;
9. Requests: That if a minority has been seriously violated more than 3 times, the Security Council will take action, and try to solve its problems;
10. Further requests: If a minority that has been expelled from the UNOPRM continues to cause trouble, the Security Council will take action.
Welcome, from the land of culture, tradition, and nature. My fellow delegates, Nigeria welcome’s you all to the annual Pearl MUN event, and spreads its greetings to all the countries and people around the world. Nigeria’s condolences go towards the USA who has suffered severe terrorist acts and congratulates them for fighting back. Nigeria has suffered from terrorism before and knows what it feels like to live in terror, and fear. Nigeria would also like to use this time to recognize our brothers and sisters in Palestine and prays for them, May God be with them.
Today Nigeria would like to draw attention to the Minorities around the world. Nigeria itself has 250 different ethnic groups. Some-of-which are suffering from poverty. Minorities all around the world are suffering because of their skin color, religion, nationality, and on… They aren’t receiving all their rights.
That’s why Nigeria strongly recommends that the UN takes action and tries to solve this problem. Nigeria hopes that all delegates vote ‘with’ this resolution, so that all people of all nationalities and raises hold hands to make sure that peace is spread throughout the world.
Modupe, Thank you.